MK ladders, and a bit of crochet

I have recently been thinking about collars and edgings again, this time adding crochet detailing to help cut the edge curl and add interest. In a previous post I showed an edging done in drop stitch (double bed lace). Here to simplify things, I decided to work with ladder spaces to create the fabric. If a large width of this fabric is required, multiple bands would need to be joined to achieve it, crochet is then applied in turn to the the finished knit piece. Seam as you knit can make the joining nearly invisible. Using excel, I tried to also create crochet symbols using its shapes menu. The number of rows knit in open pattern or all knit prior to binding off are at your discretion, depending on your needs and planned final product. For my sample I began knitting with COR, and to end with COR for bind off row, I chose to work with even numbered groups of rows. Consider fiber content if the intent is to permanently block as flat as possible, or not.

my chart symbols symbols_70

whole_69

needle set up, waste yarn cast on, knit for desired length  setup_62img_4095bring one empty needle into worktransfer_63img_4096knit one row, bring remaining empty needle into work plain-knit_64img_4097knit one row img_4099knit rows desired for top bandimg_4100transfer eon from L to rightallk-transfer_65img_4101latch tool bind off around gate pegs for all needles/stitches img_4102

img_4103do not cut yarn, lift work off machine; turn work over (knit side facing)
chain 5, slip stitch into eyelet created by transfers, repeat across the knit, end with slip stitch into last eyelet space detail_4121turn work over (purl side facing once again), chain 3, 2 double crochet, slip stitch into center of chain 5 space, repeat across the knit, end with slip stitch into last chain 5 space detail_4120unblocked trim, 2/15 acrylic yarn img_4104

img_4105detail after steaming, the trim is side leaning img_4119

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To use: rehang open stitches on every needle (or other arrangement) eliminating ladder spaces and bind off,  join to another piece of knit, etc.

Thread Lace on Brother KM

Thread lace has also been called punch lace over the years. The “lace holes” are formed by knitting a fine thread with a significantly thicker yarn as the “second color”. When the fine yarn knits (B), a larger stitch in it alone is formed, with the thicker yarn floating behind it. The thicker yarn goes in Brother’s A feeder, the thinner in B.  As in FI patterning, the unpunched holes/ blank squares/ no pixels knit yarn in feeder A, punched holes/ black squares/ pixels are knit in B feeder yarn. In this instance however, both yarns  knit the unselected needles, corresponding to blanks in card or blank squares/ unmarked pixels. Tension may need to be adjusted due to this fact.

Test swatches for tolerance to pressing/ steaming to make certain final garment will bear blocking and cleaning. I had a sweater front finished using an industry “clear” thread, thankfully tried to iron it before finishing the piece, and discovered a lovely melting quality to the clear “thread”. In theory clear serger thread should be safe to use, there are 2 easily available manufacturers. YLI brand (nylon) is stocked at most chain stores that carry sewing supplies.  One “light / clear” is “whiter” than other; there is a “smoke” version as well, sold on cones. Both produce a bit of a sheen on the surface of the knit fabric. Sulky (polyester) clear is sold on spools, is superior for sewing pieces together, zippers, etc with no “sharp” when cut ends poking at the skin, but in a different price point and quantity.

This was my garment’s test swatch, the black is a wool rayon yarn.

img_3850-1

The fabric is much quicker to produce than traditional transfer lace. Cards can easily be drawn by filling in solid shapes over a mesh  ie repeat seen in the 1X1 card. Double length may produce an interesting fabric as well.  End needle selection needs to be cancelled. If end needles are selected because of the pattern repeat, push those needles back to B position manually before knitting the next row. The latter step insures that both yarns will knit together. Either side may be used as the “public side”, depending on personal preference. The thread lace option is also available in the 260 bulky machine. Here a very thin acrylic was used as the “thin” at the start of the swatch, monofilament for the remainder (bulky KM)

img_3851once again, with monofilament as color 2 img_3852

Taking it to a garment (standard KM): color 1 = wool/rayon blend, color 2 = sewing thread. Note the difference in color where there is no needle selection for pattern, and how one color is more prominent on one side than the other. Sometimes the latter may be used to advantage when the goal is a plaited fabric, but no plaiting feeder is available. Simply program in a blank row, and position threads using thread lace setting to produce the knit.

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For more details for some unconventional uses for setting see post. I knit on a 910 electronic, with no option for such fabrics built into knit carriage. I was able however, to modify and use my punchcard carriage with the intent of producing yet another “unconventional”, ribbed fabric.

 

Knitting in pattern with 2 carriages, Brother punchcard KMs

I touched on knitting with 2 carriages in some previous posts:
http://alessandrina.com/2011/03/30/knitting-with-2-carriages/
http://alessandrina.com/2011/03/29/lace-meets-hold-and-goes-round/
http://alessandrina.com/2015/03/31/combining-tuck-stitches-with-lace-2-automating-them/

If 2 carriages are in use for patterning extension rails are a must. For this discussion we are excluding the lace carriage as the #2, the intent is to use 2 knit carriages with each set to desired cam functions. As one carriage is put to rest and the other one is set to move from the opposite side, the card does not advance, so the last row selected is repeated one more time. In one of those lightbulb moments today (any excuse not to do laundry) it occurred to me that starting out with an odd number repeat pre punched card, coming from the opposite direction at the end of each odd row repeat, an even numbered repeat would actually be knit. The card below is Brother issue with all standard knitting machines. Card number (2 in this instance) may vary, depending on year of purchase. Color changes here as well would have to be planned for an every even number of rows, so respective carriages can travel to and from each side.

punchcard

The swatch below begins with locked selection row on punchcard row marked #1 (standard location); tuck setting is used in first 2 segments, FI on third; pattern produced is “OK”, but not actually tucking for 4 consecutive rows; note how much narrower FI is than tuck. Tuck tends to be short and fat, slip and fair isle short and skinny when compared to plain knit in same yarns 500_326

500_327

Since Brother preselects for the next row of knitting, setting the first selection row one locked below the usual spot on in this case #48 got me what I wanted, each color now tucking for 4 rows

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Then something a bit more exciting occurred to me; one is an odd number, so any card where single rows are punched could be executed in theory, changing color every 2 rows (remembering to start with first selection row one row below # 1 row mark on card). This sample was knit with 2 carriages, using a maze card, illustrated in a previous post , in which each row had been punched only one time, requiring for the repeat to be elongated X2 500_319500_320

the image from the previous postgrey_slip

Using 2 carriages allows for combining yarns using different tensions, cam settings, fiber content, or sometimes using materials that the single bed color changer is not “friendly” with. Also, there is no pushing the wrong button, causing errors in sequence, or dropped knitting if no yarn is picked up.

A punchcard carriage may be used on electronic machines. I work on a KH892, and a 910. The 910 is from a much earlier model year than the punchcard machine. The back rail for the KH to travel on, is a different shape, with slits as opposed to smooth, and a bit more raised. The electronic carriage set on KC locks on the belt, and advances the card appropriately, but the fit is quite snug, making it hard to push, while the 892 behaved well on the 910. If borrowing carriages and sinker plates from different model years or type of machine to use on another, proceed with caution and listen to your machine. Sometimes the span of time between model issues is irrelevant, even if model years are only a year apart, and the swap is not the best for successful knitting, may “work” in one direction, but not as well in the other.

sample back rails: 910 910892rail2

A bit of holding 5: intarsia and more 2

So you have some shapes you love and know: wanting to go large, mixing them up, requires thinking things through. Testing on small swatches will help determine holding sequences and whether the results are predictable or even liked. I no longer have access to Adobe photoshop or illustrator, so some of my image editing is now achieved in gimp. Labeling below is with Skitch, and charting is with Excel.

A starting freehand swatch experiment and some observations: shape variations in red areas occur by altering sequence for knitting first and last 2 shapes in hold

tulip_knit

tulip_purl

Planning possible sequences out in charting can be confusing. The image direction will be reversed on the knit side. Approaching the technique like intarsia with individual yarns or bobbins eliminates the need for some of the concerns where 2 row sequences or specific starting sides are necessary to keep yarns continuous or for execution of the desired shape. Trying to imagine the shapes that create the larger one together in a simple 2D drawing can get one started, but  then shapes need to be rearranged. I usually began by “playing”, trying to figure out steps needed, and follow that by trying to produce an executable chart. Making the process as easy as possible to track is always a consideration.

screenshot_09possible stitch counts and adding a center line “stem”/ stripescreenshot_10its knitting sequence tulip_numbereda resulting swatch, stitch counts not consistent with chart
labeled_075

600_076

In the chart below the design is worked with 2 needles brought out to work or pushed back into work at any one time, making tracking changing numbers in hold unnecessary. Pink rows indicate starting and ending knit rows, orange “stitches” are cast on and bound off in turn, creating a shape extending out from the edge of the knit. Arrows indicate where shapes meet to create forms.

knittable_marked

Holding sequence for each shape may be worked begin with carriage on either side; with experience this may be planned at times to eliminate some of those cut yarn ends that later must be woven in. Getting back to arrows indicating carriage moves, using the center shape for illustration purposes and beginning with COR

directionif beginning with COL, simply flip the image horizontally direction flip

labelled_077600_078

The yarns used were “throw away acrylics” in white and red. The green is a rayon chenille, which required a looser tension, resulting in the other colors looser than I would want in a final fabric

idea for a larger image in the process of being editedscreenshot_07

A possible sequence in knitting if it is to be executed as shown. The arrow marks rows that knit all needles across the width of the piece. The piece segments are  numbered to create a starting line for later joining.
numbered1If the goal is knitting as close to a flat circle as possible, eliminating rows will create a smaller center hole as well after the form is completed and seamed. Knitting segments 1-6 should be adequatecircle2In larger pieces ie shawls, adding knit rows without adding stitches can be done by altering #8, 1, 6, 7. Red line indicates changing angles. Blue and green lines below indicate increasing rows knit at center of shapes as a result. exteded

Knitting and cast on sequences flow around left purl edge, straight or diagonal edges on a chart such as above may become foundation rows that are later seamed. Sort out your sequence and preferences on smaller swatches, keeping notes as you go. Additional shaping can happen along the edges of any plain knit rows between shapes by increasing or decreasing on either or both sides to create crescent shapes  or triangle variants.

Now a quandary if gauge matters: knit stitches are not square. One option is to generate a grid appropriate graph paper. In holding sequences happen in 2 row sequences. Graph paper cells may be created at twice the height desired. Each rectangle will represent a single stitch, 2 row sequence. To create your own knitting graph paper in excel please see post as a place to start. A common knit ratio is 4W X 6H. An editable workbook in 2W X 6H ratio that takes into account following outline in 2 row holding sequences: landscape2X6. Links for designing knit graph papers online:
http://www.tata-tatao.to/knit/matrix/e-index.html
http://www.theknittingsite.com/knitting-graph-paper/
http://sweaterscapes.com/lcharts3.htm
http://www.thedietdiary.com/knittingfiend/KnittersGraph.html
http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/asymmetric/

Using the 4X6 model reduced to 2X3 this is a sample generated using excel, with borders in a 2X6 ratio, so in execution, each single cell represents one stitch and 2 rows knit. The shape is one from the shape menu in the program, easily resized. The yellow bars show the gradations in holding. These cells are too small for adding text within the program itself. The math can be double checked: there are 70 stitches, 34 rows in the rectangle at the center of the shape. Holding happens over 5 chart units (10 rows actual knitting) at the top and bottom of the center shape; 70/5 = 14 X5, matching the drawing shape on grid

the accompanying, editable workbook Excel 2008  landscape2X6

So the goal is a shawl or garment, graph paper is becoming impractical to follow? Time to pull out your knit leader. Draw out each wedge or piece full size, number  segments breaking sections into knitting sequences, and let the KL guide you. For consistency, if the same shape is to be repeated many times and accuracy matters, it may be worth “air knitting” it while noting shaping as you go, keeping a row by row flow chart. An editable workbook to help track holding patterns, increases, decreases, etc. as a starting point for your own preferences: tracking knit.

Gauge or shape do not matter? time to scrumble it all and be surprised!

 

 

A bit of holding 4: intarsia and more

Picture knitting / intarsia may at times be achieved using holding techniques. As in any such knitting, supplies include extras such as bobbins, clothespins or weighted clips, but no separate carriage. If the ribber is in use and one is working on a large piece, ribber covers allow the yarns to hang in front of the ribber bed.

Some of the rules for accomplishing this using short rows: it is helpful to work from a chart. Two row sequences are required, so having the working chart double length makes the process easier to visualize. “Follow” knitting direction with any tool to determine that the pattern is executable, with no long floats or slits.

The bottom of any diagonal lines is always knit first.

Needles are brought out to hold on the carriage side, pushed back into work opposite the carriage; one exception to this rule is if “automatic wrapping” is used. In the latter one less needle is brought into hold than needed opposite the carriage, the row is knit, then with the carriage on the alternate side the first needle in hold next to stitches just knit is brought out to hold, resulting in a “wrap” and correcting the count to the desired number. Any number of needles may be pushed back into work at any time. More than single stitches brought to hold on the carriage side will produce floats.

When knitting shapes the only needles in work are those being worked to create that shape.

Base rows of knitting, whether in waste yarn or as part of the pattern, are needed prior to working in hold.

Remember that you are working on the purl side, so any image will be flipped horizontally on the knit side. Reverse chart horizontally before working it if direction matters.

Begin with a simple shape. Letters indicate knitting sequence for short row sections. Patterning in these charts begins with COR, bold lines separate areas of plain knitting, letters indicate order for executing short row segments. The fabric produced lies flat, with no noticeable 3D protrusions.

screenshot_08

screenshot_09

screenshot_07marking sequences with numbers is easier for me to follow; color changes help define segments, do not reflect final colors in design diamond_29

diamond_sequence

a super mini swatch: holes are typical both in intarsia and in short rows if no wrapping occursIMG_2439be prepared to weave in a lot of yarn endsIMG_2901going larger, note “steps” created when larger number of needle groups are used500_717stripes500_716more complex geometry:  line drawing on “graph paper”complex_30the start of color placement screenshot_01sequence for executing segments at completion of designcomplex_number_01in actual knitting the pattern must be elongated X2

I find it helpful to use familiar yarn and to work variations of a familiar shape prior to taking on more complex patterns. Below is a cousin of the first shape illustrated in this post, with pattern worked beginning COL, repeated across the row, increments in number of stitches worked in short rows, but mirrorred on both shape sides (shown in first swatch segment).

screenshot_01filling in to produce a flat fabric, with straight sides: bottom segmentscreenshot_02top segmentscreenshot_04the amended chartscreenshot_05

Some of the same shapes may be placed on a shaped edge. The repeat will likely need some editing; arrows indicate direction of knitting for that row. If the background color is used for casting on and binding off, then the isolated shape floats on the ground, and the horizontal line of contrast color is eliminated.

screenshot_18edge 1creating an outline of shape with Color 1screenshot_23edge_21

horizontal rotation to achieve “leaf” shapescreenshot_05melding shapesno wrap_28don’t like wrapping? for smaller holes offset return to work position upper half of shape by one needle less at the start, added at endno wrap_28knitting direction leaf_25stacking shapes, with bound off stitchesstacking leaves

combo_2934

combo_2935

the yarn used is an acrylic, so pressing helps to make the shapes lie flat. Once again, using wool or any other yarn with “memory” will result in considerable curl at side ant top and bottom of knit piece, so that is a consideration in putting in the effort. The more striping, the more yarn ends to weave in and row counts to watch. Using space dyed or sock yarns may produce pleasing though unplanned stripe patterns in any of the shapes. My samples are not resolved final fabrics. There are many inspiring patterns available for purchase or at times free on the internet for hand knitting, usually in garter stitch as well as holding, resulting in a nearly square gauge, flat lying knit.

Taking it to garments: accessories are easiest, since gauge may not be significant. Shawl shapes in HK are often knit on circular needles, without the constraint of the fixed number of needles on any particular model KM. Sometimes, with adjustments, the same shapes may be rotated sideways on the KM. Segment sizes may differ due to the resulting change in gauge. Sampling techniques and shapes in smaller versions helps work out the kinks.

Sources for inspiration: large scale shapes

http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=7365&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=7543&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=7375&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=7099&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=6729&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=6333&cid=17
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=6001&cid=17

more details, varying concentration and placement

free pattern
http://www.garnstudio.com/pattern.php?id=7606&cid=17

for purchase on ravelry
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/endless-rainbow
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/rigoles
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/dreambird-kal
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/scarf-with-flames
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/phoenix-wing—phoenix-flugel
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/spring-plumage
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/hundertwasser-neptunia
http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/swingtrelac

A bit of holding 3: shape variations and more

Hand knit spiraling shawls and shawlettes often involve shaping on every row. Increasing essentially requires casting on one or more stitches. Below are cast on illustrations from varied sources I used in handouts in my intro to knitting classesscreenshot_19 (1)

screenshot_20

A simple decrease occurs when the last stitch on either side is transferred moving away from the carriage, the empty needle is placed out of work, and the row is knit.

edge increaseThis illustration shows a fully fashioned version, which gives an edge that makes seaming easier and more attractive, and eliminates the small bumps usually seen along decrease edges, the process adds to knitting time involved in finishing the piece. Decreases may be made on every row.ff_decrease2

Simple increases: a factor that is often first noticed when approaching seaming is that the carriage side creates loops, while opposite the carriage one gets what looks like a knot, both alternate as starting position of the carriage swaps sides. To speed things up for single increases, one alternative is to bring an empty needle into work on the carriage side. This creates an elongated loop rather than a full stitch. Unless intended as a design feature, the edge is not the best one for seaming. A better looking increase is created by putting a needle into work opposite the carriage. For a “good edge”  two rows minimum of knitting need to occur prior to the next increase. Continuing on the thread begun in the last 2 posts, I experimented with every row increases and came up with what I consider a reasonable compromise. The method for increases on right edge:
*COR: bring an empty needle into work on the carriage side, knit a row. Insert transfer tool into loop created as shown, turn toward carriage (in this case clockwise), essentially creating an e wrap, hang on adjacent empty needle hook.

increase every row

COL knit to right*, repeat *  *

In the previous 2 posts’ samples I did not wrap any needles. Wrapping in both directions can create an interesting line along the center of the “leaf” or “other” shapes, seen in the photo below

experiment small

Interpreting hand knit patterns for use on the machine requires translations of some of the vocabulary and directions given. If an edge stitch is made in garter or slip stitch variations, disregard and simply add it to the total number of stitches on the segment of the needle bed that is being worked on. Wrap and turn is executed by wrapping the yarn around the adjacent needle in hold prior to knitting back to opposite side

2: knit <-                  1: wrap COR            1: wrap COL                2: knit -> both

pw2: picking up wraps and knitting them together happens when needles with wrapped loop and stitch behind it are brought back into work.

Terminology may vary in self published patterns, some are accompanied by very good tutorials. Ravelry HK searches can provide inspiration for many a holding technique variations. Other terms to look for in image and pattern searches include swing knitting, and on occasion, tapestry knitting.

 

Charting shapes for short row knitting and programming

In machine knitting, stitches are usually brought into hold opposite the carriage. If multiple stitches are brought out to hold on the carriage side, floats are created. Triangles stacked vertically as seen in the previous post, will create a spiral curve along the line where stitches are held. The carriage needs to get to the opposite side and back after each ‘decrease’ or ‘increase’, so pairs of rows are used to execute and reverse angles in short row shaping. When multiple rows are knit independently from the rest of the knit, slits are created. In two row sequences these are generally similar to holes created in lace, in longer sequences much larger slits are produced. The latter are often used as planned design elements. The small holes being visible may not pose a problem for the knitter. If they do, wrapping the adjacent needles can help eliminate them, but the doubled yarn in the wrapped needle may create small, sometimes visible bumps on the knit side of the finished piece, creating a secondary pattern.

Reducing eyelet size: in traditional wrapping  required needle(s) are brought out to hold, the yarn is wrapped under and around the last needle in hold on the carriage side before knitting the next carriage pass

                        COR                                                              COL                                both

The “automatic method” for wrapping

Decreasing: if COR (COL), to hold 1 stitch at a time, set the machine for holding. Bring one needle on the same side as the carriage into hold position. Pass the carriage to the opposite side. COL (COR) repeat if shaping is 2 sided, or if shaping is only on the starting side, knit back to it, and with COR (COL) repeat process. Increasing single stitch : bring 1 needle always opposite the carriage into work position.

Decreasing:  more than 1 needle or stitch at a time: if COR (COL), place 1 needle less than required into hold on the opposite side as the carriage, knit 1 row to left (right), toward the needle in hold. When COL (COR), bring into hold the last, additional needle. COL (COR) repeat if shaping is 2 sided, or if shaping is only on the starting side, knit back to it, and with COR (COL) continue decreases on the single, opposite side.

Increasing:  to remove stitches from holding , COR (COL) place the desired number of needles into working position on the side opposite the carriage, knit one row, repeat with COL (COR) if shaping is on both sides, or knit back to starting position COR (COL) and continue increases on the single, opposite side.

Charting out shapes knitting or programming stacked equal triangles / spirals: the wedge illustrated in the previous post single spiral wedge“Air knitting” is often used to think out fabric issues before swatching using yarn. Drawing lines to follow carriage movement direction required to keep the knitting continuous, whether or graph paper or within software programs, can help sort out shapes that will work in short rowing. Holding needs to happen in 2 row sequences. Below, black lines and arrows indicate the direction of knitting for each row, in this instance beginning with COR. Blue = knit stitches, yellow = all knit rows at the completion of each wedge (2 or multiple of 2, depending on planned design). This repeat is suitable for knitting a continuous strip with ruffling/spiraling at various degrees, not for ‘pie’ shapes.

offset

Working out the repeat: the red line represents the starting, selection (KC), knit  row, the numbers at the bottom the width of the repeat, the numbers to the side its height. The first repeat A, results in the fewest punched holes, drawn squares or programmed pixels, requires being knit double length. The remaining repeats (B, C) are drawn double length, standard card rotation is used. Eyelets form at the held edge. C takes automatic wrapping to decrease eyelet size at held edge into account. When any sequences are programmed for knitting using slip stitch, the end needle selection is always cancelled by using KCII, or turning non needle selection cams in punchcard models.

A                                 B                                    Crufflethe start of a miter shape: blue repeat, extra knit rows in yellow, auto hold on bottom rightscreenshot_45

Going 3D: in many designs the original repeat may simply be mirrored to be executed. If this is done here, one can see there is no longer a continuous knitting line, directional arrows are moving in opposite directions or toward each other from center point

offset1restoring continuity offset 2shifting rows around to create a workable repeat offset 3one shape 3 different ways:  red row = KC II, all knitdouble spiral

An executable 24 stitch, 26 row repeat:  black arrows alone indicate movement of carriage on the first row of the repeat, black arrows on red line indicate starting point and direction of movement of carriage for KCII rows. A begins to knit repeat with COR, B with COL. whole repeatsThe triangle’s vertex can be squared off, the height of the repeat shortened, to make 3D shapes much rounder ball1X8ball1X8

Not just for electronics: some punchcard repeats to try (also suitable for any machine). End needle selection is cancelled.  Selection rows are always toward the first pair of rows knit in holding pattern, so for the first 2 cards they would be from right to left. Single rows are punched but 2 row sequences are needed, so cards must be elongated X 2; miter shaping repeat is shown on the left, spiral on the right. Narrower shapes may be created and knit on the appropriate segment of the 24 stitch repeat needle positions. Use needle tape markings as guides for placement. Selection row is from right to left, the pattern repeat begins with COL. All punched, extra series of pairs of rows of knitting may be added at the top. Note: just a few rows may not be added with a small a segment of an additional card with clips, the whole repeat may have to be split in sections to allow for the extra rows and its smooth passage through the card reader. As an alternative, more rows of all holes could be added to the original card when first punched, tested, and then trimmed if not needed. It is useful to try out the repeat as a hand technique first in any of these instances, to determine personal preference.

miter_spiral1

Going 3D: punch only actual holes (black pencils marks were originally used to mark squares that needed to be unpunched for auto wrap on right, not the best choice for B/W scans). Two row sequences are punched, so no elongation is needed for either repeat. Miter shaping is shown on left, spiral on right; mem <– indicates direction for KC row; decreasing angles are auto wrapped, increasing angles need not be as seen in the top of miter on left, where needles are returned back to work to create the reverse shape.3Dmiter_spiral corrected

Some ruffle possibilities: all knit rows were added to the card on left with snaps, and are composed of all punched holes. The number of all knit rows  between held segments determines the spacing between wedges and the degree of spiraling of final fabric. KC row needs to be R to L for A, left to right B. Holding sequences are now staggered, changing the angle of the resulting curves. Where 2 stitches are brought to hold on the carriage side, a short  float is created.                                                      

A: elongate X 2                              B: use as is         ruffle-pair-

The recommended minimum for punchcard length is generally stipulated to be 36 rows. Card A without the added rows is 28 rows high (last 2 rows are for card overlap when adding snaps), so the repeat below, with extra segment removed, would need to be punched twice

A single_correctedeyelet pattern reflects shaping500668

500_

500_676

B: dotted lines outline segment: yellow dots on purl side, the 1 needle floatsruffle_floatone possible card revision: red dots indicate punched holes, stitches in hold as carriage moves from left to rightruffle16_CORany difference in the swatch, in this yarn, was almost imperceptible; results would vary depending on yarn thickness and fiber content.

rufle not floatthe swatch as a “ruffle”ruffle_show

Vertical racking 3: automating half fisherman in pattern (2)

Working with the half fisherman racking discussed in the last post, here is an approach to interpreting the fabric seen below for knitting on a Brother model knitting machine500_557For the sample chart I chose a 12 stitch repeat, making it executable on any knitting machine. The ribber is set to half pitch. An often overlooked clue as to what is happening or is about to, is found in the arrows just below the racking position indicator. With the latter at 5, the red triangle appears pointing to L. As the bed is racked to position 4, the red arrow now points to the letter R. This is a simple racking pattern involving only the 2 positions, either to R or L

pitch_rack

Once on position 4, the red arrow indicates the direction in which the bed was racked on the last move (R), the “empty” arrow the direction for the next move (L), bringing position back to 5. More complex patterns require a bit more planning and tracking to avoid errors.

rack2

Racking patterns in books often recommend beginning fabric with the setting on 5, or the center position for the machine in question.  Doing so allows for balanced edges in patterns that swing by multiple positions in both directions. In this instance, for the sake of avoiding mistakes in as many ways as possible, I would start the pattern on racking position 10. Racking cannot go any further to the right, so no chance for example of racking to 6 rather than 4 in the knitting because of inattention. Having a “cheat sheet” with row numbers where no racking occurs, and position of the carriage to R or L at their start and or after knitting is also helpful. I had to lower the tension on both beds considerably to avoid forming loops that in turn got hung up on gate pegs. Especially at the start make certain that the comb and weights drop properly. Using KCI will insure that the first and last stitch on the main bed are always knit. In the patterning used on the Passap back bed (previous post), the groups of needles in each half of the repeat will change to the alternate position with each pass of the lock. On the rows where the back lock is changed to N, selection continues in pattern, but no tucking occurs. In this chart the pattern is maintained continuous throughout, while blank “remaining” squares are filled in on rows where no tucking or racking occurs = N, every needle knits. In Brother machines both tuck buttons are pushed in. Selected needles knit, non selected tuck across the row. 

new program 2symbols

I tested the pattern approach on my 910, with a 38 row, 20 stitch repeat in a random acrylic. I had some issue with some needles not selecting properly, for whatever reason. The repeat was not planned so a full 10 stitches were at each side of the knit, resulting in the difference on the right side of the swatch photo from its left.

larger repeat

half the repeat with color change on single plain knit row (use of color changer only possible with even row change sequences), top stripe of swatch in plain rib

half repeatN1

1rowN1_584

back to scales and knitting them

Overall,  wider repeats and thicker yarns gave me harder to knit fabric, with less noticeable pockets and lack of stretch and “bounce”;  ultimately I went back to a 6X6, 12 stitch 2 row sequences illustrated in the chart above. The thinner yarn needs to be with a bit of stretch, and enough strength not to break when ribbed and racked at the tightest possible tension. This is a fabric that requires concentration, having as many clues as possible to help stay on track is useful. If errors are made close enough to the all knit row, it is possible to unravel carefully to that point, and continue on. Mylars or punchcards may be marked to reflect racking position. Here the mark on the right = 10, the one on the left = 9. Marks take into consideration that the card reader’ design row and knitter’s eye level row views are not the same.

mylar_marks

A row cheat sheet can help track carriage location for all knit rows. Pictured below is part of mine. Wording for clues or description of sequences should make sense to the person knitting, not necessarily follow a specific formula.

screenshot_34

some of what “did not work”, including a very long swatch with a confused pattern due to creative operator error

500_591a finished piece with yarn ends not yet woven in500_590

The fabric is tugged lengthwise, left unblocked, and pockets may pop on either side of it, with the majority on one side of the knit as opposed to the other

the start of a series in varied colors and fibers500_604

Tuck and garter stitch: from hand knit to machine knit hand tech pattern

A Ravelry question on the possibility of executing a particular fabric on the machine has led to the experiments in this post. The pattern that led to the discussion is  free hand knit one,  shared and published on the Purl SOHO website and on Ravelry. The gauge for their project is 4.75 stitches = 4 inches in stitch pattern, it includes garter rows. Such rows may be executable on home knitting machines by transferring from ribber (Passap front bed) to main bed, alternating with reversing the process at predetermined frequency, depending on stitch type. K1b is the hand knit equivalent of tuck for that stitch on that row, adding to the mix.  Not practical for G carriage use, as the latter does not form tuck loops, and hand retooling would be required for all k1b stitches.

Using holding to create tuck stitches in non auto patterning days was commonly used, and I chose to do so here. As machine knitters we are conditioned to believe that single color rows are impractical to execute, and that the yarn would need to be cut on each side after the one row. Color changers are on one side or the other, making striping with frequent color changes practical if executed in even multiples of rows. Transfer carriages are available that will help move stitches from one bed to the other, I personally have never had the patience to work with them enough to get good at using them without dropping stitches, so I went back to even lower tech than usual, using the garter bar on the bulky, and beginning pattern row 1 with COR.

Before attempting nearly every row turns, it is helpful to have some practice with turning work over using garter bar, develop a sequence to repetitive actions, keeping careful notes as to what works for you, and using contrasting yarns in tests to better understand stitch structure. In my sample the white yarn was thicker than the blue, reversing colors or balancing yarn thickness would change the visual look of the fabric.  Beginning on small samples helps work out issues and the making of the decision to try on a larger project or simply as a border.

Analyzing the pattern repeat:

screenshot_43tools to help with EON needle selection tools

the results of rows beginning with k1 sequence after the row is knit, note the “tuck” loops on top of E position needles, which will be knit off on the next row knit K1_after knit

a row that begins with a k2 sequence, before it is knit; the needles holding the single, blue stitch will form the loops on top of the needles as the yarn moves across to opposite sidek2_before knit

E position prior to transferring stitches onto garter bar, also for free pass to other side to pick up yarn after stitches are removed on bar free pass473

1            begins and ends with K 1; COR select needles, col A * knit row, COL, bring all needles out to hold, remove on garter bar, free pass carriage to opposite side, COR, flip garter bar over, replace stitches onto needles push all stitches against gate pegs *

2            begins and ends with k 2; COR select needles for row 2, col A repeat * to* end COR

3            begins and ends with k1; COR select needles for row 3, change to col B, knit one row, do not turn, do not cut yarn; COL bring all needles out to hold, free pass to right to pick up col A on next knit row, end COR

4            begins and ends with k 2; col A, COR select needles for row 4, repeat from * to *

5             begins and ends with k 1; COR select needles for row 5, col A, repeat from * to * do not turn

6            begins and ends with k 2; COR select needles for row 6, change to col B, repeat from * to *

publisher’s project photo

beautyberry-blanket-600-12-315x441

my swatch, knit on a whopping 9 stitchesrav blanket 300


 

Thread lace and punchcard knit carriage use on Brother 910_2

A short while ago there was a Ravelry thread discussing reversible, double bed knits. I recalled a demo from eons ago I saw at a machine knitting seminar, and decided to explore my memories and share. The result approaches a “reversible” fabric, with imperfect results depending on yarns used and other factors. There is a group of knitters that are presently experimenting with “glitch knits”, where the intent is to purposely create patterns with what some people might consider “mistakes” as purposeful parts of the design. For one example see video of the technique. The “imperfections” in the fabric below may be seen as a positive by some. It is not the result of any aberrations in programmed pattern, but rather as a result of the way the threads get pulled through each other as the carriage moves across each row knit.

My samples were knit using equal weight yarns. The fabric may be better served by using different weights, approaching the usual recommendation for plaiting. See manufacturer’s directions for plaiting feeder use.

Cancel end needle selection on your knit carriage. Cast on is for full needle rib with both yarns in place. Hang comb. Knit 2 circular rows followed by one more all knit row. Change to rib tension that has been tested for yarn combination if your cast on was tighter than it. Several rows may be knit for a “solid” color edging.

When the first pattern row is selected, one need not set the KC carriage to slip. N is king in Brother, regardless of pattern/ needle selection as long as no cam buttons or levers are pushed in/ selected, everything knits, whether single or double bed. After the first row of pattern is preselected on the main bed, use a tool to push in both buttons as seen below, and proceed in pattern. Even though end needle selection has been cancelled, if the end needles on the main bed are selected, they need to be pushed back to B position or those stitches will be dropped

my punchcard carriage set up on one of my 910s
setup_50

when testing motifs it is always good to begin with a simple pattern, making needle pre selection easy to view and check. I began with “checkers”. They can be viewed at the bottom of the image below with machine set for double length, at top as drawn on the mylar; most such fabrics are well served by double length on any machine, electronic machines could easily vary the repeat size or color reverse at the flip of a button, using lili buttons on ribber may add to the mix of results as well.
screenshot_22

a familiar stock Brother punchcard, knit on my 892, double lengthscreenshot_23