Knit charting using Mac Numbers

from 2012, Numbers 3.2.2: printing graph paper to desired cell dimensions

I chose to change preference for rulers to point units (options are for centimeters, inches and points). Online conversion between units of measurement and PostScript points may be calculated (if needed) using calculators ie.
http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/typography.html

default cell size in cm and points

Click on table at top of your document screen, to right of function icon; select first choice on left, second row

a place to start

Uncheck alternating rows on sidebar at right

Click anywhere on screen, use command all to select all table cells. Choose row and column size, typing in your desired values or using arrows provided, hit return.

Click anywhere on table to get additional markings to appear again. With your mouse, grab and drag the Add or remove rows and columns button symbol on bottom right and all units on sheet will be resized to displayed measurements

as you do so you will also have the benefit of viewing the number of rows and columns in your document.

For thicker, darker,or even differed colored and types of lines changes are easily made working with borders menus

Clicking on any cell leaves only your graph; selecting print from your file menu prints exactly what appears as the sheet number chosen , and /or have saved; additional adjustment options are offered on right

Click on white part of your sheet, only your chart will be viewable and ready for printing. If a PDF is desired, choose Export to -> PDF from file menu.

The last online manual for numbers 09 is available here. The program has changed significantly in appearance and in some of its functions since then.

I have been exploring numbers out of necessity since upgrading my Mac to the latest OS, thus losing availability to Office, and therefore to Excel. I recently published a post using Numbers for color separations in knits , and decided to attempt to explore the program further. Here I am reviewing and sharing some of the process and information I now use in creating my blog’s knit charts. There is no recent, full manual for the program.

The format bar that may be familiar to users of older versions 

 

the Graphic inspector 

Tips immediately below are extracted from Online apple support  Numbers 5.0.   

A list of keyboard shortcuts edited by me for use with colored cells

“Undo” restores previous state, may be used multiple times to reverse several steps. Redo will cancel it. The program autosaves. The option “revert changes” when closing the program erases all changes since its previous launch session. “Revert to” under file menu offers an opportunity to browse previous saves and restore them, similar to using time machine in older versions of the program and Mac OS.

Frequently there are more options for achieving any desired result.

Building a knit chart: choose a default table from

Use format table in

  1. In the Format page1image1768000 sidebar to right of document to change features such as table name, headers, footers, as well as colors, and row and column size,

or click anywhere in table and select all  (Command A), choose no fill option on right to remove any default colors
Choose a border color and line weight. If accustomed to working with black as a color in your chart building , starting off with a colored border will make the black cells easier to count. The change may be made at any stage of design

Determine column and row size using format cell menu on side bar at right. I tend to work in cell size 24-29 pt square shapes. These values may be easily adapted if one chooses to draw in knit proportioned cells for more closely approaching gauge or estimating elongation in fabrics such as DBJ. Border colors may be also be adjusted or changed at any point, globally,  for single lines, or to outline blocks of cells. Clicking on a column tab “letter” and dragging its border on one side or the other will change its width, and the new point value is visible on a shape with a black ground while doing so.  Top or bottom drag a “number” in the tab for rows at left for column height changes and viewing the changing value display. Undo will revert the change.

Review for basics for enlarging the table with cells with no fills: reference tab numbers on left may be used to refer to rows. Reference tab letters at top may be used to refer to columns. Drag the table handle the Table handle to move the table. Click the column handle the Add Column button to add one column, drag it to add multiple columns. Click the row handle the Add Row button to add one row, drag it to add multiple rows. It is not necessary to press shift while dragging either symbol for multiple adds. Drag the column and row handle the Add or remove rows and columns button to the right to add columns, down for rows, and diagonally to add columns and rows at the same time. Reference tabs are active while chart is being worked on. They disappear if any area outside the table is clicked on. Creating a chart initially larger than the planned design, offers a larger field to “draw on” to start with. 

To draw shapes in color: click on cell, choose your color 1 from menu on right by clicking on rectangle to the right of “fill”

To copy cells within a table, or to another table, drag the selected cells while holding down the option key. You can also copy cells by selecting them, choosing Edit > Copy (Command C), selecting destination cells, and then choosing Edit > Paste (Command V). You can also paste a cell’s content into multiple cells, which don’t have to be adjacent to the copied cell or to each other. After copying a cell, select the destination cells and choose Edit > Paste. The cell’s contents are copied to all the destination cells, in the same or another table, replacing any existing content. An alternative way to draw motifs in different colors: holding down command key select cells that will compose the desired shape

choose the current fill color again to fill the outlined areas

adding a second color: click on cell, choose second fill color

hold down command, select cells for new shape

color fill

repeat with color 3, and continue on

Not enough columns or rows for your motif?  Click on the Add Column buttontop right or on the Add Row button bottom left will copy and add the previous column or row including content to clear unwanted filled cells in the added field, select column or row from tab reference letters (columns) or numbers (rows), choose “fill” as no fill

To insert multiple rows or columns at once: Anywhere in the table, select a number of rows or columns equal to the number of rows or columns you want to insert, “click the arrow” next to one of the selected row numbers or column letters, then choose Add Rows Above or Add Rows Below (or Add Columns Before or Add Columns After). The arrows are visible as you hover or click in either tab, seen more easily when working in larger magnification, and often clicked on while unaware of doing so in lower magnifications 

Alternately, click on table and in turn click and drag the Add or remove rows and columns buttonat bottom right up, down, left or right for further adjustments to total number of available cells,or simply repeat the fill in the selected column or row along with creating the added cells, and select areas to remove any unwanted color. In some instances the added colored cells could serve as a deliberate design feature

Adding columns and rows above or below and columns before or after using table menu. Options are greyed out until a row or column is selected. 

options also appear when you click on arrow in row or column reference tabs

Adding specific rows above or below can help scale coordinated designs. To add rows after a particular row, make sure the bottom row selected is the one after which you want the new rows added; to add rows before a particular row, make sure the top row selected is the one before which you want the new rows added. Then choose Table > Add Rows Above or Table > Add Rows Below,

or use keyboard shortcuts to add a row above a selected cell, press Option-Up Arrow. To add a row below a selected cell, press Option-Down Arrow. To add a row at the end of the table, press Return while the last cell is selected. To add a column after a selected cell, press Option-Right Arrow. To add a column before a selected cell, press Option-Left Arrow. To add columns after a particular column, make sure the rightmost column selected is the one after which you want the new columns added; to add columns before a particular column, make sure the leftmost column selected is the one before which you want the new columns added. Then choose one of the commands above. You can also use the Tab key to add a column to the right side of the table.

To delete a single row or column, hold the pointer over the row or column reference tab to see the menu arrow, and then choose Delete Row or Delete Column from the pop-up menu.
To delete several adjacent rows or columns, select the rows or columns and then choose Delete Selected Rows or Delete Selected Columns from the pop-up menu of a selected row’s or column’s reference tab.
To delete empty rows, drag the lower-left Row handle  the Add Row button up or drag the lower-right Column handle the Add or remove rows and columns buttonup.
To remove rows with content, hold down the Option key while dragging.
To delete empty columns, drag the upper-right Column handle on the Add Column buttoninward.
To remove columns with content, hold down the Option key while dragging.
Moving a cell or groups of cells: select and choose group by using cell handles or commands, immediately click on the same selection again, and it drag to new position within the same table. Moving the selection outside the table, onto a blank portion of the sheet creates a new table.

Having a large table area to work on allows for copying and pasting repeats in different configurations. 

Added ways of working with cell groups: to select adjacent table cells, select a single cell, and then hold down the Shift key as you select adjacent cells. You can also click a cell, press, and then drag its handles through a range of cells. As seen above, to select nonadjacent table cells, hold down the Command key as you select cells. Continue to hold key, and use Command-click to deselect any cell in the group.

Adding, copying, and pasting tables or portions of them. Clicking on the + beside sheet # will create a new default table, on a new sheet, a new sheet of “graph paper”.

Tables and their data may be copied and pasted from one sheet onto another, or in the same sheet. To add a new table in the same sheet from available templates click the Table button in the toolbar, then click a table or drag one to the sheet. Reviewing process once more: Move the table: Click the table, then drag the Table handle in its top-left corner. Add or remove rows: Click the table, then drag the Add Row button in its bottom-left corner down or up. Resize the table: Click the table, click the Table handle in its top-left corner, then shift-drag the white square in its bottom-right corner to resize the table proportionally. Change the alternating row color setting: Click the table; in the Format  sidebar, click the Table tab; then deselect or select Alternating Row Color. (To choose a different color, click the color well.). Change the look of the new table: Click the table, then use the controls in the Table tab of the sidebar to make changes, such as adding a table outline or changing the table font size. To delete the table click the table, click the table handle in its top-left corner, then press Delete on your keyboard. An alternative way to create a new table matching presets is to copy a blank segment of one of your existing tables and paste them, adding and subtracting more blank squares, or even to copy a full table with color designs, and simply remove color fill after pasting.

Selecting a portion of a table that contains graphics and choosing copy and paste will reproduce the selected portion as a new table, usually at the upper left of the sheet, sometimes on top of a preexisting table.  When working on large charts, the pasted table may be “hard to find”. Reducing magnification to 25% sometimes makes that easier, since larger sheet area then comes into view. Clicking on any tables and dragging on the the table handle at their upper left allows one to move the contents to its desired location.

Fine tuning table size and positions may also be achieved by changing values in the size and position sidebar format options. Click on arrows for default size moves, or click in respective value boxes and type in the desired number, hit return 

Some of my tables have table 1 above the graphics, some not. That can be changed by clicking on the table name box in the format table menu 

or click the table, Control-click the row number for row 1, then choose Hide Table Name or Show Table NameTriple-click the name at the top of the table, then type a new name to to rename it. Keeping a “name” helps track versions such as when working in color separations, where a whole table is repeated and altered in series of steps while preserving the previous one. Below a table segment is selected, copied and pasted as a new table. The new table is moved into position next to the original. To combine the tables in order to create a new design, choose arrange from the format menu. In this instance I chose to position the new table by clicking on it and selecting the back paste option. Once you click on a blank part of the sheet, the table tabs will disappear. The tables are visually merged, but in fact remain separate tables, each of which can be moved, resized, added to, and otherwise altered. 

It is also possible when working on 2 tables to select and cut out a segment or more. Below, the table with the cut out window is moved onto its unaltered table twin and shifted up (note numbers on right, and red border segments) 

A different “table” with same cell dimensions, may also be dragged and placed under (or over) the “cut” portion of the first. My placement here is slightly off intentionally to show table placements for under/ in back  

and placement over/ in front  

To screen grab tables with row, column tabs, and corner bullet markings click on any individual table cell (note the outlined cell with handle markings upper left and lower right), and use shift-command-4 to select area for save.  For a multiple table grouping, hold the shift key while clicking anywhere in any single cell contents of multiple tables, and while still holding shift, add command-4 commands, select and save. Clicking anywhere outside the tables on the “sheet” results in tabs and bullets disappearing. Click on any cell in any table again, to move it, or make any other adjustments needed.

Any table may be adjusted to accommodate adding text, shapes, or to expand on instructions.  Working with shapes merits its own, separate discussion.

My favorite font, used in most of my charts that begin to address specific fabrics such as lace by adding symbols,  is no longer available for distribution. For more on symbols and fonts see post

 

Photos of my work: memory lane 2

Back in 2013 I shared some images of my early knit work. I recently came across some slides of knits I produced back 1990-1991 in my “student days”. The large, non repetitive images were knit using a bit knitter connection to a Passap KM in the days when images were scanned with a black and white security camera set up with color filters. The “death coat” was designed during the Gulf War, in 1991.

from old postcards of Boston, back and front could be reversed

a serape, knit in panels on a Studio 560, using mylar sheets

This was my first attempt at a FI dress when learning the km, also on a Studio 560. I did not use a brother punchcard or electronic until 1991

And this may well be my one and only ever round yoke sweater. The motif was not completely original, but inspired from a magazine,  and reworked for a different, bulkier gauge. My model was quite petite. 

My ceremonial costume for an acid rain dance was woven, with knotted on plastic strips cut from colored small plastic bags. In those days the variety of color and size in them was limited, and they were mailed to me from friends in different parts of the country. The bottom of the sleeves and hems were edged in twisted fringe that incorporated pompoms and jingle bells.

 

Charting knits using Mac Numbers: color separations 2

This is not intended as a full tutorial, it presumes there is some familiarity with concepts for charting knits or proportioned graph paper using spreadsheets. I am sharing some of my recent explorations using the latest version of Numbers version 5.01 in Mac High Sierra 10.13+ OS. To my knowledge there are no other specific directions for using the program for this purpose. As I progressed through the separations below, I “found” new ways to deal with cell selections and table properties. At some point I will work on a expanding the original post on drawing motifs (Numbers 3.2.2).

The command key has become my new friend. In my past experience using excel I found limited ways to work with designing motifs and working with color in cell groups. When working on the design for 3 colors per row slip stitch for a segment of this post, I found holding down the command key while drawing makes clicking on cells and selecting them sequentially, to be akin to using a pencil/ paint bucket  option in paint programs. The process is significantly faster than other steps I have tried. This image is the intended, final one Working on the table: the areas selected holding down the command key and in turn clicking on chosen cells sequentially are outlined. They were color filled with blue for my chart. The one extra square “error” in the center of the motif was dealt with individually, and changed in the subsequent color selection. For a screen grab with table markings, a cell must still be highlighted. If it is not, only the selected cell contents are captured. 

In a post I wrote in 2012 I referenced a splitting cells features which disappeared in later version of the software. These options for working with rows and columns are available. The highlighted row will be duplicated, one row at a time, a slower process than simply splitting cells. A positive feature is that an individual table may be changed while still within view of other tables on a single sheet, without globally affecting the document.It is possible to create blank rows between design ones. Though the results from such charting are not capable of being downloaded directly into knitting software, they are a good way to sort out repeats and begin understand and create any necessary color separations. By holding the command key, rows on the table can be be highlighted and hidden as a group. I chose all even numbered rows. The repeat then is drawn. When it is complete, rows originally targeted for hiding are “unhidden”, leaving the design motif with a blank row between each design row, at twice its length. Hiding could take place at irregular intervals as well.

Putting theories into practiceDOUBLE BED 

QUILTING: in terms of applying the technique, the first charts are based on a quilting post that created this example using other software

I had a 14 row motif in mind, so I created a table 28 rows in height, twice that of the motif. While holding down the command key I clicked on all odd numbered rows, and hid the 14 highlighted rows. I then drew the motif on the collapsed chart in the reduced number of rows. When it was completely filled in 2 colors, I used the option to unhide rows, having the expanded graph now 28 rows in height

On the left is the 2 color “basic” chart. You will notice it is missing a blank row at its top. Check to be sure that the expanded image has that space, it is needed for that last row of color 2 (blue) to move up. In the center, by clicking on each blue square and then clicking on it again and “dragging”, I moved each square immediately above its spot, on the matching location in the blank row. I like to work with black and white squares before drawing bitmaps or other formats for download, so the image on the far right has all colored squares reduced to black and white ones. I filled them in in Gimp using the paint bucket on a screen grab of the color separation, but it may also be done in Numbers (see below)

DOUBLE JACQUARD COLOR SEPARATION: this table was part of the review of color separation methods reviewed in a previous postFor the first method: testing using a simple shape, 8 stitches by 8 rows, create table 16 rows in height by 8 columns (stitches) in width. Hold command key, click on odd number rows, choose hide 8 rows from table menu, resulting in reduced 8 row height. After the motif is drawn on the reduced table size, the odd numbered rows are then unhidden. Next, fill in any squares in the restored rows that are empty in the row below, where markings already exist. This may be done all in one color, but I used green for the purpose of illustration. The image on the far right may then be entered into an imaging program ie GIMP for download, drawn as is. The choice follows as to whether to double it the file in height prior to programming the machine, or choosing software options for double height after loading it if that is a function of your knitting softwareThis image is from a previous post on DBJ separations for punchcard machines using the same size repeat and mirrored (punchcards reverse the image), offered as proof of conceptThe second method is for the color separation that knits each color for each row only once: the motif can be drawn in black and white. The sequence is different than for above. Rows are hidden in pairs above row 1 (16 in table left), then the repeat is drawn in black squares only. Adding a column with numbers for each row in the original provides added cues, and follow with the changes in tables. The rows are “unhidden”, resulting in the completed separation for color 1. Color 2 (in different colors in center chart for purposes of illustration): on first blank row, (odd row numbers for color 2) fill in squares empty in the row below, on the second blank row, fill in all squares empty in row above (even numbered rows for color 2). On the right is the repeat ready to be drawn for download. 

Drop stitch lace, one color, partial repeat inspired from post , 10 rows in height vs 9:  beginning with table 20 rows in height, repeat is drawn with hidden rows (markings on left), in addition design row numbers are added in a column on right expanded design revealing hidden rows, black squares ready to be programmed 

ONE REPEAT, 2 FABRICS once again, beginning with a repeat from a previous post DBJ with each design row knitting twice, no elongation: each design row needs to be expanded into 4 rows of knitting. The first table is drawn with table rows and design rows matching 

Starting at the top, using the option key and the down arrow, the chart is expanded by using the down arrow three times before moving onto the next row and repeating the command. Any errors in single rows are easily edited. I have added the green cells on the right to represent the alternate 2 rows of color 1, making it easier to keep an eye on rows as chart is edited further

holding down the command key, it is possible to perform the same action in multiple rows 

I began by eliminating the red on rows marked with green cells, leaving only the black in those rows. Copying and pasting the chart with each step provides a continuing visual check and may avoid restarts. In the center chart black has been eliminated from rows (with no color cells on far right) containing red. Lastly, red cells are changed to black for the final pattern repeat.

DROP STITCH LACE IN 2 COLORS: my original separation

Today’s much quicker method, using the all black chart from the DBJ separation for the repeat on the far right and the command key again, I selected odd numbered rows from the bottom up, and removed the fill. The results match the ones from the previous method 

Three color per row slip stitch: the method is the same as for 3 colors per row DBJ. The separation from my previous post

the repeat and its companion table:

6 rows are required to complete a single row of the design. These charts get very long. I chose to work first with each design row repeated twice, and then followed the same process as for the 2 color per row separation, including reducing the cells to all black. As one advances up the table, color markings on the far right indicate the single color that is to remain in that row. Hold down the command key, and select for removing fill in as many areas as comfortable. The magnified images with tables lining up side by side provide a visual check. For screen grabs such as these, the individual tables may be moved to front or back of others by using the arrange feature in the format menus. The black and white squares would be converted to punched holes in a card (as is) or pixels. On either machine, they require elongation X2 for use with the color changer. Again, the increase in length may be achieved prior to download in your paint program, or automatically in software or KM that has the feature built in. To elongate the image on the right use option and down arrow if starting from the top. I added design row numbers on the right of the table to help track the process. Clicking on those numbers performs the same action as doing so on row numbers generated by the software when creating the tables. At left is the repeat in process, on the right the final one. Note: the numbers 6 and 7 are sequential on the left, an error, with no empty cell vertically between them. It is easy to see which row is not elongated, and to make the correction seen in the image to the right. 

SINGLE BED

It helps to have some understanding of rules for creating fabrics such as mazes and mosaics prior to designing your own. The color separation can be a tedious one. I have previously worked out the repeats in paint programs. This method is far quicker, but there are still lots of pixels that need to be entered in software for download or squares that need to be punched. There are very interesting results that can happen by using pre punched factory supplied punchcards. Any of the same designs may be worked both single and double bed, but the topic here is for a diy approach to the separation for suitable designs

MOSAICS 2 WAYS: I previously posted on drawing motifs, and moving from design to pattern. Here again, I am starting with an 8 stitch repeat. The first method results in a repeat suitable for use with electronics. The repeat then in turn needs to have its colors inverted, and is programmed to knit double length. Color changes will occur every 2 rows. The original motif is on the left, shown with hidden rows on the right. The expanded table is 16 rows in height, double the row height of the original repeat (8). Hide odd numbered rows, and fill in your motif. (Note table row markings as opposed to design repeat row markings)
On the expanded graph, with unhidden rows, on odd numbered design repeat marked rows, fill in empty squares with another color. Follow that by in turn removing any black squares in that same row. Hide rows to collapse the shape, resulting in the top image on the far right. The bottom right chart repeat illustrates pixels that would need to be programmed. The setting is slip stitch on the main bed <– –>. With color reverse, the now white squares will knit, the now black squares will slip.

Punchcard knitters need to punch the majority of squares. That are manually  accomplishing the task automated by color reversing the repeat in electronics. This fabric is knit at double length, with color changes every 2 rows. The alternate color now fills in empty squares on even numbered design repeat marked rows in the expanded table. Black squares are removed from those same rows. Hide blank rows. Bottom right chart shows stitches that will be knitting, white squares will be slipping. 

EXPERIMENTING WITH LARGER DESIGNS I began with an image used in one of my earlier posts on topic, worked through the whole process and realized at the end of it that my repeat was technically 23, not 24 stitches wide, so it was back to the drawing board for the separation once again with the now counted and marked 24 stitch repeat. Tiling is a quick and easy process using gimp, and these repeats should be checked as those for any other type of fabric.

The newly corrected repeat (center) was then drawn onto a table twice its original height, as described above. The added rows that will be hidden and in turn unhidden are partially  shown in incomplete width and highlighted on the right. A second color may be added to the repeat at this stage, but I find the results too much to deal with visually for further editing The rows are hidden prior to drawing the repeat, and unhidden to create the expanded graphs. Command is held down while clicking on selected rows along the design height for both actions. I find the expanded rows easier to follow for editing, with the blank rows between giving my eyes a rest. If black is one of the colors, the borders may be drawn in any shade other than black to make counts in black areas easier. Some of the early programs actually assigned black as the value for the “transparent” grid, automatically changing palette colors to other values, or resulting in error messages if black was part of the design palette.  Since eventually the repeat will need to be reduced to pixels or holes in cards, one can attempt to skip a step by using a darker color for color 2 in the separation and count squares and draw pixels from there. I personally find it easier if I am dealing with only black squares when plotting out pixels for download. Adding color to numbered table cells on the right is another clue to follow. Within the spreadsheet the whole document allows for easy travel between magnifications for easier editing or prepping for any screen grabs. 

Here the repeat is drawn, rows are unhidden, on even numbered design rows (highlighted on the right in green), the empty squares in that row are filled in with a different color (red). The black squares in those same rows are then in turn emptied of color (no fill). Again, holding down the command key while selecting across a row allows the same change to be applied to all those cells, making the process faster

a partial repeat for the squares altered in colors for respective color changesthe completed results for each stepIf rows are hidden at a this stage, the center image will result, and all red squares may be changed to black if preferred

As mentioned, I prefer to work on expanded graphs. When ready to hide rows, select empty squares (no numbers) on right, again holding down command key while doing so to make a global change as opposed to row by row 

The BW image tiled. Most electronics (ayab is an exception) require a single repeat in width and height. If color reverse is an option, one may program white squares and use the machine or software to color reverse. Punchcard knitters use the 24 stitch width repeat in width, twice in lenght, punching all black squares. Slip stitch <— —> is the default setting.

After all that, let us not forget that for color changes every 2 rows the new repeat needs to be programmed to knit at twice the height. Again, most electronics (ayab is an exception) have a double length option. I began at the top of the repeat, working my way down. The pull down table menu may be used, or the shortcut: option key, down arrow for an exercise in “add row below”. One can verify that no rows have been skipped by checking on design row numbers on right. Punchcard knitters punch black squares. Electronic knitters have the option of drawing and programming the white squares as well, but followed by color reverse option prior to knitting the fabric.