I have been going through some of my teaching notes, assembled from a variety of sources. There are many previous posts on DBJ, including http://alessandrina.com/2013/04/22/double-jacquard-2/. Here is more complete information in jpg format
I have been going through some of my teaching notes, assembled from a variety of sources. There are many previous posts on DBJ, including http://alessandrina.com/2013/04/22/double-jacquard-2/. Here is more complete information in jpg format
The Brother Knitting Techniques book has series of illustrations on how to manage a mock rib in various configurations on pages 7-15. The manual is now available for free download online, and is an excellent reference.
This technique requires waste yarn start, followed by a row of ravel cord. The resulting knit creates ladders or stitches that will in turn be dropped, then latched up and reformed into knit stitches on the purl ground. Reducing the knit tension by as much as 2-3 numbers is recommended after the ravel cord row.
The needles marked in blue and green in the first image below are needles that are pulled back to A position prior to starting the piece. After the waste yarn and ravel cord (hatched yellow) start, three rows are knit with the garment yarn. Using a transfer tool, pick up the sinker loops from the first row knit (orange), and hang them on the corresponding needles on the diagram (follow red arrows).
One may at this point continue with needles (green) left out of work, or return the needles (blue) to work position. If needles are left OOW, ladders will continue to be created. If they are returned to work, a loop is created on the empty needle on the first knit pass, formed into a stitch on the second pass, resulting in an eyelet. Every needle treated in this manner will now be knitting. If stitches rather than ladders are formed for the height of the rib, then those stitches (blue) will need to be dropped, and in turn latched up. In both instances the latch tool goes under the first ladder created, 2 rows are skipped, the latch tool then catches the third parallel row, and pulls it through the first to make the required knit stitch. The process continues up the height of the “rib”. In this illustration the main yarn begins to knit with COL.
A 2X2 rib is possible. From the Techniques book: cast on with waste yarn and ravel cord (1, 2)
My sample was knit in a 2/15 acrylic, a bit thin for this technique, and if pressed, the fabric would be flattened permanently. If the intent is to have the rib retain it “spring and stretch” it is best to use a yarn with memory, such as wool. If a slip stitches or FI are to be used for the body of the knit, they will create a much denser fabric. The yarn in the rib may in turn need to be doubled to produce enough substance. As always swatching is recommended before committing to a large piece in any technique.
Another ravelry question is bringing me to a new topic and thread. The information will be edited and added to as I have time and can gather corresponding swatches. Information, at least initially, will pertain to Brother brand machines.
The size of the pleat creating the ripple/ pintuck depends on the number of rows that can be knit on the all knit bed before the fabric begins to ride up and becomes difficult to retain on the needles in work. Tolerance depends on knitting machine brands as well as yarn used. Bold patterns read better than smaller ones. Weights are usually helpful. The term is commonly used in reference to fabrics created in every needle rib and their variants. The Brother Ribber techniques book (now available for free online) addresses the topic on pp. 20-23.
I have added a few patterns from published sources in a flickr album , most take into account any one stitch not being slipped for more than 4 rows. Doubling the length if using electronics is not recommended.
These fabrics may be created in combination with needles out of work. Charting out ribber needle set ups requires brick layout graph paper. The images below may serve to illustrate needle set ups. Print and add needle arrangements by hand, or use image processor to add symbols for needles both in and out of work on either bed. The first series begins and ends with needles on the ribber (Passap front bed), the one below it with needles on the main bed (Passap back bed).
Working with the half fisherman racking discussed in the last post, here is an approach to interpreting the fabric seen below for knitting on a Brother model knitting machineFor the sample chart I chose a 12 stitch repeat, making it executable on any knitting machine. The ribber is set to half pitch. An often overlooked clue as to what is happening or is about to, is found in the arrows just below the racking position indicator. With the latter at 5, the red triangle appears pointing to L. As the bed is racked to position 4, the red arrow now points to the letter R. This is a simple racking pattern involving only the 2 positions, either to R or L
Once on position 4, the red arrow indicates the direction in which the bed was racked on the last move (R), the “empty” arrow the direction for the next move (L), bringing position back to 5. More complex patterns require a bit more planning and tracking to avoid errors.
Racking patterns in books often recommend beginning fabric with the setting on 5, or the center position for the machine in question. Doing so allows for balanced edges in patterns that swing by multiple positions in both directions. In this instance, for the sake of avoiding mistakes in as many ways as possible, I would start the pattern on racking position 10. Racking cannot go any further to the right, so no chance for example of racking to 6 rather than 4 in the knitting because of inattention. Having a “cheat sheet” with row numbers where no racking occurs, and position of the carriage to R or L at their start and or after knitting is also helpful. I had to lower the tension on both beds considerably to avoid forming loops that in turn got hung up on gate pegs. Especially at the start make certain that the comb and weights drop properly. Using KCI will insure that the first and last stitch on the main bed are always knit. In the patterning used on the Passap back bed (previous post), the groups of needles in each half of the repeat will change to the alternate position with each pass of the lock. On the rows where the back lock is changed to N, selection continues in pattern, but no tucking occurs. In this chart the pattern is maintained continuous throughout, while blank “remaining” squares are filled in on rows where no tucking or racking occurs = N, every needle knits. In Brother machines both tuck buttons are pushed in. Selected needles knit, non selected tuck across the row.
I tested the pattern approach on my 910, with a 38 row, 20 stitch repeat in a random acrylic. I had some issue with some needles not selecting properly, for whatever reason. The repeat was not planned so a full 10 stitches were at each side of the knit, resulting in the difference on the right side of the swatch photo from its left.
half the repeat with color change on single plain knit row (use of color changer only possible with even row change sequences), top stripe of swatch in plain rib
back to scales and knitting them
Overall, wider repeats and thicker yarns gave me harder to knit fabric, with less noticeable pockets and lack of stretch and “bounce”; ultimately I went back to a 6X6, 12 stitch 2 row sequences illustrated in the chart above. The thinner yarn needs to be with a bit of stretch, and enough strength not to break when ribbed and racked at the tightest possible tension. This is a fabric that requires concentration, having as many clues as possible to help stay on track is useful. If errors are made close enough to the all knit row, it is possible to unravel carefully to that point, and continue on. Mylars or punchcards may be marked to reflect racking position. Here the mark on the right = 10, the one on the left = 9. Marks take into consideration that the card reader’ design row and knitter’s eye level row views are not the same.
A row cheat sheet can help track carriage location for all knit rows. Pictured below is part of mine. Wording for clues or description of sequences should make sense to the person knitting, not necessarily follow a specific formula.
some of what “did not work”, including a very long swatch with a confused pattern due to creative operator error
The fabric is tugged lengthwise, left unblocked, and pockets may pop on either side of it, with the majority on one side of the knit as opposed to the other
Here again, half fisherman or full fisherman rib is be used. The zig zag happens at the top and bottom of the fabric. In half fisherman, the set up is once again for full needle rib. If knitting in one color the sequence is : knit one row, rack a space, knit one row, rack back again (X and Y below represent the 2 racking positions involved
for 2 color fisherman the sequence is knit 2 rows with col 1, rack one space, knit 2 rows with color 2, rack one space back again
this fabric is produced in conjunction with a pattern repeat using the principle that black squares knit (pushers up, needles preselected), white squares tuck (pushers down, needles not selected), the repeat is 12 stitches wide, 2 rows high; it is possible to have 6 stitches tucking side by side because this is an every needle rib, and there will be a knit stitch on the opposite bed anchoring down each tuck loop
when single or multiple odd # of rows with no racking are introduced at intervals the zig zags once again happen at sides rather than top or bottom, with the knitting after the no racking row(s) reversing direction. The yarn used in these swatches is a random acrylic, presses flat, not the best if aiming for any 3D textures; the color difference is due to photos being taken at different times of day
what happens when multiple odd numbers of rows are knit changing back lock setting to N (all knit), no tuck stitches. The fabric still swings in opposite directions, and in addition the all knit rows produce areas that “poke out”, beginning to create scales of sorts
it is a matter of personal preference whether the extra effort with full fisherman rib is worth any difference in appearance or result in the final fabrics. Changes in tension, yarn fiber content, and machines used add to the variables. Good notes in trials help one determine predictable results and to choose whether the effort may be worth it or not. Using laborious techniques for borders rather than whole items is always an option.
1/22/2016: half fisherman racked rib knit in thinner yarn, wider # of stitches and more rows in pattern group before single N/N row, no blocking
A “how might this be done challenge” of late re this fabric brought to mind racked patterns for chevrons, both vertical and horizontal, and possibility of producing them on home knitting machines. To review some of the principles in racking in both Brother and Passap knitting machines: pitch is the distance between each needle groove along the needle bed, is sometimes also referred to as gauge. The size varies between machine brands and type of machines. For example, the Brother bulky has a 9 mm pitch, the Passap a 5 mm one; the larger the pitch number, the thicker the yarn that may be used.
Full pitch lines up needles, and gate begs (or channels) on both beds directly opposite each other. To knit patterns in full pitch, the rule is that for every needle in working position on the main bed, the corresponding needle on the opposite bed must be out of work, and vice versa. This setting is never used when groups of all needles are in work on both beds. Stitch patterns using this setting are designed to have opposite needles in work on either bed at any one time, but not both at once. The number of maximum needles in use for ribs on both beds will usually total 200 (4.5 mm machines), and the setting accommodates yarns thicker than when every needle is in use.
In half pitch both bed needles are now offset by half a position, centering them between each other. The full complement of needles for possible use now is potentially 400 (4.5 mm machines); the setting accommodates thinner yarns than one might use single bed.
The half pitch lever on Brother may be moved from P to H to change alignments. In Passap the racking handle may be used in up or down position to do so. The racking or swing lever allows the ribber bed to be swung one full pitch to the right or to the left in a series of stepped moves. The racking handle on Brother machines is located on the left hand side of the ribber bed. Racking swing indicator positions are numbered 0-10. When the racking indicator has been moved over to the next number, this means the ribber has moved by one full pitch. With the swing indicator at 5 both beds will be centered opposite each other, the usual position. Starting points may vary when racking is used in pattern. Beds cannot be racked with needles in holding, as needles will then crash into each other. It is always a good idea to check ribber alignment before tackling more complex, double bed fabrics. In Passap the racking indicator is situated above the racking handle, and arrows indicate the direction of the last movement. The scale at the top of the front bed shows the possible racking movements from a center point of 0 to 3 to either to right or left of center. I chose to place numbers below the factory ones on machine from 0 to 7, finding that method easier to follow, since I do not rely on built in patterns and racking prompts from the console. For the purposes of these swatches I am reverting to the factory indicators.
In Passap system the racking handle has 2 main positions: up, and down. When the racking handle is up needles are directly opposite each other (P pitch in Brother), when it is down the needles are between each other on opposing beds (H on Brother). There are some racking handle positions at different parts of the “clock” that are recommended when using some of the Passap accessories.
Regardless of machine brand needles have 3 basic functions: knit, slip (do not knit), tuck (gather loops). Passap pushers have 3 positions: work, rest, and out of work. When a pusher is in the up position the corresponding needle will knit no matter what the setting on the pattern dial. This is the equivalent of having needle pre selection on Brother, but forgetting to change cam buttons from normal knit setting. When a pusher is in rest it will slip or tuck depending on lock setting to AX, DX, or FX (in Brother these would be needles not selected, in B position). If locks are set to C, E, or G, the pushers have no effect on the needles. Pusher positions may be changed manually, automatically by arrow keys (back lock Passap, lili buttons and levers Brother ribber), automatically by readers whether electronic or punchcard on both brands in the Brother main bed or front bed Passap are in use. NO pushers are used in : N (double or single bed plain knit), CX (tubular), EX (double bed, tuck).
I personally find racking easier in terms of the numbering in Brother brand machines. For these samples however, I chose to work on my E 6000. Adding tuck to the mix creates more textured surfaces, and half or full fisherman’s rib where every needle tucks, then knits as the carriage reverses direction on either single or both beds, is a place to start. I have written previously on tracking brother racking sequences using a punchcard numbering system. If no other pattern is used on the main or front beds, needle and pusher selection might be used to track racking position there as well. These fabrics require concentration. In terms of chevrons, both horizontal and vertical may be produced. Some published sources include a youtube video by Diana Sullivan, knit on a Japanese machine, and a baby blanket in full fisherman rib knit on the Duo 80. The version below is my half fisherman adaptation of the latter. The photos illustrate both sides of fabric. The racking is done by moving single of each of only 2 positions to the right or to the left. Single (or multiple, odd numbered) rows at the end of each sequence place the carriage at its start on the opposite side, rather than altering the numbered sequences as in the Diana video. I began my fabric on Passap racking position 2, to the right of 0, locks set at KX, N, first and last needle in work on the front bed. Back bed tucks every needle right to left, knits them left to right. There is a slight difference in texture between the 2 sides of the fabric.
activate row counter after CX rows in cast on, with locks on left, so knitting the racked pattern begins with locks on Right, RC on 1. Below is my working “cheat sheet”
Depending on the sort of rib, the beds need to be aligned in most instances so that the needles on opposing beds line up between each other. For this ribber cast on, the beds start at full pitch, for EON knitting. Every other needle is brought into work, and a first “zig zag” row is created, at the tightest tension possible. On the second row, the alternative needles need to be worked. On Passap E6000 BX, LX with pushers under new needles only will help do the job. On Japanese machines: bring the new needles out to hold, set both carriages to slip. This will result in only those “new” needles knitting on the next pass. The outcome will be one zig zag crossing over the other (red over blue in photo). Prior to the third knit row, reset the carriages or locks for circular settings (CX/CX, opposite part buttons). Because all stitches will be knitting on each bed, loosen the tension to about three quarters of the rib stitch size, knit two rows, change racking handle / lever and needle positions to half pitch at their completion. Adjust tension to desired rib stitch size, knit a closing “zig zag”, all knit row, and proceed in rib.
first zig zag rowsecond zig zag row (contrast color for illustration purposes)hang comb, knit 2 circular rows change racking position and needles alignment change tension, continue in rib, knitting all sts both beds detail close up
In a long ago post I shared the punchcard image below and the corresponding swatch and text: “The card is used double length throughout. Cast on in your favorite method. “Memorize” first row of pattern, set card to advance EOR, set KC to tuck in both directions, set RC (ribber carriage) for normal knitting throughout. This is a racked pattern. The numbers to the right of the card are for the racking position on each visible row (takes into consideration your eyes can view card 7 rows above card reader teeth). These markings will help prevent errors in long pieces or avoid confusion if knitting is interrupted for any length of time. The fabric is reversible, creating a textured checkerboard. For added interest and a color version, change color every 2 rows. I used this design in a line of “manly scarves” years ago. The repeat may be adapted for use on any KM.”
The tracking for the racking sequencing may be created for any punchcard, whether punched holes are required in the card for patterning or not. The image below is taken from the Brother Ribber Techniques Book. If KC is used, no holes are punched, and the carriage is set to plain knit, though the card advances, all needles knit. End needle selection is not a factor.
In the card, for use on Brother, the first row of the repeat with machine on racking position 10 would be placed on row one pre marked position found on stock brother blank cards. Always check markings for your machine. I have a roll purchased for Brother kms specifically that actually are stamped for Studio, with # 1 two rows below where it should be on right. No holes need to be punched in this instance. Needles are brought into work and filled as illustrated in the ribber book page. Knit one row across stitches with card set to advance normally. In this instance marking row numbers in preferred colors will indicate when the racking sequence changes direction. Green rows rack to left, orange to right. The racking handle position repeat is 20 rows high (shown on left), a minimum of 36 rows for the card to roll properly) is met by repeating it twice, and the “motif” is broken up to accommodate the fact that the reader is working on 7 rows below row number visible on machine exterior. Rows 34 and 35 would become the 2 every square punched rows always placed at the top of pattern cards. The blue numbers on right reflect racking handle position for that row before the next row is knit. They can be marked on any blank square if card is blank, or alongside existing row numbers as seen in the punchcard for the checkered swatch. It is helpful to have consistent habits if one needs to stop for any length of time ie. always knit row, rack to position or stop after knitting, rack upon return.
Machine can be set for double length for racking after every 2 rows knit.
Using the method for cables and crossed stitches (3 posts)
Lace cards on 260 bulky PDF
Using two beds is the obvious means of creating a purl ground in combination with your cables, it will be addressed in later posts. If you are trying to cable more than 4 stitches on the main bed, using the ribber to provide extra yarn for the cross over may solve problems in accomplishing the cross. The ribber needs to be set at half pitch the row before the cables. Needles on the ribber are kept out of work until that row, pushed up to work position, and the row is knit. The loops formed on those needles are then dropped off, the ribber needles are put out of work, and the cables are crossed. The main bed knits until the next row before the cable crossings are once again due. I have recently begun to use water-soluble markers to mark needles positions on metal beds clearly for help in keeping track of locations for specific manipulations.
Below is a revision of a punchcard used in a previous post to track crossings for 3X3 cables, with punched holes added, taking into consideration locations for picking up extra yarn on the ribber. After 2 needles are selected on the main bed, one needle on the ribber on either side of them is brought into work. As the carriages knit across, the ribber needles pick up loops, while 6 needles are selected indicating the location of the cable cross on the next row. Ribber loops are dropped, and the needles creating them are returned to out of work position. The cable stitches are then crossed, and knitting resumes, continuing until needle selection once again indicates that an action is required.
An alternative solution: reverse the beds, with the ribber doing the knitting. A card may then be drawn to select needles for picking up those extra loops, now on the main bed. The knit carriage is set to slip throughout. Punched holes (or programmed pixels in downloads, black squares in mylars) will preselect in Brother KMs, not only keeping the needle selection error free, but also tracking rows knit between cable crosses being made. Brother ribbers tend to knit more tightly than main beds, so tensions will require adjustment as well. With a bit of planning ahead and doing some “air” knitting, all needles not involved in picking up the extra yarn may be noted and placed out of work. Only the needles for selection will remain in work, thus making it easier drop the loops formed on them during knitting.
This method allows for creating the cables while retaining a somewhat tighter tension. Since the ribber carriage has no wheels or brushes to help hold the knit in place, weight must be used. Too much of it will lead to more frequently dropped stitches. It is always good to bring cable group stitches out to holding (E) in order to visually check that transfers have occurred properly, and that there are no dropped stitches before continuing to knit.
More of the extended twill FI, chenille and rayon or wool combinations
In addition to all the usual suspects, I have been playing with DBJ once again, keeping my Passap battery charged, crossing my fingers that my ancient Dell laptop will keep working, playing with colors, using super thin yarns and plying them as needed
using built in patterns
my own pattern inspired from weaving drafts, borders mirrored to match direction when scarf is worn