It is possible to construct topological shape via knitting. In HK this may be done on circulars. One out of many tutorials may be found here, and the mathematical knitting is a very good, extensive resource.
Archive for the ‘short rowing’ Category
A larger cousin is in the works using slip stitch setting combined with holding to create an “entrelac like” fabric. It helps to be familiar with both techniques before attempting this fabric. I am not providing specific directions for knitting, but the repeats are correct and tested, and are intended as a springboard, not a “how to”.
the related punchcard repeats
As each set of repeats for each card is completed the punchcards are exchanged. KC direction is marked on them, with knitting beginning on the opposite side. I found the fabric more manageable when I completed and began each design sequence and color change by beginning and ending with an all knit row in that color. The bottom of the swatch shows the difference in side edges if half repeats are not planned for. If this were a production item it would actually be possible to work out the repeat on enough cards so they could be used as a continuous roll rather than having to so frequently reinsert and re join them. This sample was knit in Jaggerspun wool, and since wool has memory, the resulting 3D texture remains after steaming, resulting in a noticeable difference from the previously knit acrylic swatches.
this is the purl side with obvious changes in width and some problem yarn feeding
and here is the knit side
there is a large number of rows between repeats, so there will be yarn ends that need to be dealt with, but they are far fewer than in knitting individual motifs, and only at sides of the piece.
A recent MK forum request for a HK trim look alike led me to the following experiment :
the hand knit trim
There are multiple ways to achieve knit and purl combinations on the KM. Brother garter carriage will do so “automatically” albeit slowly, ribbers may be used in combination with main beds, ladders may be latched up by hand, or one may use the garter bars to turn work over. When large widths are required the options are to use multiple panels, or to knit the fabric sideways letting the width become the length. Some HK fabrics are impractical if not impossible to duplicate on standard home knitting machines, and compromises are chosen. I tried to create a distant relative of the proposed trim, with a bit of family resemblance.
Below the short section to my garter bar is pictured. I mark every 10 eyelets with nail polish on my GBs to help with tracking stitch counts (do same with centers of ribber combs). The photo shows it in the position in which it needs to be held to take stitches off the machine prior to turning them over. The hollows under the eyelets (1) provide room for the needle hooks to slip under the yarn and catch the stitches when work is flipped over. Hollows under eyelets occur on the side with the convex ridge (2). There are many online sources for using the bars, now available in multiple gauges, including an article by Susan Guagliumi.
my working graph
I worked my edging on multiple of 12 stitches. The purl/knit symbols represent how the knit will appear when viewed on side where held shape is convex. Work begins by knitting foundation rows, and using waste yarn at the start with open stitches on first row of knit if the ruffle is to be seamed/joined at its ends upon completion. The magenta/green rows represent respective whole rows to be turned to reverse side using the garter bar after each knitting sequence is completed. Testing first is required to establish the optimum stitch size for gauge that will allow for easy stitch movement in transferring stitches on and off the garter bar:
arrows on blue ground indicate position of KC at beginning of sequences
end knitting of first “purl” section COR, turn work over (magenta)
COL: knit one row across all stitches, carriage moves to right (pink). I find it easier after holding starts to move the carriage to opposite side by taking it physically off the machine and leaving settings alone, results in fewer yarn tangles and problems for me.
COR: set machine for hold except for first 2 stitches on right. I tried one stitch at a time first, but the wedge was too deep, so I began working bringing stitches to hold 2 at a time, carriage side first. Stitches could be held opposite the carriage as well, but that created a set of additional holes when one returns to knitting those stitches in the opposite direction, and a pointy edge (segment marked with dot #2, more on a later post on miters and spirals). The number of stitches brought to hold can be varied as needed, the goal here is a symmetrical result.
COR: when only 2 needles at left are left in hold opposite carriage, knit an even number of rows (orange area, I chose to knit 4, then 6 rows in my test)
COR: when last 2 stitches on right have been knit for 2 rows (green) transfer all the stitches to garter bar
Get carriage to left, COL: return stitches to needles, knit for an odd number of rows (magenta,COR), turn work over
COL: knit one row across all stitches to right (pink)
COR: begin holding sequence again
I began the sample with 5 rows in between the mitered shapes, and then tried 11. This is labor intensive if produced in significant lengths, so a choice can be made depending on personal taste and patience. Though it could be attached as one knits the item it is intended to trim, there is enough going on I would probably estimate the length, take it off on waste yarn, and hang it onto the larger item. If longer, the trim may be unraveled to suit. If an addition is required it may be added on but at least working with the much larger bulk of materials will not be for the duration. Holding lever may be set to knit for single passes prior to turning work over in sections using holding, or stitches may be pushed into work by hand.
dot 1 rests on “killed acrylic” repeat test, the remaining sample in knit in wool: dot 2 marks the extra holes when the holding sequence is changed as described above
with five “purl” rows between turning and holding
11 “purl” rows between turning and holding
the reverse side
about half the wool portion of the ruffle was pressed, the knit became smoother, the edges less rolled. Those are properties that can become a design choice/decision
If an all stocking stitch ruffle serves the purpose this could be the start of the working repeat for using slip stitch to knit programmed needles selected to patterning position; here the black dots represent areas that knit, white squares stitches in holding. The repeat must be an even number of rows, using it as drawn starting side depends on whether one is using a punchcard machine or electronics
This is another fabric combining holding and slip stitch to create shapes. Below is my working first repeat, the colored lines indicate a dividing line that would give me a black square on either side for setting up the second, split repeat to reverse the direction of the knit stitches. I am sharing not to provide a pattern or specific how to, but to provide some ideas for technique experimentation by blog readers with some experience and familiarity with the use of patterning and holding conjunctively.
my mylar repeat
Each program represents repeat for one row of “entrelacs”. The bottom repeat KCII <- , knits left to right, top repeat KCI->, knits right to left. Each horizontal segment begins knitting on groups of 22 stitches, and ends on “half” a repeat. The half repeats and the reversal of the knit direction result in a balanced fabric. As direction is reversed, the programs need to be altered. A bit on method:
COR for bottom mylar repeat KCII <- knit all stitches color A, COL set machine to slip <->, bring all but first 22 sts on left to hold, knit 20 rows. The resulting shape is being created left to right, when the top is reached the stitches at the left of the sequence will be in B position, the ones on right will be in work. COL: at this point push next 22 sts into work, knit to right. COR: return first repeat 22 sts to hold position, continue in pattern for 21 rows. COL: bring next group into work, and knit/move across selected number of needles. COR: bring previous grouping of 22 into hold. Repeat as needed for desired width. When row is completed and the last group of needles is selected in work, COR: cancel holding and slip, knit one row on all stitches to opposite side, change color to B if desired. COL: program subsequent repeat, KCII, select ->. COR: set cam buttons to slip <->, KC to hold, bring all but first 22 needles on right into work and reverse full sequence.
My swatch was worked on needles 34L to 21 R, had an interesting 3D texture until I pressed it. I like to press the initial studies to have a clearer definition of edges of shapes and location of color changes so as not to disrupt pattern
the resulting swatch knit side
and purl side
there will be yarn ends to be dealt with with color changes, some could be knit in with same color during the making of the piece. I can imagine that if the 2 rows of all knit stitches are eliminated between entrelac rows, even more could be done with color, but I personally am not “going there”
This technique combines holding with the slip stitch setting. When KC is set to slip it is the punched holes/black squares that result in needle selection and stitches knitting. Blank areas in cards or mylars are slipped/ skipped.
my mylar repeat
the purl side
the dimensional texture is flattened out when pressed
the purl side, flipping the shell shape horizontally
using a yarn with memory and tighter tension would help retain the 3 dimensional quality if that was the original intent
A bit on method: the repeat used for the hand technique in the previous post was changed to an even number of rows, with other adjustments.
. all knitting begins on and moves right to left; needle bed may be marked to help track repeats
. for straight side edges program second mylar repeat first; I knit my sample on needles 22L – 34R
. some needles will need to remain OOW, cancel end needle selection = KC II
. COL: first selection row is done L to R with the yarn color used for the next shell sequence in A feeder
. COR: machine is set to hold non working repeat groups, and the KC is set to slip <->; in the half repeat working the first half shell takes place on the first 7 needles on right
. COL: when the top of the repeat is reached the orange row will be selected left to right
. COR: after needle selection of previously held stitches happens on that row, bring the total number of stitches for the next repeat on the left into work manually, knit one row across the 21 needles
. COL: stitches in the yellow area will be in B position; bring all stitches to their immediate right to hold, then the “yellow group” to work by hand, continue to knit in the same process across until the horizontal row of shells is completed
. COL: program machine for full, alternate pattern repeat (bottom of mylar) for row of all whole shells
. COL: depending on personal preference, holding may be canceled for the first selection row, or stitches may be pushed back to D position and carriage kept set to slip <-> before knitting back to right and resuming working on each pattern unit
. COR: repeat process, working on groups of 14 stitches at a time from left to right
. COL: on completion of the row of full shells return to first program, continue process until desired length is reached
To match casting on and binding off I often start with waste yarn, make the decision as to how to end piece in a way that I like based on my test swatches, then rehang the stitches from the first row and treat them as I did those in the last row of knitting.
This is the beginning of a thread on modular shapes on the KM. Much is published in the form of both how tos and patterns for hand knit modules. One of the critical differences between HK and MK as in mosaics, is that in HK garter rows may enrich the surface textures. Unless a G carriage is in use, frequent travel between opposing needle beds or turning the work over single bed are required on the KM to create the garter rows, which may be considered tedious and impractical rather than impossible. A question from a friend led to my beginning the topic by trying to sort out shell shapes. In the samples below two different weight yarns were used, first because they were conveniently the closest to my yarn mast, and second because contrasting colors are helpful in defining what is going on at the edges of the shapes. The irregularities in spots are operator error, the repeat pictured is sound. This is not a step by step “how to” for those who have no experience with holding, but rather a starting point for anyone who would like to play with a similar shape
the swatch immediately off the machine has a bit of 3D going on
knit side after pressing
the purl side after pressing
the working repeat: dots represent stitches knitting, blank squares needles in hold for each individual segment
For forming a straight edge at the sides of the finished piece, the first horizontal row of shells must start and end with half a repeat. Set up is on a multiple of 14 stitches. I began working with COR. Stitches are brought into hold consistently on the side opposite to the carriage, when 1 remains at top of half repeat (2 for full repeat), the remaining six of the recently worked repeat and subsequent 14 for the following repeat are pushed into work (21/22 sts), one row is knit across all needles, COL, the 7/8 remaining stitches from previous group are brought out to hold, carriage travels back to opposite side once again on grouping of 14 stitches, COR, holding pattern resumes opposite carriage, and from right to left. The contrasting color in the second horizontal row of shells begins on left, working on a full 14 stitch repeat, reversing the shaping. I am considering automating the process with slip stitch and holding option. The latter would have to occur on an electronic if repeat is to be used as is, since on a punchcard the width would need to be adjusted. If a brick repeat such as above is desired, two different cards or programmed repeats would need working out for the alternate shapes to occur on the same location on the needle bed after completion of each horizontal shell sequence.
It can be helpful to mark up a needle tape or even the needle bed with water soluble markers to keep track of the repeat’s locations. I used separate color for each repeat set. A bit of denatured alcohol on a lint free cloth piece easily removes them. Markings on needle tape pertain to some of my other projects.
Modular knits get lots of attention of late. Most hand knitters are familiar with “domino knitting”. Horst Schultz , Vivian Hoxbro, Iris Schreier, Ginger Leuters, Pat Ashforth with Steve Plummer and others have written extensively on subject. The cover of one recent pub that is dedicated solely to entrelacs is shown below (how to for MK article by Cheryl Brunette archived last June may be found here).
Complicated stitch patterns often are more easily managed in simple forms. Laying out shapes in scrumbled knits or ones that emulate quilting blocks get back to math and breaking down larger shapes into smaller ones which makes me think of origami. A video source on a paper folding approach by Robert Lang may be found on TED , along with mention of a software program by the speaker (TreeMaker). The geometric shapes created by the fold lines could be translated into intarsia, simple sweater outlines laid on top or under different areas of the “folds” in graphics programs can help with placement of modules to create the final garment silhouette (perhaps a subject for a future post).
A follow up to the previous “horizontal cable” post: it has a relative that produces a flat or textured “lacey” fabric depending on number of rows knit in each segment.
an attempt at a graphic representation of the previous “wisteria/cable”
The relative: after some initial rows of knitting (whether waste yarn or edge of actual piece or swatch), beginning with knit carriage on right hand side, moving right to left, the knit is created by knitting on a multiple of chosen # of stitches plus needles out of work (OOW, A position). In the instance below a multiple of 9 + 8 is cast on, with OOW needle (represented by blue) between repeats. The ladders created where needles are in A also make it easier to visually identify stitch groups that need to be moved in/out of work
an attempt at a graphic representation of the corresponding knit
the swatch knit side, orientation as knit
the swatch purl side, rotated 90 degrees as it would appear in a sideways knit
the knit tends to curl along edges to purl side as seen above, could be embellished with stitching for more contrast and color
first pattern row:
COR knit 8 rows on first group of stitches on right (1)
push second group (2) into work and knit 8 rows
push third group (3) into work and knit one row
push group (1) on its right into hold, knit 7 rows across remaining 16 stitches
bring a new group on left into work, knit one row
bring group to its right out of work, repeat process across row
when second to last 2 groups on left (6 and 7) are reached, knit 8 rows on both, push second to last group into hold (6)
COL knit 8 rows on last group on left (7)
second pattern row:
COL, reverse process from left to right for the second pattern row
the row that picks up the adjacent group of stitches helps create a joined fabric, with movement resulting from the direction in which each “pattern row” is knit
varying the ladder space and number of rows knit will change the overall look of the fabric
turning fabric sideways after varying the size of the holes across the now horizontal rows could also affect overall shaping ie narrowing and widening of segments
going from larger holes on one side to narrower in the opposite will make the knit “ruffle” on the edge with larger holes, etc.
if one knits vertical segments that are 8-16 rows in turn, cutting the yarn at the end of each sequence, then there will be straight slits/ strips that may in turn be left as such when knitting is resumed, twisted in a variety of sequences with alternate groups as one would a cable, rotated on their own axis once for 180 exposing some of the back/opposite surface of the knit single or or multiple times as desired
strip of slits may in turn be “latched up” in chain, stitched, after knitting is completed
a sample with wider ladder spacing and slightly different sequence