Revisiting pleats on the knitting machine: single bed


work in progress 

I am recently pondering self-folding shapes, which begin with pleating. Presently, in fashion and knitwear, skirts and clothing with ruffled or folded fabric variations abound. In 2013 I wrote a post including downloadable files of one of my early handouts and working notes. This is the same information.  Correction: folds to purl side should read 2-4  rows of tuck
It is possible to knit shadow pleats combining them with holding position to knit wedges which will produce a more circular shape. The shaping can occur in both thick and thin areas.

When working in stocking stitch, if a soft looking pleat is desired, the knitted fabric is simply folded to form the pleat and joined to keep the fold. Crisper folds require the added techniques described above. In hand knitting fold lines are created by slipping stitches on the fold line on the “public side”. Assuming the latter is the knit side of the fabric, this is often indicated by “sl 1 with yarn in back” for front fold line (and as another slip stitch option, for with yarn in front for back fold line). A purl stitch is more commonly worked on the same side of the knit for the opposing, inner fold. Both the slipped stitch and the purl one are purled on the return purl row pass. It is also possible to work the former purl stitch as a purl, resulting in a garter stitch is fold inner fold.

To review, parts of pleats: 

knife pleats may be put next to each other and pointing to the right (S) or the left (Z)

Box pleats are composed of alternating right and left knife pleats, pointing away from each other. Inverted box pleats are composed of one left and one right knife pleat, pointing toward each other.

Accordion pleas are a series of knife pleats in which the back of one pleat forms the face of the next 

The subsequent posts followed with the information in on pleated skirts made with lace carriage transfers (from Brother Knitting Techniques Book ) as well as on ribbed folding fabrics and automating pleats single bed (‘holding’/slip stitch shaping).

Some authors and publications include hems in the category of pleats as “horizontal”. To my mind, they merit their own category. Some related techniques that may be used at the bottom, in the body of the knit, at the top, or only on part of the surface may be found in my previous posts hems 1, hems 2, and ruching.

It is possible to knit folding pleats in knitted stocking stitch with the pleats formed vertically rather than sideways. The two needles (highlighted in red) close together form the top hard outer ridge, and the two empty spaces where needles are out of work (red dots) form the under fold.  The remaining black dots represent out of work needles as wellNormally, EON knitting is reserved for tuck lace or heavier yarns on standard machines.  For my test swatch, I used a coarse 2/8 wool on tension 4

The fabric narrows considerably as it is stretched lengthwise to set the stitches. Several panels would be required for a garment such as a skirt. Such an item would need to be pulled into shape, pinned and hot pressed. Fiber content will determine the crispness of the pleats after blocking, and their retention after cleaning. The swatch below is turned sideways for the sake of space.More variations with folds can be made by varying the “rules” commonly recognized for creases. Working sideways once more: on a punchcard machine, using card # 1 locked, cast on making certain first, last, and every other needle are selected. My swatch varies the number of all knit rows between creasing methods. This allows for overlapping at fixed width at the top of the piece once the fabric is rotated lengthwise, creating a fair amount of bulk as pleats are fixed. Those same all knit sections could be combined with holding techniques to get the width of pleats at one end to be a different width than at the other. The change knob is set to KC throughout. After the desired number of rows, cam buttons are set to slip <– –> for at least 4 rows (commonly this is done for 2). cancel slip setting, complete the next knit section, transfer every other needle  to adjacent one on either right or left the needles holding 2 stitches may be brought out to hold position as each transfer is made, or pushed out to hold after the fact, keep the number of needles  constant;set cam buttons to tuck <– –>, on the first pass the empty needles will pick up a loop, on the second pass a second loop will be created on those same needlescancel the tuck setting, leave needle selection on, the pass will form knit stitches, continue with the next knit section. The yarn used is still my 2/24 acrylic, seen here stretched flatslipped stitches create more of a “hem”, folding to the “inside” in the pressed swatch, while eyelets and tuck fold a picot edge to its “outside “;planning is required for the best method as to how to join panels in items such as skirts

Ayab: short rows automated with slipstitch

I have recently been reviewing some of my ideas for using slip stitch to achieve fabrics normally created by hand pulling needles for short rows. The samples for most charts below are found in previous posts on topic. My hacked machine is presently being put to bed for a while as I work on some production pieces on KMs that allow me to produce predictable lengths of knit. I will not be providing proof of concept swatches for every chart.

A bit on defining short rows http://alessandrina.com/2013/12/18/holding-stitches-short-rows/

http://alessandrina.com/2014/02/20/wisteria-cousin-revisited-holding-using-slip-stitch/

The carriage movements are partially illustrated below, beginning with the first row pre selection from left to right (red line/ arrow), which happens to be the only option when using ayab. Ayab also mirrors automatically, so either mirroring the rendered repeat or using action mirror in software is required for the holding sequence to be correct. The lines indicate direction of carriage movement on each design row. Blocks need to be even numbers in height, and may be adjusted in width. The full swing of the fabric in each direction needs to be programmed.

http://alessandrina.com/2013/12/28/short-rows_-balls-tams-3d-rounds/
here the holding sequence works toward the center Ayab will mirror it if drawn as is, which will place carriages in position for first preselection row to start from left, decreasing stitches in work 

For increasing stitches in work rather than decreasing them, this illustrates the direction in which the carriages need to be moving. In this instance the image needs to be mirrored to erase the software’s automatic doing so 

Single bed pleats http://alessandrina.com/2013/01/21/automating-pleating/. This repeat is planned for each square representing both a single stitch and single row. Since the width of the knit piece needs to be programmed when using Ayab, this approach may be used for anything from ruffles to sideways skirts. Additional information on designing is offered in previous post, used as is  

With a bit more planning and even using a garter bar, this is executable as well
http://alessandrina.com/2013/02/28/garter-bar-short-row-trim/
For a possible all knit surface variant the repeat on the left is drawn, due to auto mirror no mirroring is required to obtain the knit rows in the directions illustrated the right. Knit as is, the resulting eyelets including the larger one at the center can serve as “design features”. Motif on left, mirrored as it would be by Ayab on right. With narrow pieces of knit, pay extra attention to beeps and flashes. Clearing the end marks on the needle bed may also be necessary to keep needle selection accurate, watch for yarn loop formation on either side as the result of  having to travel that far from the end of the needles in work. “just for fun” http://alessandrina.com/2017/06/11/crochet-meets-machine-knitting-techniques-working-with-short-rows/

Category search 
http://alessandrina.com/category/machine-knitting/short-rowing

 

Charting knits using Mac Numbers 2

From 2012, Numbers 3.2.2: printing graph paper to desired cell dimensions: I chose to change preference for rulers to point units (options are for centimeters, inches, and points). Online conversion between units of measurement and PostScript points may be calculated (if needed) using calculators ie.
http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/typography.html

default cell size in cm and points

Click on the table icon at top of your document screen, to right of function icon; select first choice on left, second row

a place to start

Uncheck alternating rows on the sidebar at right

Click anywhere on the screen, use command all to select all table cells. Choose row and column size, typing in your desired values or using arrows provided, hit return.

Click anywhere on the table to get additional markings to appear again. With your mouse, grab and drag the Add or remove rows and columns button symbol on the bottom right and all units on the sheet will be resized to displayed measurements

as you do so you will also have the benefit of viewing the number of rows and columns in your document.

For thicker, darker, or even differed colored and types of lines changes are easily made working with borders menus

Clicking on any cell leaves only your graph; selecting print from your file menu prints exactly what appears as the sheet number chosen, and /or have saved; additional adjustment options are offered on right

Click on the white part of your sheet, only your chart will be viewable and ready for printing. If a PDF is desired, choose Export to -> PDF from the file menu.

The last online manual for numbers 09 is available here. The program has changed significantly in appearance and in some of its functions since then.

I have been exploring numbers out of necessity since upgrading my Mac to the latest OS, thus losing availability to Office, and therefore to Excel. I recently published a post using Numbers for color separations in knits and decided to attempt to explore the program further. Here I am reviewing and sharing some of the process and information I now use in creating my blog’s knit charts. There is no recent, full manual for the program.

The format bar that may be familiar to users of older versions