DBJ, more than 2 colors per row 4

Revisiting older posts often brings to mind new or slightly different ways of looking at and achieving the same tasks.
Links to some related previous posts:
DAK DBJ color separations, templates, and other software
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 2
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 1
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   img2track
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1

Color separations for knit designs in only 2 colors are more straightforward than those for 3-4 colors.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese models will yield results automatically where each color knits in each design row only once, reducing the elongation in the designs often seen when employing other techniques.
Japanese machine models for home use (not the semi-industrial ones) have a color changer that resides on the left, and aside from whether each color in each row knits once or twice, the combined carriages need to move to and from the color changer on the left for each color selection.
The color-changers for brands differ slightly and matter in cross-brand use if one relies on published separated designs and pictured swatches.
Yarn changers for:
Brother Studio Sometimes the placement of the colors within palettes will result in the colors not being read and downloaded properly.
As described in the Ayab post: when using each color, it is coded in a range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color A; 64-127 color B; 128-195 color C; 196-255 color D.
When only 2 colors are in use, in manual color separations, the ultimate goal is to produce BW-indexed PNGs. They are then downloaded and programmed as one would FI patterns, palette placement is not a concern.
Working in default or limited palettes produces familiar visual clues in DIY, to save custom palettes see ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3 
If the goal is to imagine the results in colorways based on yarns planned for use in the finished piece, that can be easily achieved after the fact.
This design has been used in past posts and is 6 stitches wide; hence, repeated X4 in width will also be suitable for punchcard machines. Looking at it again:
checking alignment when tiled
Stitches on needles not worked on the top bed are held while stitches in the other color(s) knit, and get longer. Some degree of alteration in the aspect ratio in the appearance of the design on the knit side in the final result is to be expected, also influenced by the addition of varied knitting techniques and carriage settings.  Methods I have explored in DIY repeat the same color sequence throughout even when any one of the colors is not represented in that design row.
One way to decrease the visual lengthening of designs in dbj is to eliminate a row of knit stitches from each pair of passes by pushing Brother’s preselected needles back to the B position on the top bed before knitting from the right back to the left, thus skipping all needles in work on the top bed.
The HOP separation in Ayab performs this function automatically.
In images where not all colors are represented on every row, there are more knit rows on the ribber than on the main bed, even with birdseye backing, yet another cause of stitch elongation observable on the knit side.
When using birdseye backing, the ribber will knit every other stitch, alternating needles on each pass. An even number of needles is a requirement. Patterning is akin to using a 1X1 card on the knit bed.
By the time the carriages have returned to the left only one row of knitting on every needle will be completed on the ribber.
The setting is not available in every model machine, including very early Brother ones.
When knitting in tuck or slip stitch, stitches grow in length until they are knit off again. This remains true when working in DBJ fabrics as well.
Yarn and tension choices can affect the final appearance.
There will be some degree of bleed-through behind the elongated stitches.
Blocking also influences the final appearance of the completed knit.
Exploring possibilities:
The initial 6X6 file is converted to stp and opened in DAK resulted in the following messages and pattern error corrections A second design was also tested in DAK and yielded the same error messages:  The 6X6 stp doubled in length to 6X12 cells allow for the option of selecting the type of dbj color separations, creating files that can, in turn, become PNGs for working outside the program, and for printing traceable templates for punchcards. That work is achieved through hacks since DAK does not allow direct import or export of file formats other than its proprietary ones ie stps or txt for use with Kniterate.    A closer look at the diagram of the color sequence options in each
The characteristics of the more commonly used methods in review:
Method A
works on pairs of rows, Method B creates the same separation as the default built-in KRC one in Japanese electronics with each color in each design row knitting only once, Method C separates each color row into separate rows of knitting, rows do not have to be repeated in pairs in DIY, and the double-length switch will need to be used in Japanese knitting machines It is possible to generate an output of the separation and to process it to generate files usable in img2track or for printing traceable punchcard templates.
The program does have an option to save a bmp but the save is of the separation on a grid with added data, not as a file immediately usable in other programs. Click on the floppy disk icon outlined in red to save as bmp as an alternative to screengrabs.   Using the same 6X12 file, the generated printable templates and associated converted PNGs:
A B  the repeat here is also for the original lengthened X2, and 36 pixels high with no segments repeated. The essential difference is that the first preselection row is made from left to right, with the pair of rows for color 1, design row 1 split between the top and bottom of the separation.  C

elongated X2=24X72, handy for other knit structures, but not for reducing elongation in DBJ Using img2track set at knitting in 3 colors, there is no error message, and the 6X6 file will not produce the planned design.
A proof of concept is provided in the post DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2. Starting with the double-length 6X12 file, each color in each design row will be knit twice:  and the machine will offer prompts for its pre-determined color change sequences.
Most recently, my separation experiments using Gimp use transparency methods and are shared in the reverse order of their development 
#3
The briefest and last method: working in RGB mode, begin by multiplying the pattern in height X3, to 6X18 Isolating the red color on a white ground:  isolating the yellow on a transparent ground:  isolating the blue on a transparent ground: copying and pasting the isolated yellow and blue with transparent grounds in  turn onto the red design isolated on the white ground
changing all 3 colors to black
doubling the image in length to 6X36
remove every second row using the pencil tool or bucket fill it with the 6X2 pattern, and change the cyan to white. Any other color can be used instead of the magenta at that point
change Mode to BW indexed, and save the final file for knitting.   Comparing the results for the full repeat from other methods on the left, with the one using this method on the right Returning to that 6X6 repeat that was prone to error in both DAK and img2track, with each color represented once in each row, exploring the possible separation to knit each color only once, and using a final 6X18 PNG led to patterning failure.
The Image menu progression of its process in Gimp: the number of thumbnails grows and one can travel through the images using simple clicks until any image is discarded or the program is quit.  Each color was isolated on a white background, with guides placed horizontally across every pair of pixel rows.  Pairs of rows of each color were copied and pasted in alternating sequences on an all-white file longer than 18 pixels rows and the results were trimmed to a 6X18 file for a knitting test.  Though the built-in KRC separation takes that first design row and moves it to the top of the repeat, thus knitting a single row with color 1 and completing it in a pair on the last row of the program, the first knitting test began with preselection from the right, and color 1 knitting for 2 rows.  Shifting the first red row to the top, reprogramming, and testing with preselection as for KRC made no difference.
A second try at an 18-row repeat, also a design fail, with odd breaks in the lili action on the ribber, seen in Passaps when pusher selections on the back bed are disrupted.  When the motif was doubled in length, and the same method of copy and paste was used, the results matched the 24X36 file achieved through using color transparencies.
#2 Working with the 6X6 design lengthened X6 to 6X36 with every other row rendered in all white cells The proof of concept swatch
DAK owners see the 36-row file and similar knit sample for the Half Milano separation F.
In my #1, first separation draft, the 6X10 file is elongated X6, to 6X60, considering that each color in each design row will be carried for two passes.  The latest Gimp version for Mac is 2.10.36
Sometimes there are differences in commands in the Windows version.
Begin the work in RGB Mode.
The color-to-alpha command in Gimp makes all pixels in a selected color transparent.
The option can be activated through the Layers Menu by choosing Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or the filter via Colors> Color to Alpha from the pull-down menus at the top of the work window.
No threshold or blending adjustments are needed in the small 8-bit files used in designing knits.
Magnify the image to a comfortable viewing size, ie 800% or more.
When the color to alpha dialog window opens, there will be a small preview of the image you are working on on the upper right that relates to how many images are available for processing in the work window at the time.  When the color white is in the mix using the 8-bit files, the preset color selection for transparency in the color bar is white.
To change the color selection, click on the white color, the palette window will appear, select the new color, and click OK.

To Bucket Fill with pattern: create a custom brush size, matching the starting design width in pixels. The number of rows varies with intent. White is used as one of the colors, and the second color can be any other.
Click on the rectangle tool and then on the pattern thumbnail, an icon for it will appear on the upper right of the work window. The brush will be copied to the clipboard and will be available to use to pattern fill until the program is quit. It can also be saved for future use as explained in other posts.  To fill specific groups of pixels with FG or BG colors, click on the select by color tool,  and then on the color you wish to change, use bucket fill, selecting foreground or background color.
The fuzzy select/magic wand tool mentioned in previous posts is designed to select areas of the current layer or image based on color similarity. It appears to the left of the select-by-color tool. It can be used when pixels in that color need to be changed in contained single areas rather than throughout the whole image.
If using the bucket fill with foreground or background color alternating with fill with pattern, remember to switch between the two as needed.
If an error is made, use Image> Edi> Undo to move back to any previous steps.
If at any point the image in the work window is surrounded by dotted lines, click on the rectangle tool and then again in the work window to essentially fix the layer.
The Image menu provides access to nearly any operation you can perform on an image.   Clicking on any one of those images will produce a dotted outline around it making it identifiable and usable in work such as for copy and paste followed by bucket fill with pattern,   or for navigating between series of open files.
#1  the longhand first practice run began with the 6X10 file multiplied in height X6 to 6X60. Good practice for sorting out a technique, but guessing the aspect ratio in the final knit would be bothersome.  1. has the first 2 of the 6 design rows rendered transparent, so when used to fill the original, only rows planned for color 1 are left exposed
2. will leave design rows 3 and 4 exposed for color 2
3. will leave design rows 5 and 6 exposed for color 3
Repeat these steps on the original design 3 times, and save each completed step until comfortable with working on several files open at once.
A. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for the color red
B. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for yellow, if the color seems too hard to identify, change it to another
C. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for blue. The red and white in the last step in A are left undisturbed, while the white background in the last steps in both B and C is rendered transparent, as seen in 2 and 3. Both 2 and 3 are copied and pasted onto A, rendering the final tricolor image, 4.
Using select by color and bucket fill, the three colors are replaced with black, 5.
A last brush bucket fill, 6, leaves only the first row of black cells exposed, changing the cyan to white and converting the final result to BW-indexed mode, 7, is saved for knitting with each color in each row knitting only once.  When not all 3 colors are represented on every row,
The 11X10 image was used in previous posts,   tiled,   the tiled elongation:  The separation uses method#3:  the process with the image lengthed X3 to 11X30 representing each color in each design row once:  working with Gimp transparency, isolate the red, retain the white ground isolate the green, render it on a transparent ground isolate the blue, render it on a transparent ground,  copy and paste the green and blue rendered on transparent grounds onto the red on the white ground initial image, obtaining a 3 color separation.
Replace colors with black. For knitting each color in each design row for 2 passes double the file in height to 11X60 pixels. To knit each color only once in an attempt to further reduce changes in aspect ratio, erase every second row. Images for knitting are saved in BW-indexed mode.  The DAK template (set for 950i) and img2track screen image compared to my result:  the 11X60 PNG, all pixels, 
and with black pixels on every second row changed to white The proof of concept swatch: the vertical lines between pairs of stitches result from the drag on the ribber stitches to the right and then the left as the birdseye pattern is formed, they are frequently also seen in ladderback dbj.
The yarns used are not of equal thickness.
Balanced yarn weight and tighter tensions would diminish both those lines and any bleed-through behind the stitches on the knit side.
The dropped stitches on the purl side indicate the need for troubleshooting the condition of ribber needles and their latches.Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once used the same 11X10 repeat, exploring the results using HOP, pushing needles back to B manually EOR, and a color separation with the same 11X60 final file. 
An additional way to decrease changes in the aspect ratio of the original design
relies on eliminating as many passes as possible, by eliminating design rows with “no color” out of the color change rotations.
The color changes in continuing identical sequences vs skipping any one of the colors from the rotation when not in use:  The 11X60 repeat is now to 11X48  its companion with every other second row of black cells erased.  Both create the need to track what color to use and when. If the machine or software cannot provide prompts and reminders, a spreadsheet is easy and quick to create, listing colors and corresponding row counts:  Tracking those shifting color changes is more than my bandwidth and patience allow.
As I was working on this post, a friend asked about the separations for 3 color designs in the StitchWorld Pattern Book #3.
I randomly chose # 484, with the swatch pictured on p 57 and the design separation repeat found on pp 96-98. The shortest segment can be quickly converted to a knittable 140X50 PNG. Other factors to be considered and examined:
the color-changing sequences are provided on each side.
Each design row appears different from the row below it, raising the question as to whether each color is knitted only once.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese electronic machines automates that option when only 2 colors are used.
Passap E6000 users have a programmable reader technique that accomplishes the same for 3 and 4 colors.  This SW III segment is for rows 521-570, p98, with two more full pages in the pub beginning on p 96 with rows 1-260, and p 97 with rows 261-520.
Gimp Guides were placed on a screengrab of the file and it appeared each number was associated with 2 design rows.  The color numbers are not in fixed sequences and differ on each side, as seen in this magnified view.  Found when browsing through the SW III pub for added clues: the fair isle section symbols are suggestive of the CK35 Brother semi-industrial machine, produced in small numbers decades ago. The CK 35 has a color changer on each side.  From the manual regarding their use:  If the files are intended for the CK 35, additional information is needed for emulating or adapting them for use on home knitting models, not always possible.
The same is often true when traveling between machine brands manufactured in different countries.
DAK owners can use Method E jacquard separation for machines with a color changer on each side, like the Brother CK 35. According to the manual, the process works on pairs of rows and separates each row into a pass with each color.  A sample separation with no error messages when the 6X6 file is opened.   DIY for the same separation:
The 6X18 repeat opened in Gimp, using a single-pixel pencil to fill in all except the color for that row with white.  Using the custom brushes and bucket-fill with the pattern, begin with isolating the red color, retaining the white background,  repeat to leave the isolated green exposed, and convert the magenta color from the brush to alpha repeat with the isolated blue,   in two steps, copy and paste the green and white on alpha and the blue and white on alpha on the red-on-white ground image, the tricolor final result, which matches the result from the pencil color replacements, is then rendered in BW for knitting. The last DAK Method F is referred to as suitable for Half Milano. It is directly translatable for use in the Japanese models.  The corresponding separations for both the 6X6 and its elongated sibling, 6X12 The 36-row repeat was quite different from mine, but a knitting test resulted in a matching result while trying out the 11X10 design resulted in obvious patterning fails, likely because the repeat is not an even number of pixels in width.
The arrow points to operator error when I failed to notice the color changer was carrying 2 colors instead of one. It is possible to superimpose final repeats on each other to look for errors and differences. The DBJ separation was repeated in DAK with the same results, it would appear the separation is not accurate when working with a stp that is an uneven number of pixels in width.

Small to large repeat figurative designs inspired by filet crochet charts

Reducing figurative designs to repeats for knitting on a low needle counts results in loss of definition.
Filet crochet charts can serve as a starting point for repeats, but usually are planned on  more than equivalent 24 stitch counts, so results of adapting them are often usable on electronic machine models only.
The knitting technique used to execute the design determines whether the lengthwise aspect ratio is affected or not.
1: the source image
2: processed using Mac Numbers
3: opened in Gimp
4: the grid color can be altered to view and match stitch counts
5: the color reversed image to visualize the possible appearance of doing so in the knit
6: a small border frame is added, bringing the figure color to the edges of the knit piece, and the figure is mirrored, helping to make a choice about its orientation on the the knit side  Depending on the model machine used, the motif may appear as drawn on the purl or on the knit side, mirroring it when direction matters may be done using machine settings or mirroring before download.
On my 930 mirroring was not necessary, the swatch was knit on 40 stitches, with the added frame.
The figure alone, 35X72 pixels shown on 6X6 grid blocksA DBJ swatch with birdseye backing  A sitting companion, inspired by random Pinterest find, processed using ArahPaint, not knit tested, 49X65 pixels   shown on a 5X5 pixel grid  Graduating to pillow or blanket size, a bit of romance in advance of February, from a Priscilla Filet Crochet book, the original was in a nearly oval format.
A border was added to complete the original to full oval shape,
black pixels were added to complete the inner shape, and the BW image was extracted and saved.
Working in RGB mode, the border needs to be adjusted for symmetry, not fully complete here, and bucket pattern fill may be used to customize it or any frame the 117X154 modified oval chart and png color inverted 107X154 for DIY modifications to other shapes  A 137X184 RGB version with editable border  Mythological inspiration from a Priscilla source
A: the original
B: processed with GIMP
C: processed with Arah the final png chart, with some pixels removed  and the 118X54 png  A 142X81 pixel version that includes a border From previous posts:
74X54 Celtic design
43X53 squirrel  This image is not from a filet crochet chart but from one of my Studio 560 mylar sheets dating back decades. It is used to illustrate the possibility of mirroring in different directions to produce far larger designs ie wall hanging or blankets.
Alone it could serve as a scarf, with the image rotated and perhaps even mirrored at the opposite end of the scarf to match directions when draped around the neck The 60X50 cell repeat It takes a few clicks of a mouse and a couple of program windows nowadays to make the addition of single cells at the top, bottom, or sides of such large designs that avoid tiling intersections with double cells if that is the goal.
It is also easy to manipulate the chosen designs to visualize the appearance of a final piece. Printing the pixelated results in a larger format can aid informed choices before any actual knitting.
Adding a single cell blank column on the right, and one with a few pixels on the bottom a blank row on the top, 61X52 in a 122X104 repeat that with coordinated borders could approach the use of most of the needle bed with the initial shape mirrored horizontally and then drawn in repeat a column with double pixels appears again at the center of the design staying with that, but making shapes go around

Long stitch Passap and Brother DBJ design using thick and thin yarns

In browsing through old photos I came across one of this swatch knit on the Passap eons ago, in a slightly textured unknown fiber, and a thin white one on a small cone with lost fiber markings.  The find led me to attempt a similar knit using my 930.
The flower image # 1228 is usable as published in variations for single bed knitting on the Passap ie using Tech 179,  or on the Japanese knitting machines using the built-in KRC separation for 2-colors DBJ.
The double bed fair-isle techniques on the Passap use a default color separation where each color in each design row knits twice.
The console performs the separation, but to achieve the same result in Brother models, the manual color separation can be performed using Gimp without any other software.
A: the chosen file, 20X20B: scaled in length X2, to 20X40
C: color inverting every other row beginning with an all-white pixel row D:  scaling the file X2 in length to 20X80choosing a black row start planned in the background color by color inverting the png  E: taking into consideration that the planned DBJ settings will elongate the design, the 20X80 file is scaled in width X2 to 40X80   Knitting the swatch:
the thin white yarn simply refused to knit on the 930 without breaking. The problem can sometimes be solved by adding a second thread, which in this case, is a 3,000-yard monofilament serger thread, both are hard to see and slippery.
The way the yarn is picked up and carried varies with the knitting machine models’ color changers.
The yarn when using the Brother double bed color changer is picked up and swapped out in the ribber arm,  while in Passap models, the colors are threaded into individual feeding eyelets which are swapped out in any sequence needed in the front lock.  Some of the yarn-feeding issues in small or large cones can be solved by “putting a sock” on the cones, no matter their size. The manufacturer sometimes supplies the latter, but DIY versions can be segments of pantyhose, foam sleeves used to protect some of the exotic fruits in supermarkets, covers for flowers until they are used in arrangements, and at times simply a plastic bag.
My arrangement, with the threads on top of the machine table, and fed through the same side of the yarn mast.  The first preselection row is from right to left
The ribber is set to knit in both directions throughout
The first and last needles are in work on the ribber
Colors are changed every two rows
The backing will be striped, with each color knitting for 2 rows, referred to as striper backing in many pubs.
Pattern knitting begins COL, set the knit carriage to slip in both directions
The proof of concept: The matching technique using the settings for knitting (N) on the back lock and slip (LX) on the front lock, for striper backing is 183: knit on 30 stitches, but less than full repeat in height.
With some understanding of the pattern selection method for the front lock, different Technique numbers may be used for the same knit result simply by changing pusher arrangements and lock settings on either or even both beds.
This test was knit on 30 stitches and for 100 rows after changing the ground yarn, adjusting the tension, and programming Tech 180, but disregarding the pusher set up for the back bed, and setting the back lock to N The fabric is stable and reversible with interesting peek-through that reminded me of drop stitch lace.

Blistered dbj 3

Names referring to the same knit fabric can vary between machine manuals for specific models and brands or references in books, magazines, and articles depending on the dates they were published.
My earlier share on the topic:
Blistered stitches dbj 1
Blistered DBJ 2 and technique variations on a single repeat, introduced some of the concepts involved.
Beginning with any random published repeat can offer the start of exploring a range of fabrics. This was a Pinterest punchcard share, markings indicate it was intended for Brother machines  Methods for obtaining color separations for specific knits have been discussed in other posts.
Brother models can use the cam buttons to perform a function in one direction only, ie by using only one tuck or slip button, the machine will knit when the carriage reverses movement to the opposite side.
Developing specific color separations makes the files usable on other machine brands and models, makes it easier to return to specific rows in error corrections, and is my personal preference in test swatching and complete pieces.
Drawing the initial design in repeat provides a visualization of the resulting secondary shapes and the number of needles required for tiled variations in finished pieces based on gauge.
The first design is intended for use in every needle rib, with the knit carriage knitting in one direction, and using slip or even tuck in the opposite direction.
The 24X32 design extracted from the inspiration punchcard  A: the rendering scaling the design twice in length
B: making the choice to color invert it in planning slipped stitches on the larger number of white pixels
C: superimposing black lines on every other row beginning with row 2 A quick review of the steps involved in working with Gimp:
begin with magnification for easy viewing, ie. 800X, view grid if preferred
the starting brush can be as small as this 2-pixel   select it and save it to the clipboard by choosing copy visible, making it available to bucket fill images, or export the same design as a .pat file and save it in the appropriate settings folder for future use.  A: the original design repeat rendered in black and white
B: layer, transparency, color white to alpha
C: file, new, white ground, matching size, filled with a pattern of pairs of horizontal all-white pixel rows beginning with white on row one, followed by all-black pixel rows on row 2
D: copy B and paste it on C, and export the file as png The chosen repeat may not be color reversed after programming it using the machine’s built-in electronic functions.
White pixels slip, stitches on the main bed in non-selected areas would not knit off for extended periods ie where red marks occur, and noticeable problems would develop quickly Beginning proofs of concept for this version, 24X64  knit on 60 stitches using it drawn in repeat X3, 72X64, and programmed as a single motif  The result is a very subtle contrast lacey knit The yarn thickness and color were changed. The pattern begins using the slip setting and transitions to tuck, also in only one direction. Because the ribber is knitting every stitch between stitches on the top bed holding side-by-side loops down, tucking on multiple side-by-side needles can be performed,  producing a wider, stretchy knit that also lies flat.  True blisters/pintucks generally knit rows on the top bed alone forming pockets that are eventually sealed by all knit rows.
Slip stitch settings are used.
The design is at first lengthened X5, then every 5th row is filled with black pixels or punched holes.
A begins in smaller groups of gathers, testing for any errors or problems, while B allows for deeper folds. A: the mark shows the stitches on the top bed begin to slip far too many rows
due to using the color reverse option in the 930 before continuing to knit.  With a switch to the blue yarn, all-knit spaces between the pockets now begin to appear gathered. Slip stitch results in narrower knits, noticeable in the ruffled effects on every needle rib above the cast ons B: the extra row of slipped stitches result in a far more textured knit   Developing other layouts for the same design, brick 24X128   half drop 48X64 Eliminating unwanted extra stitches from the original, modified to 24X28 pixels drawn in repeat to 144X168 brick version 24X56 half drop 48X28  adding those all knit rows  Viewing repeat alignments  The 24X112 brick repeat suitable for punchcards, not tested,   and the half drop, 48X56  tested using a 10/2 cotton and lightly steamed and pressed. Knit on 80 stitches, it measures 17 inches in width and 11 in height.
an attempt at a more detailed look  

 

Passap to Brother 6, exploring a possible tuck stitch design

This post has been prompted by a recent Ravelry query with respect to having had disappointing results when attempting to knit # 1301 from the Passap Pattern Book as a double-bed fantasy fair isle using a Brother model machine.  Machine knitters using Japanese model machines are familiar with some tuck rules ie. white pixels/ unpunched squares that form tuck loops, should have a black pixel/ punched hole on each side of them and not occur vertically for more than 4 rows in order for stitches to knit off and form properly.
Tuck punchcards illustrated in Brother Volume #5 on pp 218 and 219 include a few exceptions to those rules such as #786  Looking at the reference design in the Passap Pattern book, it is used as a background motif only, not as a tuck one, and rotated using console commands.  When uncertain as to whether a design repeat is appropriate for a specific stitch type, begin with a limited-size swatch, a thin and familiar yarn, knit slowly, and listen to the sounds the machine produces, which can be early warnings of potential problems.
The Passap motif issues in terms of tuck knitting analyzed on the first look: there are pairs of blank cells side by side, repeating vertically, and combined throughout The first test is knit in acetate of unknown thickness, the guess is around 2/18. The 40-stitch swatch measures 6 inches in width, with transitions from and back to stocking stitch horizontal borders, and with the body knit on the single bed with the carriage cams set for tucking in both directions.    The unaltered repeat may be used double bed, resulting in 8 inches in width, with lots of stretch, and the potential to increase the measurement even more with blocking.
A: transitioning from stocking stitch to every needle rib without added steps will form eyelets
the knit carriage is then set to tuck in both directions, and the ribber carriage is set to knit in both
B: a return to every needle rib before scrapping off The chart on the left illustrates possible cam variations for knit and ribber beds using tuck settings in Brother machines.
Color separation is required to knit the design using two colors.
In the Passap electronic models, a technique number is entered and the appropriate color separation is performed by the console.
Many results as in this case, rely on each color in each design row being knit twice.
In Brother knitting, other methods need to be used in order to obtain the necessary separation.
The fabric though technically knit as dbj, will begin with the first preselection row from right to left toward the color changer as opposed to from left to right when the built-in electronic KRC separation is used.
Punchcard users can produce the same fabrics if 24 stitch width constraints are met.
The png for the repeat on the right is shared below, and tested using the cam settings 4:   The results using other cam settings can be mixed, and generally far more successful using designs with larger shapes forming design and ground.
Using tubular tuck, 2  the knit results become muddied, as seen at the top of this test

Some previous blog posts exploring motifs worked on the double bed using tuck cam settings on either or both beds:
More shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck patterning, fantasy fair isle 
Lace transfers meet fisherman rib, 2 colors, brioche on Brother KM
Lace transfers meet fisherman rib in 2 colors, brioche on Brother KM 1 
Geometric shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck stitches 3
Geometric shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck stitches 2; knitting with 4 carriages
Geometric shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck stitches 1 
Ribber fabrics with main bed tuck patterning 1/ pick rib 
Fisherman and English tuck stitch rib 1_ checks patterns_ Brother, Passap
A different way to bend rules is to use multiple heights of row repeats within a single design, such as in this densely 24X20 tuck stitch design Drawn-in-repeat to 120X120 pixels  The design would need to be color reversed for use in electronic tuck knitting Punchcard users must punch all the black cells  Using thin yarn is best with lots of evenly distributed weight, watch for loops getting hung up on gate pegs  
Eliminating one row of blank squares where there are 5 in a row, reduces the repeat to 24X16  The result produces a similar texture. In this test swatch the number of stitches used was planned to attain similar side edges, and end needle selection was canceled

Blistered DBJ 2 and technique variations on a single repeat

Blistered stitches DBJ began to explore some variations for the production of easy knits which resulted in pockets separated by areas of joined stitches, and depending on the design and whether one bed knits more stitches and rows than the other, can make the surface appear 3D to varying degrees.
There are several things to consider in DIY designs.
In my recent browsing and being inspired by “The curse of truchet tiles”, this png was one of the resulting repeats, developed using ArahPaint.  It is larger than any previously tested with this technique.
Beginning with a 36X36 file drawn in test alignment to 108X108,    expanding the design through a diagonal choice into a 72X36 repeat  Large repeats require large swatches if gauge matters, but smaller tests serve well to evaluate tension and cam settings. It is a good idea to be consistent in yarn choice.
Thinking things through:
the white pixel areas will produce the pockets, separating from the ground, and the black pixel areas will compose the joined portions of knit.
To increase the effect, the height of those black pixel areas is reduced by changing their configuration in order to use the slip stitch setting to shorten them.
The first pattern fill requires doubling the height of the whole repeat in order to use the file in a tubular setting.  Rather than doubling the file in height, this brush is used to fill the same black pixel areas. After a few pixel cleanups, this is the final repeat, The png was tiled to the number of stitches planned, with the addition of a knit stitch border along each vertical side and knit on 88 stitches for proof of concept.
End needle selection is on.
The carriages are set to slip in opposite directions, in either arrangement A or B. In one-color knitting starting preselection side does not matter.
The tension used, since so many stitches will be knitting on alternate beds, needs to approach that used for the same yarn when knitting stocking stitches.
The red yarn stitches mark the knit side of the fabric.
The cotton ball illustrates the formation of pockets.
The color change happened when the first cone of yarn ran out.
The yarns are 2/28 Italian imports of nonspecified fiber content.
The piece measures 10.5 inches in width.
When the settings are changed from tubular to every needle rib, the fabric is considerably wider and ruffles as seen at the top and bottom of the swatch, which could become a planned design feature. A segment was cropped from the 72X36 drawn once more in repeat to 84X72, repeating the same steps for processing the file alignment check If the plan is to evaluate the effect of tuck stitch on the design, to begin with, the file needs to be color reversed, whether in the drawn png or using machine settings Exploring results with the ribber set to knit in on every row, the swatch below the red line was produced with the knit carriage set to knit in one direction, tuck in the other, while in the remainder the knit carriage set to tuck in both directions. The areas that in slip stitch would form pockets knit in every needle rib, while tuck stitch segments produce a lacy effect.  The same design, using the png created prior to color reverse, set for tubular slip stitch the transition between the changes in knit carriage cam settings results in changes in textures and added width The full tuck section (bottom) measures 16 inches in width, and the slip-stitch one (top) measures 11.5 inches.
Trying for a half-cardigan repeat with the same yarn produced an extremely wide knit with no discernible design.
Tired of double-bed knitting and swatches in a single color and large enough to cover pillows? the starting image reduced in size X4 to 21X18 pixels opens a new series of opportunities for knitting including on the single bed.  The design, knit here as DBJ, uses the built-in KRC color separation. At the bottom, the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. The ribber uses the birdseye setting in both directions with the addition of lili buttons.
At the top, the knit carriage setting remains unchanged, and the ribber is set to knit in both directions, for a striper backing. The tension remained unchanged. The image illustrates the difference in the aspect ratio of the design and the height and width produced by the respective settings. The same design knit as single bed fair isle produces problematic floats on the reverse which would need to be anchored down in a wearable. When knitting fair isle end needle selection is used to keep the yarn in the B feeder anchored so as to prevent any separations along the vertical edges of the design.
Here the light color is 2/8 wool. The yarn in the B feeder is switched to a 2/24 random contrasting color, and the knit carriage is set for thread lace. The white pixels knit both yarns together. Programming a blank row and knitting 2 yarns in this manner is considered by some an alternative to using the plaiting feeder.
End needle selection is canceled. If needles are brought forward, push at least one back to B so the combined yarns knit. In a long piece, a repeat in the width of the planned number of stitches could be planned with one or two blank pixel borders on vertical sides.
Due to the contrast in yarn thickness, the thin yarn creates large stitches that bulge in areas where it knits with the thicker yarn floating behind it, and the areas with combined yarns recede.
The areas in double thickness secure the yarn that produces floats, so that the latter may be trimmed on the purl side, leaving cut ends in any length. When cutting floats, consider sliding something under them and the thin knit so as to avoid cutting it as well, the fabric will release and flatten. Using elastic, the background yarn used needs to be thinner, here a 2/20. The repeat program is left unchanged, but the position of the yarns is swapped so the elastic/ “thin” is placed in feeder A and the white/ “thick” in feeder B. There is a considerable change in size, observable at the top of the previous images.   Aiming for float control, the repeat is edited.  A test of the 18X9 repeat using the fair isle setting measures 6.5 inches in width,   while the same stitch repeat knit using elastic and the thread lace setting adjustments once more, measures just under 2.5 inches in width 

Developing tiled repeats suitable for multiple stitch types, including tuck

Punchcard machine users have limitations in terms of repeat width, depending on the brand and age of the machine. Those numbers might vary from 8 to 12, 18, 30, and 40, with a 24-stitch width eventually becoming the most frequent.
When electronic machines were first released decades ago, multiple built-in functions allowed one to manipulate programmed repeats. The latter were drawn with electronic pencils (Studio) or far more often with permanent jet-black ink on mylar sheets or “cards”. Passap at one point developed the initial Wincrea version with a very short dongle for downloading designs to the console away from the knitting bed.
Brother was the first manufacturer to allow programming multiple repeats on a single mylar sheet. It took Studio some time to play catch up to eliminate all the potentially wasted space on them.
Both brands used mylars with 60 rectangular cells in width by 150 in height.
Variation buttons for the Brother 910, for those not familiar with its options.  Building up a simple angular repeat can easily be done freehand filling in pixels, or with the use of the straight line tool in ArahPaint.  The 12-stitch design may be mirrored and rotated in a variety of directions. For use in a punchcard, this may be done once in width, and three times in height to meet the minimum length requirement.
It is not necessary when drawing to use only black and white to start with, though if the goal is ultimately to produce a programmable bmp or png, the final images need to be in those 2 colors.
It is easier to produce a design filling in fewer squares in lesser density and then to color reverse the results if that is required for the specific stitch type.
A: using horizontal and vertical mirroring yields the start of a diamond shape. Punchcard users may find it easier to mark the dark squares and punch everything else if the goal is to use the tuck stitch setting or to have a card “safe for everything”
B: checking alignment by tiling the file
C: if the intended goal is tuck stitch, and the minimum information is drawn in the design, then the repeat must be color reversed, whether in the program used to create the file or by selecting the built-in function in an electronic after download.
D: the color reverse image tiled, may be suitable for some interesting fair isle striping or exchanges of positive/negative spaces at the intersection of any of those rows where the double-height or double-width markings occur.
Red cells indicate two side-by-side unpunched holes or unmarked pixels. In theory, this breaks the tuck rule requiring a knit stitch/ unpunched hole or black pixel on either side of an unpunched area/white pixel, but it likely will be fine, producing something that looks more like a slipped stitch than a tuck.
The double-height areas marked in green would be a problem if one were to test the repeat by doubling its length, with a compounded issue in those areas where tuck stitches would then happen on side-by-side needles for 4 consecutive rows.
Usable with some care for knit weaving, slip stitch, and other stitch types. Results are not discovered unless actually tested.
Keep good notes. Breaking the design into segments to knit as a striped fair isle ie in these 4 places Variations are easier to imagine if one begins with colored repeat segments that can, in addition, be varied using color exchanges to resemble approximate yarn colors. Instructions on color banding using ArahPaint follow at post bottom. In the last post, the same image was mirrored using ArahPaint  The result is a 23X23 pixel design.
Any incrementally larger repeats would require the same operations, using the mirror X-1 and Y-1 options to avoid any side-by-side equal cells, but the process is easier with some understanding of isolating repeats. When the 23-stitch file has been formed, manually trim one pixel along the bottom or top row, and one along either the left or right side, down to 22X22 pixels tested in B/W repeat and here color inverted it is executable in double length thus offering the opportunity for color changing every 2 rows, testing the possibility of its morphing into a mosaic/maze design, remembering first to color reverse the repeat as given here,  which in turn yields a file that may be knit with color changes every 2 rows, a technique that can produce maze/mosaic designs with an appearance very different from the same pattern knit as fair isle.
In this swatch, 2/20 wool yarns were used. This results in a knit that can be steamed to stay flat.
The variations in the amount of tucked stitches and their placement expand in some areas more than others yielding wavy vertical side edges.
The striping occurred to enhance the visibility of stitch formations on the machine, but can be a deliberate way to add even more colors to such pieces. The same design, knit in 2/8 wool, begins to show that a pattern may produce very different effects with a simple change in materials or color choice Working outside straight lines and exploring random starts: the post Working with diagonal patterning in machine knitting introduced several larger initial repeats also suitable for tuck patterning when reversed, including this 12X24 pixel design,    and the companion larger file, 144X144 pixels The larger file can serve as the start for exploring knit pattern variations through the use of filters.
Beginning with zig-zag, the description from the ArahPaint manual:
the Zigzag filter creates a zigzag from the image. The number of zigzags depends on the setting of the filter option (X, Y, and Value) and the direction (Horizontal, Vertical, or a combination of both).
X: determines the number of zigzags up and down, the number should be an even number ie. 144 divided by 12 would create 12 peaks
Y: creates the vertical direction of peaks
Value: set to 0 the whole image height is taken as amplitude
The variations can be endless, and exploring changes in settings will help develop a sense of what happens. The larger scale results may at times be reduced to a significantly smaller working repeat. Tools/Find Repeat often but not always will do that seamlessly.
The manual offers instructions for manipulating vertical bands of color. Such variants could be knit as intarsia or multiple colors per row, with limitations and considerations.
This 4X4, vertical repeat, tiled to 12X12 color reversed for tuck knitting drawn in repeat and filtered is knittable, but not interesting to me. The result, shown tiled for clarity Moving away from straight lines, these initial experiments employed limited variations. The red X mark marks the repeat suitable only for fair isle knitting Choosing individual results to knit in tuck stitch, in review: the smallest repeats may be isolated and pixels cleaned up if preferred, remembering to color reverse when needed. This 24X24 repeat is suitable for punchcard models with the black pixels areas punched. Testing is far easier and quicker using electronic machines, do not use double length The design is asymmetric, subject to personal preference, and as usual, with results dependent on yarn and color choice.
The yarn used at the top of the photo is a wool-rayon, knit single bed. It was hard to identify stitch formations, hence the swatch was short in height for a visual texture check. Because of the rayon content, all edges steam and press fairly flat.
The other yarn is all wool, knit in every needle rib with the knit carriage set to tuck in both directions, and the ribber carriage set to knit in both.
This type of knit is often referred to as pick rib. Depending on the tuck stitch distribution, the stitches are forced apart vertically and can produce an eyelet effect in a fabric that lies quite flat. A closer look at approximately the same part of the ribbed fabric.   A 58X16 file after some cleanup and cropping of one of the other variations is to be color-reversed for use with the tuck setting. Depending on the thickness of the yarn, double length may be used safely for added texture.  The swatch illustrates the difference between fair isle knitting and tuck stitch, even when the tension used in the knit carriage remains fixed. Fair isle is in the slip stitch family, so it is short and narrow, while tuck stitch tends to be short and wide. It is usually recommended that fair isle floats be no wider than 5 pixels. Many here break that rule and would need to be managed if the design were to be used in a finished garment.  This segmented and cropped to 17X144 pixelsMirrored X-1, 33X144 pixels I like to plan repeats for any intended piece when possible in a width matching the number of needles in use, which allows programming as single-motif in the 930 with img2track and eliminates the need to turn on other built-in functions or assign needle positions. Doing so also offers the opportunity to add borders if desired.
A 99X144 version was programmed, and the central 71 stitch width was tested, likely suitable for an accessory ie a scarf  Those side-by-side white pixels are “OK” since they are in turn sided by black pixels and do not repeat for more than 2 rows.
At some point, one needs to commit to actual knitting. The first proof of concept swatch was knit in a softly spun, shiny rayon that had a slight tendency to split during knitting and steams and sets nearly completely flat.  This swatch is knit using a 2/8 wool, retains its texture after steaming and pressing, and exhibits the usual roll to the knit side at the top and bottom of the piece, and to the purl side along the vertical side edges. The variations in the 3D surface that can happen with some tuck patterns appear here and are retained.   Restricted use images may also be built from scratch.
Large published illusion-style designs even if beginning as black and white when scaled down in size can lose definition as a result rendering them speckled, needing a lot of pixel cleanup, or completely unusable.
This first attempted DIY version begins with a 31X31 repeat. The odd number allows for a corner-to-corner start. The lines are drawn using the straight line tool, with pencil size alternating between one and 2 pixels Using mirror X-1, Y -1 to 61X61 trimming by a single pixel and width and height for routine tiling avoids lots of doubled pixels. The final repeat, with small single pixels placement edits, is now 60X60  repeated in height only it could be used for perhaps a scarf, with or without solid borders at the bottom, top, and sides.   Drawn in repeat X3 in both X and Y directions it produces a 180X180 file large enough for a blanket, with a bit of wiggle room to add a narrow solid color frame if desired.      The design may be knit as fair isle for a quick initial test or for a final piece since the floats are all very short or knit as DBJ to produce a no-roll final fabric without floats.
In this test, softly spun rayon and heathery wool were used, resulting in a surprising color mix when compared to their original colors. There were a few spots where the rayon fiber split and knit with the contrast. The end needle selection was off, so there are tiny eyelets in some places where the contrast was not knit on the side edge, and the fabric separates a bit.  A variation for a different vertical repeat can easily be isolated from tiled drawings. This additional sample was also knit as a fair isle, with end needle selection on. Suitable for punchcard knitting: a 12-stitch simple geometric repeat visualized X12 modified using drawing X12 in random repeat for electronic machines.  An 18-stitch repeat visualized X 9 modified using random   A 24-stitch repeat accomplishes an optical illusion of sorts. If only it would work for creating origami-style pleats!
A recent Ravelry query prompted these designs, 22×22

22X3066X60

44X54Adding colors to black and white pngs following the tip by the developer in the post comments:
Choose a black-and-white repeat, in this case, a 36X9 pixel repeat  Double-click on one of the two colors to protect/lock it Double-click on it again, and the lock disappears, the color is no longer protected.
In the palette, use + to add a new color, this may be repeated more than once to add more colors or go to colors, set the number of colors to a number, ie. 6, for a random palette group that may, in turn, be edited to other values.   Double-click on the rectangle tool to draw filled rectangles  In rectangle options, above the palette icon, there are toggle buttons for Horizontal and Vertical, remember to protect a color  Once your selection is made, draw the filled rectangle across a selected width and height while keeping the protected color intact. Draw the result in repeat to check for alignment the protected color may be toggled to white  If the designs are to be programmed for multiple color slip stitch or DBJ there are rules to be observed, and there may be restrictions on whether each palette color will be recognized as a third or fourth color by the download program ie. when using Ayab, where no two colors may occur in the same range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, the ranges would be 0-63, 64-127, 128-195, and 196-255.
The img2track partial window with the associated color assignments for the first vertical variation.  The horizontal choice allows one to play with selections possibly matching yarn colors in fair isle knitting,          only 2 colors per row may be used, here the A feeder yarn remains fixed Remember to unlock the previous color choice if protecting new segment selections.
Visualizing possible FI striping results in progress 

More Truchet inspired tiles, a brief look at gradient filter use


The latest ArahPaint user manual download,  updated on February 9, 2023, includes added directions for drawing in repeat including a truchet/Smith tile variant.
This post will not provide specific how-tos, the pngs can be downloaded and used to perhaps test Arah’s features or to aid in finding a personal, preferred method for manipulating DIY designs.

There are additional Arahpaint options for altering designs in width and height which may be used progressively on the same image. Some in the group of edits and rotations are evocative of the Passap console’s Alter programming loop.   Lower in the same menu, diagonal mirroring opens yet another series of possibilities. These samples were produced in a Passap workshop, using the console Alter, add commands. Note that mirrored areas have identical pairs of side-by-side pixels at their meeting points,  while ArahPaint offers an opportunity to change that, a thing to keep in mind when returning to simpler motifs such as those used for tuck stitch. Performing the rotations, however, will render the result with an odd number of pixels in width, often making them less likely to be usable in punchcard models  My area of interest has been primarily and still is in creating textures beginning with small repeats that may grow in complexity and size to make the structures programmable and thus easier to track and execute.
Presently I rarely engage in multiple color motif work ie fair isle or other large-scale textile pattern applications but my curiosity in applied techniques has led me down this potential giant rabbit hole.
The speed and ease of drawing variations for repeats using ArahPaint make the process addictive.
The source of inspiration for this design series is “The curse of truchet tiles”.
When recognizable circles are a goal, these tiled motifs often begin with starting sizes as wide as the 24-stitch standard punchcard repeat limitation, and the manipulated larger motifs are suitable only for electronic machine models capable of accepting software downloads. Adding lines and extra dots of circles
Isolating fractions and individually rotating segments to draw again rendering larger repeats More info on knitting DBJ using more than 2 colors per row:
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3 3/22
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once 1/21
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   12/19
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1
12/19

Adding one more color to the last repeat whole planning a knitting a test at a max of 3 colors per row knittable in a single track 
The img2track window Positions of the respective yarns in the color changer as suggested by the program result in accuracy prompts by the machine on which of the respective colors should be in use at any one time.  Planning gauge-dependent pieces using large repeats requires large test swatches, generally a minimum of 100 stitches by 100 rows.
Adding and varying the colors in the design draft to match the yarns to be used in the repeat helps to visualize the possible result, and allows for using the sequence suggested by the download program to help track the proper color changes.
The test here is 60 stitches wide, knit one full repeat in height, measuring 7.5 inches in width by 11.75 inches in height after resting. On rows where the colors for the dots and squiggles may knit in small parts or not at all, there will be a preselection of large groups of needles such as seen here.  Birdseye setting is used to decrease motif lengthening. The img2track user manual describes the steps necessary for downloading to different model knitting machines and possibly using more than single tracks. A series inspired by another of the tiles in the linked publication   
Similar to one of the source repeats, increasing the balance between light and dark Open areas or specific rotations in the visual space may be created by eliminating or rotating individual segments.
To change the mirroring type, place a mouse pointer over the arrow that you want to change, and press the left mouse button. The arrow will jump to the next mirror type. With only 5 mirror types, you will get what you want in a maximum of 4 clicks. If you press the right mouse button, it will put the arrow to the default orientation. The result of course is dependent on the original file choice. Combining duplicating repeat variations with drawing in repeat helps one develop a DIY library of favored tilings. Begin with a possible background Tools/ Find Repeat  Aiming for knot variations, a cross-over to add to segments of the ground, manipulating individual tiles, adding copy and paste More play with manual duplication of tiles as opposed to drawing in repeat Combining different scale repeat segments, starting with 54X36 pixels  And it’s not all about just circles, a 36X36 pixel design to play with A reminder, if the plan is to add color in continuous lines, it is best to place the colors after the full design repeat has been developed rather than on the individual starting tile segments, For some, this would be considered a design feature.  A very different look may be achieved using any of the available filters. A square image of any size may be filled with a color gradient while keeping in mind the fact that knitting is very low resolution and the maximum number of available needles for patterning is 200 or under.
Beginning with a 20-stitch file. Below the software tool options on the right, click on the tool in the area marked with the red shape to produce a design that may then in turn be drawn in repeat No edges were cleaned up in this view. The design meets the maximum 200 pixels/needles size Going larger, an 80-pixel start to end with a 160-pixel blanket or tapestry suitable image with some wiggle room for adding a frame/border. The concept may be used in various densities for use in an accessory such as a scarf, spaced and colored to your liking, or even sweater bodies and sleeves planned specifically based on stitch and row counts for each of the pieces involved. Filters may also be applied in developing other stitch structures in addition to working with color motif designs. That topic merits its own post.

A “fast pattern” user guide shared by the ArahPaint 6 developer October 2023 which demonstrates how to use filters with associated designs https://www.arahne.eu/pdf/fastpattern-EN.pdf

Truchet/Smith inspired designs 2 meet ArahPaint

Added explorations of the Smith tiles.
Most common knitting machines capable of accepting electronic pattern downloads have a number of needles ranging between 180 and 200 on either of the available beds.
Punchcard machines have a 24-stitch constraint in width for repeats that are selected in fixed locations on the top bed, while height row counts can be endless if one keeps joining punchcards together.
The narrow repeat width does not allow for impactful tiling such as seen in the truchet variants.
A 24-stitch initial repeat can be created, but will not align properly ie. here:
the 24X56 png, colored in and repeated in width and height X3. It can, however, be drawn in repeat using ArahPaint to produce a new and successful design repeat ie this 48X112 pixels version and its appearance in repeat on a larger canvas: Electronic machines can be used to knit large, non-repetitive designs based on the number of needles available on their beds.
Unless knit-from-screen software is used, the size of the files downloaded to specific machine models varies depending on both the software used and the knitting machine’s available memory.
One of the issues using online generators as seen in the previous post is that the files tend to be high in pixel counts and rendered in RGB mode.
Changing image modes to BW indexed and scaling the large design to a smaller version have an effect on the edge definition of the shapes and are likely to require clean-up to remove or add pixels.
Beginning with small and clearly defined forms, tiling repeatedly to larger ones will allow for results that can be cropped to specific sizes with clean edges along the secondary shapes.
Beginning the proposed method with the Smith tile, a place to start is to choose the smallest successful circular forms.
The repeat works using quarter squares, so the file size needs to be an even number of pixels in width and height.
Getting a sense of the appearance of the edges of small circular shapes, with the intent of choosing one for fabric development, beginning with an 8-pixel diameter, and increasing it in turn by 2 pixels at a time to 20.  The 8-pixel circle is chosen for this exercise.
Following the steps outlined by the developer in the video viewable on Instagram and Facebook, open a new picture, and set the image size to 8X8 pixels The goal is to create a clean design outline forming shapes that may be filled in to yield the secondary tiling designs.
To zoom in or out in ArahPaint: use Shift+ or – on Mac, click on the magnifying lens icons in the toolbox, use the command key and roll the mouse wheel or scroll along the vertical center line of the mouse, or press any number from 0-9 on the keyboard to change zoom directly to that level (1 means 100%, 6 means 600%, O means 1000%).
In RGB mode even if the shapes are drawn in black, when converted to indexed BW some pixels will be lost. If any lines are broken, control in using the bucket fill tool on only selected areas is lost.
To begin with, set the number of colors and the pencil size to one pixel   Use the draw circle tool, and select drawing from the center Draw a quarter circle starting on the bottom right of the square, and ending in the center of this image. In this case, there will be 4 white pixels on the left of the line, half the diameter of the planned circle. Click on the pencil tool to set the image. Repeat the Process, drawing a mirrored image beginning on the upper left pixel position, and ending in the center of the image as well Open the drawing in the repeat window and set the number of repeats vertically and horizontally, done here first in standard alignmentDo not click on random, select new picture, OK. If satisfied, save the png. Undo may be used to revert to the original file unless new picture was left unchecked.
For the Smith tile repeat, do click on random to apply different rotations of the repeat.
Load the 8X8 file
Zoom out to check the pattern and view changes adequately
Open the draw in repeat window
Click on random, and the proposed rotations will appear as symbols,  click on new picture and then on OK to view the result, a file that will now be 32X48 pixels. The result can be saved. To preview other arrangements:
choose undo, return to draw in repeat, random, preview, and with each repeated click on random a new image will appear on the screen. At any point select a new picture, OK, and save the result.  The final png for test knitting for my test swatch Its segments bucket filled with black  If bucket fill fails selectively and floods the whole image, return to drawing in repeat and click on close. Return to the image and continue the fill-in process.
Developing a larger repeat to select an area of interest while keeping in mind the maximum needle width of 200. This repeat is perhaps usefully cropped to blanket size.  Seeking a shorter and narrower motif for a scarf, in the range of 60 to 100 pixels in width that may not require too many tracks when programming the 930, the same 32X48 design is drawn in repeat X4 in width, X2 in height to 128X96 pixels. The above is split directly in half vertically for this exercise, rendering two files, each composed of 64X96 pixels. The left half,   and the right Checking vertical alignments and committing to the one on the right for the test swatch, knitting on 60 stitches for 120 design rows, using KCI, and starting with dark color from left.    That shape in blue that looks almost rectangular is actually not quite circular in the repeat, seen here color-reversed on the bottom right, with the definition also slightly lost in the knit due to the stitch size and birdseye stitches twist.  Comparing the 3 swatches in scale and shape definition: A tiny repeat formed with a thicker line Drawn in random repeat Dividing shapes into symmetrical segments is easy after configuring grid properties, in this case into thirds 12X12 in repeat adding an outline to change the weight of the lines by a single pixel all over without using more specific options Using the filled in double circle 18X18 repeats drawn in repeat While the definition of true circular shapes may be an issue for some when knitting the Smith variant, others may enjoy variations made by playing with other shapes and angles, here a 16-pixel square was divided into quarters adding a single pixel contour combining quarter circles sith full squares   Building larger repeats with interwoven intersections Playing with adding colors. In many instances when tiles are drawn in repeats requiring rotations of the original file, coloring in needs to be done after the final image has been composed.   Color exchanging fine black outlines to white, or filling the white background with black in order to reduce files for knitting no more than 3 colors per row.  The more complex designs become exponentially larger, require electronic downloads, and must meet the limitations of machine memory. The maximum equivalent for pixel per stitch is 200 pixels in width on 4.5 mm knitting machines, and 180 for Passap, with the possibility of separating the width and length into panels for large pieces ie tapestries, or blankets. Long vertical design segments, depending on their height, may also need to be separated in steps for programming them to produce narrow, long, pieces such as scarves or shawls.
The truchet triangles pose a different issue in knit design.
Quilters are familiar with block designs easily found in print and online that technically may be broken down into triangular blocks joined and meeting to form sharp points. Truchet in his publication used half-square triangles and assigned letters to the segments,   providing alphabetical references in illustrations for the permutations,  all far easier to achieve nowadays with the aid of software.
In ArahPaint, begin with choosing a square size, in this instance, 8 pixels by 8 pixels, matching that in the exercise using circles, and draw a triangle filling the canvas from corner to corner Drawing in repeat, the choice is made to repeat the triangles twice in both width and height, the preview symbols for the rotations of the shape are illustrated pointing in the same direction by default.  Clicking on any of those half-arrow shapes will rotate the specific shape in the tiled design, this becomes an action that may be influenced manually.  Selecting new image will render this,  which illustrates what happens when those triangles are used in knit motif designs. Inevitably, there will be areas where corner pixels meet to join others and the choice will need to be made between using the original or the color-reversed version of the repeat. Designing for a maximum 200-pixel design, the number of available needles on Japanese knitting machines, and continuing with random selections, paste 25 times in each direction, ultimately saving one of the new images:
its color reversed version Deciding on the first, an isolated area can be cropped to be used in an accessory ie a 72-stitch scarf, retaining full triangles, using the full 200-pixel height. Wanting to retain a 96-row max height for use on the 930, what happens when repeats line up vertically?  the isolated 72X96 design The assumption is that any change in vertical simple repeats will line up forming new triangles at the intersections not visually interpreted as patterning errors, the above repeated 3 times in height to 72X288 Committing to a test swatch: the wool ply is 2/13, and the space dyed rayon 20/2 and thinner in appearance. The contrast is not high, to begin with, and since the sample is knit as DBJ, as a result of the difference in yarn thickness the dark color bleeds through behind the lighter, reducing that contrast even further.
The places where the single pixels at the individual shape corners meet other shapes in the repeat can still be easily located.
The sample repeat size is 68X96 pixels, designed to include 2-stitch vertical borders drawn with dark pixels, the knit carriage was set to KCII, which allows the formation of distinct single color edges  Another alternative: beginning with a 9X9 repeat, drawn in repeat to 225X225, shapes do not touch in this rendering,  but do if color-inverted.  Isolating a repeat from the “floating” triangles, 45X81 tiled X3 to 45X243 may look ok but aside from the issue of choosing visually floating shapes vs still touching ones,  the big problem to be considered is the fact that for the machine KRC color separation to happen correctly, the repeat downloaded must be an even number of rows. A workaround may be to double the original height to 162 rows prior to programming it since one cannot use double height and KRC buttons at the same time in many machine models. Pursuing personal preferences can be endless. I am increasingly fond of the repeat that began with the 8X8 square.
Working with quarter-filled segments:  multiplied by 20 in each direction to a 200-pixel repeat. Drawn using random/ preview/ prior to saving the file  Its color reversed view

Truchet tiling design inspiration 1

For many years my knitting of accessories and wearable pieces was my source of income, guided by what pricing the local market would bear, the limitations of mylar sheets or that of an early Passap interface to program repeats, and the amount of time required to complete each piece.
There is practicality and ease in playing with colors using small motifs single-bed, and varying materials and yarn plies allowed me to aim for limited edition designs without looking at identical finished products more than once or occasionally a few times.
At first, Ayab and then img2track changed the playing field in terms of downloading and programming designs.
Eventually, my knitting moved from production pieces for sale to creating samples for my blog almost exclusively.
I have had a long and continued interest in math-based designs, and knit a line of accessories using automata-inspired repeats, often limiting the repeats in size to ones that would align vertically without having to program multiple DBJ segments, reducing the possibility of programming errors in scarves that would often require around 1200 knit rows in length.
A 930 followed the 910, this, knit in July 2021, was my first try at using img2track to download multiple tracks. There are many ways to yield math-based patterns, and nowadays online generators and reference sites abound, making it possible for nongeeks to use the resulting files to create knit suitable designs.
Some recent Truchet tile images shared on Instagram brought me back to exploring math-based images and what by default needs to be executed as larger-scale design motifs in knitting.
Sebastian Truchet was a Carmelite priest whose “Memoir sur les Combinasions” was published in 1704. It is a wealth of patterns built up from a simple motif, which you can see here
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3486m.image.f526.langFR and in which he discussed squares, half black, half white, split into triangles, with four possible orientations for each tile. He was also the inventor of the point system for indicating the sizes of typeface fonts.
His method of tiling by the combination of manipulating four-letter codes, A, B, C, and D, in rotations using triangular shapes inspired new variations in tilings.
Cyril Stanley Smith introduced two alternatives to the basic Truchet tile in 1987. One uses only diagonal lines to create maze-like designs where the coloring is removed and only the boundaries remain. The other, resulting in the designs produced in this post, uses quarter circles that may be filled or used as outlines and rotated to form the final shapes.  Distinctions in naming the tiles are not often made. “Truchet” is the commonly used generic term.
Some articles on the tilings:
Generalizations of truchet tiles, Multiscale Truchet PatternsThe Tiling Patterns of Sebastien Truchet and the Topology of Structural Hierarchy, and More on tiles, fun with portraits.
Basic elements include contrasting triangles,  quarter circles, and diagonal lines.
One may find code for programming DIY in various GitHub links. Python is far beyond my interest or skill, there are many ways to achieve the designs.
Spreadsheets are also programmable, but require the development of formulas.

Developing patterns from online sources, beginning with the Smith variation using quarter circles: the Wolfram site is a computing and math one well worth exploring, the files there are Computable Document Files, a document standard developed by Wolfram Research. They can be saved and opened using the Wolfram CDF Player, which is a standalone application and a Web browser plug-in provided for free.
To preview search results in a browser: https://demonstrations.wolfram.com/TruchetTiles/.
Ad blockers may interfere with proper previews in Safari but appears to not be an issue using Chrome as the browser.
Files cannot be saved from the preview results other than as screengrabs.
What is cdf  
For permanent access to preferred CDFs:
CDF Wolfram player download is available for Mac and Windows, you will be asked to provide an email address.
After the player is installed and opened, click on the central option, and search for your area of interest.  Any demonstration may be saved for future use, most are customizable to varying degrees.
In my first effort, I used colors and left the black outlines. The second, simpler method of editing follows below it.  The swatch png, 58X150, includes 2 stitch vertical borders in the dark color. The machine was set to the built-in KRC color separation for DBJ. Some of the circular shapes have been already edited, but if I were to reuse the repeat, I would clean up more of the design shape edges
160 design rows were knit, measuring 7.5 inches by 20.5.
The dark color is a chenille from an unmarked cone with uncertain yardage. The space-dyed is an 8/2 rayon slub.
Tension was set at 5/5, the knit carriage on KCI, and the ribber using lili buttons for birdseye backing. KCII may be used as well if preferred, the side vertical edges will have a slightly different appearance. Developing an added repeat:
the working file in the cdf is a default 600 by 600 pixels. If the goal is to save a black-and-white downloadable png, the present plan is to fill in portions of the design with black while leaving others in white.
Checking tiling insures continuous designs at any point in the process.
It is possible to directly scale size in the cdf, but the shape outlines become broken in the automatic % reduction, so the filling-in process I suggest fails to be contained. In this exercise, none of the other available parameters were changed. When the player is launched, click on the tile, it will be surrounded by an orange line,  copy the image, and it can then be pasted directly into Gimp.  Change the Image Mode to BW Indexed before proceeding further.
Using the fuzzy select tool click on any area in the design, it will be surrounded by dotted lines select bucket fill, to fill the selected area with black.
Edit, undo will revert to the previous steps in sequence at any point.
If satisfied, select the rectangle tool.
Clicking on the selected area will allow its use for copying and pasting the outlined segment on a new canvas or cropping the area to the selection for saving while clicking anywhere in the Gimp work window fixes the results. The dotted lines disappear. Repeat the process on the remaining image.  The processed file will measure 600X600 pixels.
Anyone working with large-scale images and reducing file size to make them available for knitting as single panels on a standard machine is familiar with the loss of detail and the need for cleanup of edges as incremental decreases in file size are attempted.
Magnifying any of these will help evaluate forms and scaling decisions for final repeats to be used in knit test swatches.
Downloading or copying and pasting them from here for personal use may change the image mode to RGB in the process, check mode and convert them to indexed BW if needed before any further use.
300X300200X200 pixels  150X150 pixels  The proof of concept was knit using the 100X200 repeat without any pixel cleanup.  The blue yarn is a 2/20 wool, and the white is a 2/28 Italian yarn of unspecified fiber content from my stash. Both beds were set at 2/2. The KRC setting separated the colors so each color in each row knits only once, but it takes 2 passes to complete one row, so 100 design rows translate to 200 rows of knitting. In this instance, img2track used on the 930 broke up the design into 2 tracks, a 66-row first track, followed by a 134-row one.
Each track needed to be programmed sequentially.
The ribber was set for birdseye backing, which in this case results in an interesting shadowing of the pattern Comparing the two swatches: Variations in tiles made by changing variable view options will still align when combined, easily producing a range of new designs at merging points. Use guides to help narrow down segments of interest, here they are placed at even 100-pixel intervals on two adjoining 600-pixel images. To remove a single guide after placing it, go to Edit, Undo Add the Horizontal or Vertical Guide. To remove all guides, go to View, and uncheck Show Guides.
And for those not averse to developing any larger motifs from scratch, the limitations of any geometric shape, when reduced to low-resolution knitting, mean the search must begin for what one determines to be a pleasing circular form.     My original circle was placed on a 40X40 grid with outlines every 10 cells, the central circular 20X20 repeat was isolated and split into quarters, in turn generating these 2 tiles out of the 8 total required, also 20X20, with the second the color-reversed image of the first. A similar approach can be used in color to visualize the initial 8 tile repeats and their rotations in order to form new shapes. This technique may be useful in planning floor tile patterns but is cumbersome for developing knit designs. Facilitating and speeding up the process: in my post on using ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design, I briefly touched on the Drawing-in-repeat feature in Arah to produce random tiling.

Thanks to the developer there now is a video, viewable on Instagram and Facebook, on how to use the feature for this type of tile, which allows for very quick DIY versions that can be trimmed as needed for knitting. This is my very first try, a how-to will follow in the next post.   And the second, composed of triangular formsFor spreadsheet users, this one generates the various tiles in Google Sheets and a related article.