Binding off, double bed

A DBJ discussion re Ayab use recently brought up the topic of ribber bind offs. My plan for this post is to gather information and illustration on a variety of methods, beginning with those illustrated by Brother, then moving on to others I have come across over the years in a variety of publications. Transfer to single bed methods: transfer all the stitches onto the top bed,  then use single bed techniques to cast off. Having multiple stitches unevenly distributed can make the cast-off lumpy, and such techniques may also be too tight for the fabric. For latched through bind-offs one way to get extra length/size in stitches on the main bed is to bring every other needle on the ribber back into work after transfers. Set the ribber to half-pitch, knit one row with both carriages set to knit to the other side, drop off newly created ribber stitches by using ribber carriage only to  release the stitches by moving it back to the opposite side, dropping the loops just created, adjust the amount of weight, and bind off. That extra knit row may also be useful in rib configurations that leave empty needles after the transfers. Loops will fill in empty needles. Chain only through stitches, not loops. The latter will help create enough give to bridge the gaps. Technically, once the ribber stitches are moved to the top bed, any single bed bind off may be used, whether through single or double loops. Some techniques produce more pleasing results than others. Each look is different, as is the amount of stretch. Testing on swatches in specific yarns used helps one determine the preferred method. If a latch tool is used to do a crocheted bind off after transferring a 1X1 rib it is possible to maintain the rib. Insert the tool from the front of the stitches that were originally on the back bed, and into the front of the stitches that were on the front bed. Stitches have “legs”, inserting the latch tool back to front from behind the right leg will change the direction of the lean in the chain. As one enters the center of the stitch, the left leg is picked up by default.

When latching stitches through single bed after transferring all stitches to the main bed, to keep bind off in rib on the purl stitches hook the stitch back to front (red line), on the knit stitches hook the stitch through the center (green line)Reviewing approaches to binding off with needle and yarn: working single bed is sometimes performed on the machine and is illustrated below working from left to right. It is referred to as back or stem stitch and “sew off” method, and is shared in many of the old machine knitting manuals. It is easier to achieve if after the knitting the last row one knits at least 2 or 3 more rows in waste yarn to make the stitches more accessible. The knit side shows single loops in view upon completion. Dropping small groups of stitches off as one makes progress across the row may make the technique easier, helping with the placement of the other hand to hold the work. On the machine, the fixed distances between needles and gate pegs help to keep the tension even. The backstitching may be done off the machine, but maintaining even tension there may be a bit harder.

and here from right to left

Some references advocate this method for binding off rib after transferring all stitches to the main bed. A row is knit across the transferred stitches prior to stitching through the now single thickness.

The process, whether executed on the machine or off, to my mind is easier with waste yarn knit after the transfers. Here is an illustration of single bed knitting removed from the machine.

The top of the last row of the body of the knit may then be bound off using a crochet hook or latch tool chain using a continuous thread,or the needle and yarn sewing method may be used.  There is a limit as to the length of yarn used so as not to pose problems. Very wide pieces may prove to be a challenge, requiring more than a single yarn end to complete the bind off. My own yarn end max limit for sewing up or off is about 18 inches

For folks who prefer to view videos, these are some methods on single bed bind-offs offered by others on this topic:
latching off through looser stitches any KM, by Diana Sullivan my least favorite,
wrapping around needles , familiar to Passap owners, by Susan Guagliumi
several sinker plate bind offs also by Susan Guabliumi. The very last method illustrated is my favorite go-to, around gatepegs whether single, double or more, though I do it a different way.

Latch tool bind-offs both beds: 1. chaining through stitches on both beds
Knit the last row at a looser tension, begin by setting it as high as possible in your first experiments. Begin on the side opposite the carriage and the yarn end. Go through the center, front to back through the stitch on one bed, moving it behind the latch. Then go through the center of the stitch on the opposite bed, hold its yarn in the hook of the needle, and pull it through the previous stitch held behind the latch. Continue across the bed, securing the last stitch. adapted from Passap publications

Video: chain through each stitch on the machine by Ruth Raymer
2. transfer the stitches to the knit bed in Japanese machines, either bed on Passap, after a plain knit row if textured patterns are in use. Follow it with a last row of knitting. leave all the needles on the ribber in work after the transfer. Move toward the carriage. Go through the center, front to back through the stitch on one bed, moving it behind the latch. Then go through the center of the stitch on the opposite bed, hold its yarn in the hook of the needle, and pull it through the previous stitch held behind the latch. Continue across the bed, securing the last stitch.
Latch through the loops on the main bed. In bind-offs such as these, the proper loops need to be latched through, or one may wind up with open stitches and no bind off.
3. Video after transferring to one bed, and taking off on waste yarn by BarbaraDeikeThis edited illustration, also from a Brother manual, expands on the one above, showing how the yarn is threaded through the stitches in numbered sequence according to the stitch configuration for the ribbed fabric
I prefer an alternative method for waste yarn scrap off ending in place of circular or U knitting: knit the last row in garment yarn. Thread up waste yarn, knit it at single bed tension. Knit 4 rows on one bed, with a separate strand or even a second contrasting color of equal weight, knit 4 rows on the opposite bed. Repeat alternating until there are more than 12 rows on each bed and scrap off. This will allow you to press the waste knitting only, and the flaps are opened up to reveal the tops of the stitches created on each bed. Finishing can then be executed as below.

Slip stitch marking row: EON needle is transferred to the top bed.  From right to left: COR stitches that appear as knit ones on the purl ground are brought out to hold,  the knit carriage is set to slip from left to right, purl stitches will slip.  Set carriage to knit both ways, continue with waste knitting, drop the piece off the machine, continue as illustrated in circular fold over method.

Here any waste yarn is folded over, exposing the tops of ribbed stitches. The threading and stitching sequence is numbered, illustrated for both one by one and two by two rib. Depending on the planned seaming  choice, an extra stitch may be added on either or both sides of the knit so that half a stitch or a whole one can be absorbed into the seam, resulting in a continuous rib configuration on the outside of the garment

Drat it aka “figlet” moments: knit leader mylar sheets +

Such moments may well have to be a new blog topic. In the hope of actually soon having enough time to return to knitting on a more regular basis, I have been reorganizing my supplies. This can be a good thing. I have “found” missing ribber comb wires, tools I had forgotten about, have drawer units that are helping with organization of all the “stuff”,  and that for a while will be contributing to my having to make regular searches for all sorts of things. Then there were all those mylar sheets for knit leaders with garment shapes on them for pieces I cannot even remember making with lovely multi colored lines all over them. One in particular had very fine lines, I guessed perhaps from ink other than that in my go to water soluble pens, so I thought to give removal a shot with some alcohol. Hence a warning: the lines did not disappear on the “outside”, so I flipped the darn sheet over to give erasing a shot on its reverse side and discovered quickly by the lovely blue on the cloth that the measurement grid was quickly and completely removed in any area touched by the alcohol. Another lesson learned. Perhaps an earlier one of great benefit might have been not to wait decades to erase knit leader mylar sheets, no matter what the marking tool as I now explore ” would I ever make this shape once again, ever?” and “what will take these lines off?” on other sheets.

Previously captured and “found” while exploring text issues in earlier posts, is now fondly remembered and shared

at 60 inch length of a lace shawl

Text problems within posts; wordpress issues

After the latest version update in WordPress I have begun experiencing finding à‚ commonly in areas where a space bar or return key might have been used or in spots where the post was edited, at infrequent times with other added characters added as well. The issue is encountered in older posts from several years ago as well as brand new ones now when reviewing them. The problem appears to be a global one across my site.  I will share when the issue is better understood by me and perhaps solved, along with any method used to achieve any corrections.

5/4/2019 I have often edited or created content in rich text formats, then in turn copying an pasting in the visual editor. It may be that any content that was not simple text generated the symbols upon import and that those were filtered out successfully in older versions of WordPress, but not the new one. I now have a workaround that still requires me to review each post, but the process is amazingly faster. There is a WordPress plugin https://wordpress.org/plugins/tinymce-advanced/ that allows for a search and replace option in visual editing mode. It is available for both classic and Gutenberg. If it is used, each symbol or character set can be found throughout the whole document, a blank can be entered for the replacement of all, and offenders are quickly deleted from post content.
Of course, now that I got this far, I see there will be a brand new release on May 7th with the announcement “One of the most highly anticipated features for v5.2 is the Site Health Check. This feature adds two new pages in the admin interface to help end users maintain a healthy site through common configuration issues and other elements that go along with having a robust online presence. It also provides a standardized location for developers to add debugging information.” uh uh!

I am also not alone in not being fond of Gutenberg, some links to forum discussions: https://wordpress.org/support/plugin/gutenberg/reviews/

At this point, my apparent option is to hand edit every post I have written. The most frustrating part of the process is to locate graphics that now seem to have disappeared, a separate issue. Sigh!

After contacting my web host, it appears they were able to correct the problem. Some of the posts I have reviewed have extra spaces where the unwanted characters used to be and occasional graphics ie charts or photos are ghosted out from the content upon visiting the site. It will take a while for me to get caught up with reviewing remaining posts.  The announced date for my site update to the latest WordPress version is May 22.

  

 

More on Brother DBJ, including KR 260 bulky KM options

Any repeat suitable for a 2 color 24 stitch DBJ separation published or self-drawn for a 4.5mm machine is suitable for DBJ on the bulky. At times yarns ie 2/8 to 3/8 wools that knit stocking stitch at tension 8-10 on the main bed and are too thick for every needle rib on the standard may produce a fabric that is not too dense, and still has some drape at lower settings for tension on both beds on the bulky. Electronic standard knitters can double the size of the repeat prior to separating the 2 colors and then work on every other needle both beds, proceeding as usual for DBJ. Thicker yarns begin to make too thick a fabric for wearables, may work well for other uses. If some drape is required, the ladder back method becomes the preferred one in bulky KM DBJ. I no longer have available the bulky dbj samples from my teaching days, my 260 KM is not set up, so, for now, this post will not include swatch photos. As always swatching is a necessity to determine whether the resulting knit is one that meets our expectation, preferences, and often, patience.

To review: the 260 KH carriage will be familiar to Brother punchcard 4.5 mm machine users and has the option for creating thread lace (“split” cam button in center position), which is not commonly available in Brother models.

The Brother 270 electronic knit carriage offerssimilarsettings

There is no automatic method for eliminating end needle selection ie KCII, rather, adjustments for it are made on the underside of the carriage, as in other punchcard machines terms of DBJ, the electronics allow for the familiar KRC 2 color separationKR 260 parts as described in the ribber manual, followed by possible settings for cam levers are illustrated below. The absence of lili buttons is immediately noticeable. There is no automatic every other needle selection on the bulky ribber carriage shown, as opposed to that choice being available on the standard KM.

slip to rightslip to leftslip both directionstuck to righttuck to lefttuck both directions

hand selection tools for either bed, 4.5mm on top,  sometimes interchangeableevery needle selector for standard, operates similar to Jac 40, EON here for use bulky, adjustable 17.5 inch workshop cut model in a plastic for 2X2 selection on bulky nowadays 3D printed custom options are also beginning to be available

The DBJ setting that requires the least intervention on either standard or bulky machines is the one produced with the separated motif being knit with the ribber set to slip all needles in one direction, and to knit every needle in the other. Reproducing the lili effect is done on the KR 260 is achieved with hand needle selection. For birds eye, where every needle is in use on an even number of needles in work on the ribber, select every other needle on the ribber beginning with the second needle on the right for preselection row, push up to holding position. The ribber carriage is set to slip both ways, will knit hand selected needles as it makes its way to the opposite side. Now select every other needle on the ribber beginning with the first needle on right, bringing those needles up to hold. Stitches on those needles will knit on the ribber as the carriage makes its way back to the left and to the color changer. Colors continue to be changed every 2 rows as in any standard 2 color birdseye fabric. 

Ladderback or modified Jacquard is at times used on standard machines specifically for the effect created on the fabric reverse side, and most often used with bulkier yarns in order to be able to make a garment with more drape than it may have in regular jacquard, or to knit large designs with no long floats. This technique on the KR 260 ribber involves hand manipulation of the ribber stitches to reduce the number of stitches created on the ribber as well. Ribbing is often set up in order to produce a band that is not hugely different in stretch and width than the body of a garment, with further transfers for the ladder back configuration when it is completed. No more than one needle is usually in work on the main bed beyond needles in work on the ribber bed. If an additional needle on the main bed is required, it should be on the left-hand side. The rib is knit as tightly as possible, tension is loosened as one progresses into the jacquard portion of the piece. Common arrangements are 1X1, 1X3, 2X2, etc.  When needles are arranged in “even groups” ie 2X2, 2X4, 4X2, etc, the lili setting or manual needle selection to emulate it on the 260 may be used. Tuck settings may be experimented with as well, but tend to create a more noticeable vertical line between ribbed repeats on the knit face. The larger the number of needles in work on the main bed between ribber needles in work, the more the main bed tension needs to approach that used for the yarn when it is knit single bed. 

In EON ladder back an increase on the ribber is usually necessary after 4 increases on the main bed. On the bulky, this may be needed as often as in every 2 rows. The hand needle selection must remain constant throughout the piece to maintain the birdseye backing or any of its variants, which are based on pairs of needles alternating functions every 2 rows. Striper backing is achieved by selection of the same needle for each of the 2 colors used, slipping the opposite color needle locations. First needle selection on right is easier to track by marking the location of the first needle used on that side on the needle tape or needle bed as a guide for subsequent rows. 

The row counter will show double the number of rows than if the fabric were produced in Fair Isle. Four passes of the carriages complete one design row. The motif will appear elongated to a degree depending on the yarn and techniques used. Ladder back and vertical stripe backings may produce vertical separation lines in the fabric that may be quite noticeable depending on color, tension, and yarn used. Watch closely for dropped stitches or split ones. Splices and knots in yarn may tend to break due to use of added weights and tension. Plan on adding new yarn at sides and use ends to seam up, or use Russian join before the point at which a new yarn end is required, and continue knitting. The latter has become my favorite even in lace knitting on the standard machine. A recent tutorial on the technique may be found here <https://www.mybluprint.com/article/this-method-of-joining-yarn-ends-is-pure-magic>

Check alignment and oiling requirement of machine frequently. 

Other backings: one color backing. The main bed is set as normal for DBJ, but the ribber is set to knit for 2 rows of one color, and to slip for 2 rows with the other color. This means on any machine (unless using 2 electronic carriages as described in another post) the operator has to change ribber settings every 2 rows. It will now take 4 carriage passes to complete 2 rows of knitting. Floats will be formed in the non-backing color, may be caught on the ribber on slip rows, so check frequently, begin with small repeats, always test new yarns or even a different color or dye lot in same yarn on swatches prior to committing to larger pieces. 

Patterned backing: selection of ribber needles in blocks of alternate colors, or selecting ribber needles in between those selected on the main bed applies here as well. Yarn thickness and end product serve as guides as to whether the fabric serves one’s purpose or preference.

In large areas of solid color on garment face, if bleed through is noticeable, a pattern of 2 black rows alternating 2 white ones may need to be programmed, with color changes continuing as in pattern areas. If the goal is simply to match density or drape, then continue in settings used for design area without color changing. Most punchcard double jacquard separations and “rules” apply to both standard and bulky machines.

Later posts: ribber bind offs at first, and casting on. I was never quite content with ribbed edgings on my bulky knits. There are always several options for achieving a look that pleases us more, or a technique that will alter the unwanted results. In this instance, one is to knit a row on the main bed after several rows of waste yarn, continue with the body of the garment piece, rehang that first knit row, knit the rib upside down, and bind off. The latter can happen on the machine, by hand off on waste yarn with a “sewing” needle, or removing the work onto hand knitting needles and going that route. The 260 ribber manual recommends the following method. 

Having the waste yarn U style with an opening on right with the bind off beginning on that side, or finding a way to mark the first needle on the ribber in the sequence may make finding that needle position easier when the knit is off the machine.

This illustration, also from a Brother manual, slightly edited, shows the sequence for how the yarn is threaded through the stitches in numbered sequence according to stitch configuration for the ribbed fabric

Ribber fabrics with main bed tuck patterning

WORK IN PROGRESS


Tuck stitches on either bed will force apart the space between vertical rows of stitches in every needle rib, whether the tucking is executed on either or both beds, in one or 2 color knitting. The fabric lies flat, and depending on fiber and thickness of yarn used, the effect can be lacey and have lovely drape. In published repeats, often tucking does not happen for more than 2 rows, making knitting fairly “safe”. In thinner yarns elongation may be used to force the fabric even further apart for a more “open” look. Patterning in suggestions below occurs automatically, and on the main bed only. Needles out of work on the ribber may be planned within repeats to produce a fabric with knit textures on what appear as both knit and purl surfaces. There are designs in pattern books that are promoted as being specific for this purpose, but nearly any tuck pattern may be used once limitations are recognized.

The advice from the Brother Ribber Techniques Book and the KR850 ribber manual respectively is shown below. If a knitting with a very fine yarn, the close knit bar is recommendedAn often forgotten accessory: (I admit I have never used them)

Fine knit bar for using thin yarns

Typical patterns for the fabric from punchcard volumes

In electronic patterning a single isolated repeat will suffice. Punchcards illustrated above show the minimum required length for each. In matching needles out of work on electronics, it matters whether the default setting produces what is seen on the card on the purl or the knit side. Flipping the repeat horizontally may be required.  “Air knitting” with needle selection can help plan exact location on needle bed, as well as repeat width and in choosing of location and type of side edges. Again, having ribbed vertical stripes on each side will help the latter lie flat.