“Lace” patterning terms

This post was actually begun in 12/2020, but never published.
A list of blog posts on lace knits may be found by searching for specific topics, or using the lists of related links provided in the “start of an index”.

The term lace is often used in machine knitting publications referring to fabrics created with techniques other than the familiar hand or automated transfers.
In turn, the ribber may be added to working with many of the same patterns, adding varying degrees of complexity.
Some variations are possible only with specific machine brands or model year carriages, but at times may be rendered possible on alternate brands or models with adaptations, hacks, or the addition of other techniques.

This post for the moment is a quick reference guide of associated terms
Hand transfers  used to create eyelets, possibly in combination with stitches out of work,  and moving stitches singly or in groups
Simple lace:  executed with carriages that transfer and knit, seen in Studio brand
Multiple transfers/ fashion/ fancy/ lace: executed with lace carriages that transfer only, Japanese machine models
Fine lace: stitches are shared between needles rather than completely transferred, brand-specific changes need to be made to carriage settings
Lace and fine lace: may be created combined with either simple or multiple transfers lace, stitches are episodically shared between needles rather than completely transferred, brand-specific changes need to be made to carriage settings and will require changing to shift from one type to the other
Variations using L point cams: punchcard machines method for isolating and/or spacing lace motifs or columns
Tuck and lace: transfers combined with tuck stitch patterning
Woven lace: transfer lace combined with the weaving technique
Lace and fair isle: reference in Toyota punchcard pubs
“Lace like patterns”: possible in machines such as Brother and Passap, which allow for the same stitches tucking in one direction, slipping on the return of the knit carriage to its starting side. It matters which function leads in the pattern
Punch/ thread lace: thick and thin yarns used together in machines that have the option of a setting that allows for knitting both yarns together in unpunched areas or blank pixel rows, with traditionally, the thin yarn knitting in the front of the fabric, the thicker floating behind it
Tuck lace: tuck setting in both directions with specific needles out of work
Ladder Lace: worked with columns created by needles left out of work
Punch tuck rib: every needle rib combined with tucking pattern on the knit bed Drive/ drop stitch lace: stitches start on either of the 2 beds, loops are picked up and dropped on the opposite bed
Shadow lace: stitches are moved between beds in pattern to create knit stitches on purl ground or vice versa

DBJ, more than 2 colors per row 4

Revisiting older posts often brings to mind new or slightly different ways of looking at and achieving the same tasks.
Links to some related previous posts:
DAK DBJ color separations, templates, and other software
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 2
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 1
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   img2track
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1

Color separations for knit designs in only 2 colors are more straightforward than those for 3-4 colors.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese models will yield results automatically where each color knits in each design row only once, reducing the elongation in the designs often seen when employing other techniques.
Japanese machine models for home use (not the semi-industrial ones) have a color changer that resides on the left, and aside from whether each color in each row knits once or twice, the combined carriages need to move to and from the color changer on the left for each color selection.
The color-changers for brands differ slightly and matter in cross-brand use if one relies on published separated designs and pictured swatches.
Yarn changers for:
Brother Studio Sometimes the placement of the colors within palettes will result in the colors not being read and downloaded properly.
As described in the Ayab post: when using each color, it is coded in a range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color A; 64-127 color B; 128-195 color C; 196-255 color D.
When only 2 colors are in use, in manual color separations, the ultimate goal is to produce BW-indexed PNGs. They are then downloaded and programmed as one would FI patterns, palette placement is not a concern.
Working in default or limited palettes produces familiar visual clues in DIY, to save custom palettes see ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3 
If the goal is to imagine the results in colorways based on yarns planned for use in the finished piece, that can be easily achieved after the fact.
This design has been used in past posts and is 6 stitches wide; hence, repeated X4 in width will also be suitable for punchcard machines. Looking at it again:
checking alignment when tiled
Stitches on needles not worked on the top bed are held while stitches in the other color(s) knit, and get longer. Some degree of alteration in the aspect ratio in the appearance of the design on the knit side in the final result is to be expected, also influenced by the addition of varied knitting techniques and carriage settings.  Methods I have explored in DIY repeat the same color sequence throughout even when any one of the colors is not represented in that design row: one way to decrease the visual lengthening of designs in dbj is to eliminate a row of knit stitches from each pair of passes by pushing Brother’s preselected needles back to the B position on the top bed before knitting from the right back to the left, thus skipping all needles in work on the top bed.
The HOP separation in Ayab performs this function automatically in addition to shuffling around repeat segments while keeping a fixed color rotation, making repeats that fail with other separation methods knittable.
In images where not all colors are represented on every row, there are more knit rows on the ribber than on the main bed, even with birdseye backing, another added cause of stitch elongation observable on the knit side.
When using birdseye backing, the ribber will knit every other stitch, alternating needles on each pass. An even number of needles is required. Patterning is akin to using a 1X1 card on the knit bed.
By the time the carriages have returned to the left only one row of knitting on every needle will be completed on the ribber.
The setting is not available in every model machine, including very early Brother ones.
When knitting in tuck or slip stitch, stitches grow in length until they are knit off again. This remains true when working in DBJ fabrics as well.
Yarn and tension choices can affect the final appearance.
There will be some degree of bleed-through behind the elongated stitches.
Blocking also influences the final appearance of the completed knit.
Exploring possibilities:
The initial 6X6 file is converted to stp and opened in DAK resulted in the following messages and pattern error corrections A second design was also tested in DAK and yielded the same error messages:  The 6X6 stp doubled in length to 6X12 cells allow for the option of selecting the type of dbj color separations, creating files that can, in turn, become PNGs for working outside the program, and for printing traceable templates for punchcards. That work is achieved through hacks since DAK does not allow direct import or export of file formats other than its proprietary ones ie stps or txt for use with Kniterate.    A closer look at the diagram of the color sequence options in each
The characteristics of the more commonly used methods in review:
Method A
works on pairs of rows, Method B creates the same separation as the default built-in KRC one in Japanese electronics with each color in each design row knitting only once, Method C separates each color row into separate rows of knitting, rows do not have to be repeated in pairs in DIY, and the double-length switch will need to be used in Japanese knitting machines It is possible to generate an output of the separation and to process it to generate files usable in img2track or for printing traceable punchcard templates.
The program does have an option to save a bmp but the save is of the separation on a grid with added data, not as a file immediately usable in other programs. Click on the floppy disk icon outlined in red to save as bmp as an alternative to screengrabs.   Using the same 6X12 file, the generated printable templates and associated converted PNGs:
A B  the repeat here is also for the original lengthened X2, and 36 pixels high with no segments repeated. The essential difference is that the first preselection row is made from left to right, with the pair of rows for color 1, design row 1 split between the top and bottom of the separation.  C

elongated X2=24X72, handy for other knit structures, but not for reducing elongation in DBJ Using img2track set at knitting in 3 colors, there is no error message, but the 6X6 file will not produce the planned design.
A proof of concept is provided in the post DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2. Starting with the double-length 6X12 file, each color in each design row will be knit twice:  and the machine will offer prompts for its pre-determined color change sequences.
Most recently, my separation experiments using Gimp use transparency methods and are are shared in the reverse order of their development 
#3
The briefest and last method: working in RGB mode, begin by multiplying the pattern in height X3, to 6X18 Isolating the red color on a white ground:  isolating the yellow on a transparent ground:  isolating the blue on a transparent ground: copying and pasting the isolated yellow and blue with transparent grounds in  turn onto the red design isolated on the white ground
changing all 3 colors to black
doubling the image in length to 6X36
remove every second row using the pencil tool or bucket fill it with the 6X2 pattern, and change the cyan to white. Any other color can be used instead of the magenta at that point
change Mode to BW indexed, and save the final file for knitting.   Comparing the results for the full repeat from other methods on the left, with the one using this method on the right

Returning to that 6X6 repeat that was prone to error in both DAK and img2track, with each color represented once in each row, exploring the possible separation to knit each color only once, and using a final 6X18 PNG led to patterning failure.
The Image menu progression of its process in Gimp: the number of thumbnails grows and one can travel through the images using simple clicks until any image is discarded or the program is quit, the X appears aside the file viewed in the work window.  Each color was isolated on a white background, with guides placed horizontally across every pair of pixel rows.  Pairs of rows of each color were copied and pasted in alternating sequences on an all-white file longer than 18 pixels rows and the results were trimmed to a 6X18 file for a knitting test.  Though the built-in KRC separation takes that first design row and moves it to the top of the repeat, thus knitting a single row with color 1 and completing it in a pair on the last row of the program, the first knitting test began with preselection from the right, and color 1 knitting for 2 rows.  A second try at an 18-row repeat, also a design fail, with odd breaks in the lili action on the ribber, seen in Passaps when pusher selections on the back bed are disrupted.  When the motif was doubled in length, and the same method was used, the results matched the 24X36 file.
The 6X6 design, however, expanded and separated to a 6X18 file may be used in machines with color changers on each side, with a different color sequence, see DAK Method E notes toward bottom of post.
#2 Working with the 6X6 design lengthened X6 to 6X36

with every other row rendered in all white cells The proof of concept swatch

DAK
owners see the 36-row file and similar knit sample for the Half Milano separation F toward the bottom of the post.
In my #1, first separation draft, the 6X10 file is elongated X6, to 6X60, considering that each color in each design row will be carried for two passes.  The latest Gimp version for Mac is 2.10.36
Sometimes there are differences in commands in the Windows version.
Begin the work in RGB Mode.
The color-to-alpha command in Gimp makes all pixels in a selected color transparent.
The option can be activated through the Layers Menu by choosing Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or the filter via Colors> Color to Alpha from the pull-down menus at the top of the work window.
No threshold or blending adjustments are needed in the small 8-bit files used in designing knits.
Some previous repeats using  colors to alpha in 2-color separations can be found in the posts
Color separations for larger scale mosaics and mazes 
and on Using Layers in Gimp for Color separations
Magnify the image to a comfortable viewing size, ie 800% or more.
When the color to alpha dialog window opens, there will be a small preview of the image you are working on on the upper right that relates to how many images are available for processing in the work window at the time.  When the color white is in the mix using the 8-bit files, the preset color selection for transparency in the color bar is white.
To change the color selection, click on the white color, the palette window will appear, select the new color, and click OK.

To Bucket Fill with pattern: create a custom brush size, matching the starting design width in pixels. The number of rows varies with intent. White is used as one of the colors, and the second color can be any other.
Click on the rectangle tool and then on the pattern thumbnail, an icon for it will appear on the upper right of the work window. The brush will be copied to the clipboard and will be available to use to pattern fill until the program is quit. It can also be saved for future use as explained in other posts.  To fill specific groups of pixels with FG or BG colors, click on the select by color tool,  and then on the color you wish to change, use bucket fill, selecting foreground or background color.
The fuzzy select/magic wand tool mentioned in previous posts is designed to select areas of the current layer or image based on color similarity. It appears to the left of the select-by-color tool. It can be used when pixels in that color need to be changed in contained single areas rather than throughout the whole image.
If using the bucket fill with foreground or background color alternating with fill with pattern, remember to switch between the two as needed.
If an error is made, use Image> Edit> Undo to move back to any previous steps.
If at any point the image in the work window is surrounded by dotted lines, click on the rectangle tool and then again in the work window to essentially fix the layer.
The Image menu provides access to nearly any operation you can perform on an image.   Clicking on any one of those images will produce a dotted outline around it making it identifiable and usable in work such as for copy and paste followed by bucket fill with pattern,   or for navigating between series of open files.
#1  the longhand first practice run began with the 6X10 file multiplied in height X6 to 6X60. Good practice for sorting out a technique, but guessing the aspect ratio in the final knit would be bothersome.  1. has the first 2 of the 6 design rows rendered transparent, so when used to fill the original, only rows planned for color 1 are left exposed
2. will leave design rows 3 and 4 exposed for color 2
3. will leave design rows 5 and 6 exposed for color 3
Repeat these steps on the original design 3 times, and save each completed step until comfortable with working on several files open at once.
A. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for the color red
B. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for yellow, if the color seems too hard to identify, change it to another
C. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for blue. The red and white in the last step in A are left undisturbed, while the white background in the last steps in both B and C is rendered transparent, as seen in 2 and 3. Both 2 and 3 are copied and pasted onto A, rendering the final tricolor image, 4.
Using select by color and bucket fill, the three colors are replaced with black, 5.
A last brush bucket fill, 6, leaves only the first row of black cells exposed, changing the cyan to white and converting the final result to BW-indexed mode, 7, is saved for knitting with each color in each row knitting only once.  When all 3 colors are not represented on every row,
The 11X10 image was used in previous posts,   tiled,   the tiled elongation:  The separation uses method#3:  the process with the image lengthed X3 to 11X30 representing each color in each design row once:  working with Gimp transparency, isolate the red, retain the white ground isolate the green, render it on a transparent ground isolate the blue, render it on a transparent ground,  copy and paste the green and blue rendered on transparent grounds onto the red on the white ground initial image, obtaining a 3 color separation.
Replace colors with black. For knitting each color in each design row for 2 passes double the file in height to 11X60 pixels. To knit each color only once in an attempt to further reduce changes in aspect ratio, erase every second row. Images for knitting are saved in BW-indexed mode.  The DAK template (set for 950i) and img2track screen image compared to my result:  the 11X60 PNG, all pixels, 
and with black pixels on every second row changed to white The proof of concept swatch: the vertical lines between pairs of stitches result from the drag on the ribber stitches to the right and then the left as the birdseye pattern is formed, they are frequently also seen in ladderback dbj.
The yarns used are not of equal thickness.
Balanced yarn weight and tighter tensions would diminish both those lines and any bleed-through behind the stitches on the knit side.
The dropped stitches on the purl side indicate the need for troubleshooting the condition of ribber needles and their latches.Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once used the same 11X10 repeat, explored the results using HOP, pushing needles back to B manually EOR, and a color separation with the same 11X60 final file. 
An additional way to decrease changes in the aspect ratio of the original design
relies on eliminating as many passes as possible, by eliminating design rows with “no color” out of the color change rotations.
The color changes in continuing identical sequences vs skipping any one of the colors from the rotation when not in use:  The 11X60 repeat is now to 11X48  its companion with every other second row of black cells erased.  Both create the need to track what color to use and when. If the machine or software cannot provide prompts and reminders, a spreadsheet is easy and quick to create, listing colors and corresponding row counts:  Tracking those shifting color changes is more than my bandwidth and patience allow.

As I was working on this post, a friend asked about the separations for 3 color designs in the StitchWorld Pattern Book #3.
I randomly chose # 484, with the swatch pictured on p 57 and the design separation repeat found on pp 96-98. The shortest segment can be quickly converted to a knittable 140X50 PNG. Other factors to be considered and examined:
the color-changing sequences are provided on each side.
Each design row appears different from the row below it, raising the question as to whether each color is knitted only once.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese electronic machines automates that option when only 2 colors are used.
Passap E6000 users have a programmable reader technique that accomplishes the same for 3 and 4 colors.  This SW III segment is for rows 521-570, p98, with two more full pages in the pub beginning on p 96 with rows 1-260, and p 97 with rows 261-520.
Gimp Guides were placed on a screengrab of the file and it appeared each number was associated with 2 design rows.  The color numbers are not in fixed sequences and differ on each side, as seen in this magnified view.  Found when browsing through the SW III pub for added clues: the fair isle section symbols are suggestive of the CK35 Brother semi-industrial machine, produced in small numbers decades ago. The CK 35 has a color changer on each side.  From the manual regarding their use:  If the files are intended for the CK 35, additional information is needed for emulating or adapting them for use on home knitting models, not always possible.
The same is often true when traveling between machine brands manufactured in different countries.
DAK owners can use Method E jacquard separation for machines with a color changer on each side, like the Brother CK 35. According to the manual, the process works on pairs of rows and separates each row into a pass with each color.  A sample separation with no error messages when the 6X6 file is opened.   Untested DIY for the same separation:
The 6X18 repeat opened in Gimp, using a single-pixel pencil to fill in all except the color for that row with white.  Using the custom brushes and bucket-fill with the pattern, begin with isolating the red color, retaining the white background,  repeat to leave the isolated green exposed, and convert the magenta color from the brush to alpha repeat with the isolated blue,   in two steps, copy and paste the green and white on alpha and the blue and white on alpha on the red-on-white ground image, the tricolor final result, which matches the result from the pencil color replacements, is then rendered in BW for knitting. The last DAK Method F is referred to as suitable for Half Milano. It is directly translatable for use in the Japanese models.  The corresponding separations for both the 6X6 and its elongated sibling, 6X12 The 36-row repeat was quite different from mine, but a knitting test resulted in a matching result while trying out the 11X10 design in DAK resulted in obvious patterning fails, likely because the repeat is not an even number of pixels in width.
A repeated knit test of my 11X60 repeat, the arrow points to operator error when I failed to notice the color changer was carrying 2 colors at once. It is possible to superimpose final repeats on each other to look for errors and differences. The DBJ separation in DAK was 60 rows high as well, but it appears to be inaccurate, pointing to possible unidentified errors when working with a stp that is an uneven number of pixels in width.

A return to loopy knits

Fringes, loops, and pile/carpet knits are populating Fall knitwear runways.
Pile knitting is best executed on Studio knitting machines. Love the knit structure? find a Studio KM to borrow for the project.
Fringes are essentially long loops, and share principles with knitweaving.
Previous posts
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 4
Pile_carpet stitch knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 3
 
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 2
 
Pile knitting on Passap, Brother, and Studio KMs 1
With Studio KMs outside the range of possible use, there are loop techniques that can be executed manually on any gauge machine
The first sample is knit on a 4.5 mm 930.
A downloadable punchcard volume for Studio aka Silver Reed machines offers punchcards for the double bed technique referred to as punch pile In analyzing the repeats, the black cell rows represent loops picked up on the main bed, the blank rows the carriage passes knitting every stitch on the ribber alone holding the loops down.
Applying permanent loops to the surface of a knit using Brother knitting machines falls into the knit weaving family.
The knitter can choose color placement and changes, as one might in intarsia.
Previous related posts:
Machine knit fringes 4, long loop patterning , my first use of straws, bulky loop yarn, the main bed programmed repeat:  Long loops: a bit on method includes instructions on the use of single bed cast on comb, rulers, ribber gate pegs.
As usual, my swatches begin with random yarn choices from my stash, using colors that will help identify proper stitch formation, and just as a random return to designs intended for other fabrics in previous shares.
Developing a repeat: since the loops are created by hand, the goal is to work with larger loops than those in automated punch pile designs.
In the past, I was drawn to and explored truchet tilings
Truchet tiling design inspiration 1
Truchet/Smith inspired designs 2 meet ArahPaint
More Truchet inspired tiles, a brief look at gradient filter use included this 3-color knit sample resulting from an img2track color-separated DBJ repeat Aiming to form large loops and a larger scale motif with more than one knit row between rows of them, the original 24X48 repeat,  evolved into a very different 48X48 repeat.   The full design in gridded view: The process used to attain it: the original repeat was scaled x3 in height, and then again in width X2 for visual balance  Working in RGB mode the 48X144 image was opened in Gimp, and a new image file in the same size was added with a white ground, and then a third 48X3 image with rows 2 and 3 colored in red. The latter saved to the clipboard, may be used to bucket-fill the all-white second image.
The white is rendered clear using layer, transparency, and color to alpha.
The result is copied and pasted on the original.
The red is selected by color, filled with white, and fixed by clicking on the rectangle tool.
The mode is changed to BW indexed, and the image is saved for knitting. I grabbed yarns for color visibility and thickness, not fiber content, and in the resulting knit the loops flattened permanently in the red acrylic and the blue acrylic blend. The technique might be better served using a 3/8 wool for the loops.
The work in progress:  The full repeat in the final swatch measures 6X11.5 inches The same repeat was used again, and the red acrylic yarn was switched to the background for a result that would steam flatter permanently, while the loops were formed with triple yarn strands.
It took testing adjustments in tension and loop length, noticeable at the bottom of the swatch images, to achieve consistent coverage and a new tool to form them.   When searching through published sources and adapting them, results can be random or outright failures. Pondering patterning on every other needle, with end needle selection off, this design from:   for 12 stitch punchcard models came to mind, including this chunky machine design The what if repeat, expanding it to a 22 stitch version with every other column blank and checking for proper tiling was not useful as a knit woven pattern, but when used to form loops on preselected needles and graduating the height of the loops the result proved interesting.
Rulers of different widths and thicknesses were used as tools used to form the loops including but not shown, the metric ruler supplied with Brother knit leaders. Diagonal designs, in particular, can be hard to force into 12 or 24-stitch conventions. With further editing, the published repeat is adjusted to larger 23X18 pixel dimensions, appears to align correctly, and will be returned to in a post containing more knitwoven samples.   This test begins with caution, then produces a dense pile testing the limits on yarn thickness using the repeat:   Pony beads were threaded on a double strand of cotton from an unmarked cone, and loops were formed with beads advanced and placed between and below preselected needles.
Spacing was tested before committing to the final choice, the same repeat as in the above swatch.
The bead-carrying yarn was pulled to tighten it across the previous woven row just before laying it in place for the next patterned row.
Bead addition was also tested between chains in bind-off.

Inspiration for varied stitches from a single chart

Nearly 9 years ago, I began exploring scale designs. At the time, my charts were generated using Excel and a program called Intwined Pattern Studio, which soon became inoperative  armani hkThe above repeat, visualized tiled.    At present, using custom-printed needle tapes has proven useful in tracking actions required in hand-manipulated stitches.
The attached PDFs have been printed in the proper aspect ratio with the following changes from default settings using Mac Preview,  and Acrobat Reader 7 needles
single 4.5
Whether the knit tests are worth pursuing in large pieces with or without modifications is subject to end-use and personal preferences.
To begin with, stitches were transferred, the empty needles were pushed back to the A position, Out Of Work, and returned to the work, B position, for reversing or shifting the shapes.
Forming ladders: the chevron shapes are created by single stitch transfers, and bringing needles in and out of work.
A starting chart:  Keeping the same palette as in previous charts, yellow cells represent needle positions where stitches are not disturbed, and the white cells where needles are taken OOW. The up-arrow needles mobed to A/OOW, and the down-arrow needles returned to B.
The work in progress:
1: to reduce the line length formed by the single stitches, the point at which needles are returned to work can be varied
2: in this instance, as 5 empty needles side by side are reached, bring needles into work for the next shape on each side of the single stitch decreasing the number of empty needles to four. As the knit carriage returns to the opposite side, loops are formed on each of the needles returned to work
3: continue to bring an empty needle into work aside each pre-existing loop
4: after the last 2 empty needles are returned to work and are followed by a knit row the last two loops are formed
5: knit one last row across all the needles, and begin transfers for the alternate shape.  This yarn is a 2/8 wool, which worked nicely for holding ladder edge stitches in the leaf swatches but yielded a stiff knit in this case, and the elongated single stitches fold over at the top, creating extra nubs on the surface of the knit.  Continuing designs with similarly shaped outlines but leaving the emptied needles in work, B position, produces different shapes. All needles remain in B throughout.
The yellow columns in the chart indicate the locations on the needle bed where stitches are never moved.
Visualizing the tiled repeat and the direction of the transfers: the initial experiment is also a 12-row repeat. The magenta cells indicate spots where extra all-knit rows may be added in DIY.
The work in progress:
A 7-prong tool is handy in making the 5 and 4-stitch transfers.
After each transfer, loops will form on the empty needles with the next carriage pass
3: the loop becomes part of the subsequent transfer, and the newly emptied needle remains in work
The first swatch began with a 12-row repeat and an all-knit row before transfers began for the alternate shape.  Visualized in larger BW tiling The transfers are made away from the circles in the chart using multiple transfer tools.
After each transfer, the empty needles are left in B or pushed out to E.
As the knit carriage moves to the opposite side, loops are formed on the empty needles.
Each loop becomes part of the next transfer.
Setting up the first design row using a 7-prong tool with 5 prongs selected:  the numbers in the lower image indicate the number of stitches on each of those needles as the setup row is completed.  The second group moves 4 stitches at a time. Loops are treated as stitches.
After the transfers, there will be groups of 2 stitches adjacent to those holding 3 in the previous row.
The outline in the lower image points to one pair of transfers in the process of being completed.
1: When this configuration is reached, knit one more row to the opposite side,
2: begin transfers away from the midpoint between the shapes to form the brick repeat. The result forms a bump once more due to the length of the single knit stitch columns. The above yarn is a 2/8 wool, the swatch was quite stiff. A second swatch was knit using a softer, thinner, alpaca-silk blend.
The relaxed knit after removal from the machine was very textured and narrow,   this result followed some light pressing and steaming.
Traditional wet blocking would be required to maintain the shapes in a final piece. Eliminating the all-knit row to reduce the extra lengths of those single-stitch columns did not produce what to my eye was an improved knit.
In a last what-if test, the chart was turned 180 degrees, with transfers beginning with a single stitch, and ending with moving five.  The results, knit in 2/15 wool and lightly steamed and pressed, appeared more successful to my eye.  relaxed overnight, the surface is a bit more 3D Using a similar technique for multiple transfer lace designs:  a 14-row repeat, magenta cells mark all knit rows, and all transfers are made toward stitches aside every 7 stitches except for on rows 6 and 13, circles in the chart now indicate eyelets, transfers are made every row.  1: the setup row.
Empty needles are left in work, B.  Cyan dots mark needles holding 2 stitches after the beginning transfers
2: the next knit carriage pass forms loops on the empty needles
3: with the next transfer, an empty needle results adjacent to each loop, the start of the next eyelet On Row 6 the last transfer results in 3 stitches on the normally undisturbed vertical stitch columns, 6A as the next carriage pass is made, 6B, loops are formed on the empty needles. A second row is knit on every needle, 7, and transfers begin to be reversed for the top half of the shape, 8.  The result shares some similarities with another hand technique .

Revisiting lace leaf design repeats 2

I am constantly drawn into multiple knitting rabbit holes.  Along with my revisiting 3D surfaces, more leaves are still in my line of sight for further exploration.
Here they are surrounded by a traveling mesh ground: a 12X52 repeat, marked for punchcard use:

the associated PNG The test swatch knit on 38 stitches:  This design was shared as an stp file for use with DAK by Claudia Scarpa.
Her blog post includes downloadable files with clear markings for knit row locations, a punchcard version, a schematic for working it as a possible hand technique, and more.
DAK does not allow for exports in other file formats ie PNG.
Charts for the designs can be screengrabbed and processed with other programs ie Gimp and ArahPaint to make them usable in other ways including download options.
This electronic repeat is 20X136 pixels.
Horizontal mirroring was not required when using it in my 930.   Knit on 40 stitches, using the same wool-rayon yarn as in the first sample, there is a considerable change in the size of the resulting leaf shapes  This is my chart for Claudia’s punchcard version, marked in 6X6 squares blocks as found in Brother factory punchcards,   the result is a longer repeat resulting in larger leaf shapes, 24X228 pixels And then there is the world of leaves formed with hand techniques and surrounded by ladder spaces.
This was published in an early Silver Reed/ Studio pub eons ago and got filed in my “someday” image folder.  Visualizing repeats and necessary actions in spreadsheets before any actual knitting is useful.
With practice, we develop a personal library of choices regarding symbols and any additional information.
This was my initial draft taking into consideration:
the direction of the transfers
the location of single-stitch columns that are left undisturbed throughout
the needles on which stitches are doubled after transfers
where stitches are decreased, every 2 rows, marked with orange cells in the second column from the left
where stitches are brought back into work on every row, marked with green cells and arrows that point up in the first column on the left
Printing custom needle tapes is an alternative to marking the needle beds or needle tapes to offer guides that help avoid errors or lots of needle counting in many hand techniques.
Mac Numbers version at present: 13.2. Its rulers can be set to centimeters for easy calculation of needle space cells with Japanese machine needles set 4.5 mm apart.
This PDF printed to the correct size for me when set to 100% landscape: 7 needles
4.5X7=31.5 mm: to convert the mm to cm in DIY move the decimal point one number to the left. Row height can vary with the limit being about 2 cm. The specs from the shared file:  The work in progress on the machine as transfers are being made and the empty needles are taken out of work back to the A position.  The end of transfers approach and needles are returned to work before each carriage pass, forming loops on them.  The test swatch, knit in 2/8 wool at tension 9, the color chosen randomly for weight and easy visibility The pattern is evocative of another Studio transfer lace #112, 12X104 a smaller design without the missing stitches and empty spaces.  Following some research, the chart for Studio punch card 123: The electronic equivalent, 14X92 cells The file adjusted for knitting on Brother is now reduced to 14X88 cells, and the cyan is marking areas where the knit carriage makes 4 passes rather than the usual 2 The result is a 14-stitch leaf in traditional transfer lace.  And then, the general shape begins to “appear” in other, older post swatches such as in this, part of the development of very different 12-24 stitch designs.  More leaves combined with open spaces, returning to hand techniques:
in DIY charts symbols can be developed to suit and included or eliminated in final directions. Convention matters if directions are to be published with patterns for general use, and matters less when for personal use.
Examples:
 the starting diagram:
The test swatch was begun on 2/8 wool, then switched to a 4/10 alpaca and silk because it was green, and the guess that the resulting looser stitches using it might make cable crossings and transfers easier, As can be seen in the work that follows, the size and definition of knit stitches at the edge of the vertical columns and the leaves are sharper and better retained in the thicker yarn.  A chain cast-on was performed on the number of needles as shown above, and chains were dropped to achieve the proper setup   To make a visually balanced increase from one to three stitches, the tool is inserted from back to front of the ladder on each side of the stitch, twisted clockwise on the right, counter-clockwise on the left, with the twisted loops lifted and placed on the empty needles each side of that center stitch.  An illustration from one of my earlier posts on leaf shapes surrounded by ladders e_wrap0-2It is helpful to have a couple of 7-prong transfer tools to speed transfers along, with one set to move 4 stitches, the other 5, or simply use a combination of the standard ones. Another variation: The slightly revised repeat  A few images of the work in progress: in this design, actions take place every 2 rows.
The dark segments on the custom-printed needle tape mark the needle positions for stitches that are never transferred, ie rows # 1, 7, 13, 19, etc. in the chart.
At this point in the work, there are 3 stitches on the needles holding the last transfers, marked with circles, and single stitches on the alternate needle locations, marked with squares.  After a row is knit to the opposite side, the groups of 3 stitches are reduced to a single stitch.  and it is time to begin to reduce the width of the floats.
Empty needles are brought to B position/work on each side of the single stitches.  Loops will form on each of those needles as the knit carriage moves to the opposite side.  Moving forward, empty needles are brought into work adjacent to each loop every 2 rows.
A closer look at the twist in the floats as the action continues and the number of needles out of work is reduced: The locations in which stitches are taken out of work form straight floats, where needles are returned to work, the floats form the familiar twists seen in transfer lace patterns.

Not to be forgotten, fully automated lace edgings such as here
and this, with both patterns shared in the same blog post  

Revisiting “wisteria” 3D shapes and their possible automation

Present software makes automating textured designs in these families easier to plan and execute.
This method is limited to single colors being used at any one time and does not allow for additional patterning through fair isle or end needle selection.
Slip stitch in both directions results in black cells being knit sequentially, and the limit in width for the total design is limited to the width of the knitting machine and how the program is read and implemented.
End needle selection is canceled.
All needles in work need to be cleared with each carriage pass.
My electronic km samples are now knit on a 930, which automatically mirrors any downloaded repeats, an advantage for lettering, but not for many other situations. These designs require mirroring when using any machine or software that does so if the holding is to begin with the knit carriage on the right.  The direction of movement for the knit carriage is illustrated by arrows in the charts, which serve as guides in planning sequences.
The original charts were executed using Mac Numbers, the table was converted and scaled to size using Gimp as described in other posts, downloaded using img2track, and mirrored horizontally before test knitting on the 930.
Both swatches are 40 stitches wide, planned in blocks 8 stitches in width and height, the first repeat 40X178 pixels  

The first test: the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. A wool yarn was used, retaining spring-back for more of a 3D texture. The design can be interrupted with all knit rows breaking up the shapes at varied intervals, with added colors if preferred. The second repeat, 40X 226 pixels.  A PDF for larger views of both files pdf
A quick test in a 2/18 wool produced a soft, loose, drapey knit.  The same swatch was photographed 48 hours later, in a relaxed state.  A 2/10 wool knit on the same number of stitches produced a firmer and more clearly 3D effect which remains unaltered with time.
Hems and a knit stripe were tested as a way of breaking up the shapes Possibilities with hand selection of needles: some samples from  Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets.  
“Wisteria” meets hems “Wisteria” cousin 2, also called fern leaf, hand technique “Wisteria” cousin revisited (“holding” using slip stitch), the first programmed repeat, drawn on mylar. The 910 knit the image as drawn on the purl side, with no mirroring necessary  
“Wisteria” 2  Horizontal “cable”  

Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 2_hearts

Charts are included for repeats suitable for punchcards, where the designs must repeat in height to a minimum of 36 rows.
Some reminders: the BW pngs here are intended for import into a paint program or image processor where they can be magnified to suit, with a grid view for counting cells to consider the width of floats if used in single bed fair isle, adjust the design in DIY variations, or import into download programs as provided.
The tiled repeats help to visualize how the final appearance on the knit side.
While the pngs are shared in BW indexed mode, when dragged to desktops or otherwise copied and are opened in image processors, they may change to RGB mode by default and will need to be converted back to BW indexed mode prior to use for import and download to knitting machines.
Some machine models will automatically mirror the image horizontally, depending on brand and model year as does Ayab software.
When direction matters, ie in representational designs or transfer lace, the mirroring may be performed on the image provided before using it, or by using the appropriate button or command after downloading to electronic machines.
Punchcard users can mirror after the fact by simply turning the card over before inserting it, after marking and numbering at least the starting row on its reverse.
To retain symmetry in developing half-drop or brick repeats, it is useful to have an even number of stitches and rows in the original design. Some designs are broken up in ways that are subject to use based on personal visual preferences.
If used for blankets, the repeats can be tiled to dimensions leaving room for coordinated borders.
12X10 12X10 to 12X20 brick

12X10 to 24X10 half drop

24X24 24X28 32X32 34X34 43X43 adjusted to 44X44, an all symmetrical suitable as a single motif or in larger formats brick 44X88 brick tile half drop tile 84X44

3 color 14X3, requires a different color separation than KRC, each color in each row needs to be knit twice the 2-color version   From weaving drafts: a mosaic-like design the 68X58 png cropped to 67X58 to avoid double stitches
its half drop repeat 134X68  the source for a much smaller repeat the 14X20 png When all you need is a border, repeats that may be used vertically or horizontally, presented in punchcard configuration, 24X21: 24X20, rotated for horizontal use would become usable on electronic models only  
From To mesh or not to mesh 9: more on mock filet design See the post for additional repeats and my method of developing the design.
I could not find the source for this Pinterest find on the upper left, which results in a combination of large mesh and single transfers to create the heart shape.
The initial 24X44 png brick repeat, 24X88

with more knit stitches between shapes, 36X88 the knit rows separating the stripes of heart motifs are highlighted in red.
On Brother machines the KC does advance the repeat in standard lace, so each of those red stripes is reduced to two rows of blank cells, resulting in the 36X88 repeat charted on the far right A small proof of concept knit in 2/18 wool A Studio 560 was my first electronic model machine, owned decades ago. Among the mylars saved even though the machine was sold many years ago, I found this repeat, 24X47 cells, the last offered in this series. Studio mylar sheets were marked in 6X5 blocks as opposed to Brother’s 5X5. The punchcard repeat chart here is outlined in 6X6 blocks of cells, the convention in Brother punchcards. the png

A series also shared in the post Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 1
two from the various groupings
24X3924X78

A slip stitch patterned ruffle and more

A recent Instagram share led to my being asked how the ruffle attached to the piece as partially shown on the left was created. The images on the right illustrate 2 of the color-way explorations prior to committing to a final one, all knit in rayon chenille yarns.   At that time a punchcard was used. The repeat technically is 24 stitches wide and 18 in height, repeated twice to meet minimum punchcard height requirements, while for electronic patterning the 18 row segment is used. That said, repeating and shifting the minimum pattern repeat in a paint program or spreadsheet allows for visualization of possible color change sequences,  A 24X36 electronic repeat beginning with 4 all knit rows:    Knitting does not always need to be programmed to start on the first design row.
When miles of trim ie when it is planned as an edging for items such as shawls are planned, there are other considerations.
I prefer to use the seam as you knit method. Since rows will be joined to rows, use a 1 to 1 ratio. Doubling up on stitches happens every 2 rows along the knit border’s vertical edges.
After estimating the number of rows in the final piece, any trims can be knit separately, taken off the machine on waste yarn, and joined as the piece progresses. If needed, after removing the waste yarn, more rows can be added to the trim or unraveled to shorten it before binding it off.
The other option is to finish the body of the knit item, and then join the trim as it is being knit.
The process is rendered easier if the ribber is off the machine.
Switching between punchcard and electronic models, it can get confusing as to whether the design needs to be mirrored horizontally or knot.
In this case, the png was used on my 930 in the same orientation as the punchcard design.
To reduce the roll to the purl side, it may be best to use yarns that will block flat ie rayon, or acrylic.
The knit is centered on the needle bed. My 930 has a punchcard needle tape in place, I prefer programming based on 24-stitch needle selections to avail myself of the position option available on the electronic.
The first preselection row is made toward the color changer.
End needle selection is canceled, or unwanted floats will be formed, pulling in the edge of the knit.
When the color changer is reached and the proper color is in the yarn feeder, set the machine to slip in both directions.
Continue color changes in the preplanned sequences.
In proper pattern selection, the slip stitch column/non-selected needles occur on the right (1).
The all-knit stitch column/ selected needles occur on the left (2). Rows, where every needle is preselected, will knit a solid color with the next carriage pass. As colors are changed small floats will be created between the stripes, a light edge weight may be needed, depending on the yarn used and its fiber content, to keep the edge stitches from being reduced in size or even gathered.
1. the same color is used for 4 consecutive rows when all needles are selected and are followed by color changes every 2 rows until all needles are preselected once more
2. color changes are made every 2 rows
The cyan arrows illustrate the floats on the purl side the differences in the stitch shapes on the knit when the end needle selection is on, and the lack of proper formation of color blocks, especially if the goal is a reversible knit. Added knit rows will result in less of a flounce, offer the opportunity to play with striping, and more colors may be added, accompanied inevitably by cut yarn ends  For a reduced roll on narrow edgings, add a 2-3 stitch every other row border,   the result illustrated in this close up of a different slip stitch ruffle, also joined to the shawl using the seam as you knit technique.  Ruffles may be created with other stitch types ie tuck, which shortens and gathers the knit stitches aside them in areas where they are used.  For those not familiar with slip and tuck stitch formation, it is reviewed in the post: Single bed tuck and slip stitch fabrics 1. Here hand-selected short-row techniques form the wedges, with ladders added for more surface interest on the far right.

 

 

 

Revisiting 3D scales and shells, automated and not

Other posts exploring the scale topic began in 2015 with a swatch experiment based on an Armani sweater, followed by this group of shares, listed by creation date and beginning with the most recent
More mesh dragon scales, some striped and some not
Single bed scales made with stitch transfers
More dragon scales and chevrons in ribbed, racked (4) fabrics
Hand-knit “dragon scales”

Incidental discoveries  Ribber trims 4 

Automating 3D textures across full rows of knitting:
Machine knit leaves using slip stitch with holding Revisiting automated shell shapes  Automated shapes across rows of knitting using slip stitch only  various designs
“Automated” shell shapes  When the construction of the scale and shell shapes was proposed, I did not always share the repeats for the automated version.
After the fact, a screen grab from the shell charts was cropped to its outline, opened in ArahPaint, and using the program’s tool “guess weave from grid“, the 36X98 png is obtained with a few mouse clicks,

and saved the file for further exploration.
Note that for the “shells”, the shapes are formed by all the triangles pointing in the same direction, while in the “scale” version they mirror vertically.
Tips and reminders:
I find it useful to test techniques in geometric shapes that are familiar and easy to imagine in 3D, hence the return to triangles.
The goal here is to automate needle selection to eliminate stitch counting and hand selection.
The 200 needle max on 4.5 mm machines, as well the amount of memory in the model of electronic being used, ie 2K in a 930 imposes more limitations.
Performing the selection of needles manually and using the setting for short rows may make varying shapes, their scale, row counts, and color changes possible in a way that traveling to and from the same side of the machine in 2 row sequences does not.
When using the slip stitch setting if every needle on the top bed is not in use, the end needle selection must be canceled.
The knit carriage must clear all needles in work with each carriage pass even though small stitch counts may be worked on at any one time.
Just as when working short rows, depending on the fiber content of the yarn, there may be some visible wear on the purl side from the many carriage passes required to complete full design rows.
Test on small swatches for accuracy and aesthetic personal appeal before committing to larger pieces.
A 36X166 pixel repeat:   The edge half repeats are eliminated in an attempt to yield straight vertical side edges, with the repeat reduced in height to 36X124.  The resulting scales, knit in a 2/8 wool, were resistant to getting completely poked through to the purl side.  Comparing the difference in the results when knitting the same number of stitches and rows in the pattern; the blue yarn is of a slightly different thickness than the pink.  Seeking striping at the center of the triangular shapes, I found what appears to be a one-off error in the spreadsheet numbering of cell rows vs actual design rows, which initially resulted in issues with a correct conversion to PNG.   Transitions are made after odd numbers of rows to allow starts from the right for each pattern segment ie. Yellow/ 8+1 rows at the top of the repeat for plain knit segments, orange for the 3-row contrasting color stripe at the peak of the shapes. There will be cut yarn ends at each transition.
The design, charted in black and white,  the 36X82 png One may choose on which side to display the resulting shapes, here to the knit side,   and to the purl, shown also after some pressing. A punchcard snap is inserted in one of the pockets in the last image on the lower right to hint at pocket size.  Steamed, flattened shapes may also be coaxed in different directions, stitched in place or even together with a contrasting stripe behind them, or added beads at the join  A first draft at adding a FI or slip stitch stripe at the center of the repeat still relies on some segments occurring for an odd number of rows, was rearranged in the later designs, measures 36X88 pixels.  

Analyzing the swatch:
the edges where the triangular shapes meet the striped bands jut out more when pointing down than when pointing up
the eyelet typical when knitting short rows for 2 rows is OK as part of the overall design
the 8 rows of plain knitting between the shapes are too many Altering the design 1:
the plan is to retain starting each segment of  scales from the right,
the fair isle band is now planned for an even number of rows, making it possible to operate more easily from the same side, but loosening the tension,
the 36X80 repeat: the side edges in the swatch differ from each other,   Altering the design 2: whether executed with cam button changes with the knit carriage always operating from the right, or operating a second carriage selecting needles from the left, the fair isle band in this experiment needs to occur for an odd number of rows, the repeat is 36X68. The cells highlighted in yellow on the right of the chart follow the carriage movement from the right when switched from slip to FI, and the gray cells the movements for a second carriage selecting needles from the left.
The recurring shapes are planned to produce straight side edges.
The 36X68 repeat Very often 3D knit structures can change dramatically with steaming and pressing.  They can literally be “killed” permanently if fibers such as acrylics are used, while wool has some spring back, but surface retention depends on the specific pattern. The temptation to press is in proportion to what degree the knit rolls, sometimes dramatically, to the purl side. In this instance, the depth of the shapes was lost, and the swatch grew significantly in length.

Swatches based on adapting random online published repeats

I still surf Pinterest daily and often encounter published punchcard repeats that catch my eye.
Many need some interpretation and editing for use in specific machine models.
The first inspiration: is knit using 4 colors, alternating 2 rows of a base color, then rotating color changes for 4 rows for each of 3 contrasting ones.
Counting up from the bottom of the illustration after the marks for the typical two all-punched rows, it would appear this is a Studio punchcard, but starting row 1 as visible outside the card reader can simply be changed for any other brand knitting machine.
The every other stitch configuration is for an every other needle repeat used in early machines such as the Juki.
A full reference volume   An illustration of the card use  If using thicker yarns on a standard machine that grinds at the loosest tension, this configuration can retain the full design while knitting every other needle/EON.
The adaptation began using Mac Numbers, the repeat was isolated and traced, and the 12 blank columns were then hidden producing a result scaled in indexed B/W mode to 12X36 pixels. The tiled design, checking alignments.  The proof of concept Periodically tuck stitch designs that appear to break the usual rules for the stitch are discussed.
This design is intended for a push-button machine capable of 24 stitch repeats, uses symbols in the associated chart interpreted to mean tuck loops form for 2 rows and knit along with all other stitches every third row.  The working repeat is made up of 8 pixels in width, and 36 pixels in height.    This next design is likely published for use with the Studio color changer, which is marked with letters for each color,   rather than with numbers as in Brother models.
It is intended as a slip-stitch. The bottom swatch relies on color changes every 3 rows, which would need to be performed manually.
In the elongated version, colors are changed using the color changer, every 6 rows.  The design was first tested in thin yarns using the electronic 24X84 elongated PNG  tested for alignment   and displays interesting 3D variations, the purl side is remindful of shadow pleating  Changing colors every odd number of rows is a tad fiddly.
The use of the color changer is not an option.
With the three yarns fed through the yarn masts, it became hard to keep them from twisting around each other. Ultimately, that problem was solved by hand-feeding one of the three colors with the cone on the floor, in front of the machine, as one would place yarns for weaving.
Brother knitters are familiar with yarn placements in the sinker plate.
Position A is for knitting when using only one color or for the ground color in fair isle patterning.  There is a “gate”, which is closed, and the B color/contrast motif color is placed in that front position, knitting the yarn in needles preselected to needle position D on the next carriage pass.
It is tempting to leave the gate open when switching colors by hand frequently, and that may work for a while, providing tension is placed on the yarn manually to keep the yarn back. If at any point the yarn shifts forward (green arrow), with no needles in position D, stitches will be dropped.
Textured stitches can make for more complicated correction of errors or dropped stitches.
Taking the extra seconds to close the gate (red markings) after each color change avoids what became fondly known as “dropitis” in my classes.   The proof of concept: two of the yarns used were acrylic, so steaming to reduce the curling of the swatch flattened the texture.  At one point Studio published a newsletter  with cover art composed of simple drawings, such as this, for #143, which spiked my curiosity, and led to these explorations:
the pattern and symbols refer to tuck stitch, but technically the design is executed using short rows and transfer techniques.
The programmed repeat selects needles, making tracking actions easier.
End needle selection is canceled.
No cam buttons are in use.
The knit carriage is set to hold.
Stitches on the single needles selected on rows, 2, 12, 22, etc, are transferred onto the needle on their left. The empty needle is then pushed back to A position, out of work, creating a ladder.
The groups of 3 preselected needles are pushed out to hold, the D position, before continuing.
After every 2 rows knit, a stitch on the left is pushed back into work, until lastly, the empty needle is returned to the B position.
All needles will then knit for one row filling in the empty needle with a loop and a full knit stitch on the next pass where transfers begin again. A brief summary of stitch manipulations  Images of the work in progress, a small claw weight single claw hung on edge stitch helps keep side edges equal in length:
preselected needles initially manually brought to hold position after the first carriage pass to the right
after the second carriage pass to the left, with the first needle on the left in each group pushed back into work  the second needle on the left in each group is returned to work
one needle in each group remaining in hold pushed back into work  at this point the empty needles have been brought to the B position, single preselected needles have been transferred to the left,  and a pass is made forming loops on the empty needles/ eyelets  The original 18X30 repeat, some machine models and download software may require that it be mirrored horizontally,   repeated to 44X30 with a planned distribution of plain stitches at sides, knit in 2/18 wool blends: Converting random transfer lace designs poses different challenges, and since the time at which the reference post was published, there have been several Gimp updates.
Lace designs contain few black and white pixels and, at times are brand-specific. Multiple transfer lace in Studio models begins with 2 blank rows, while Brother begins with a design row, and ends with 2 blank rows. As given, the inspiration repeat is designed for Studio/Silver Reed.
When using any program, ie Gimp, ArahPaint, or even Dak, the original scanned or screengrabbed design needs to be aligned horizontally and vertically to window borders for accurate conversions.
Gimp:
Before any scaling of images, establish stitch and row counts. In this case, they are published as being 16 stitches X 96 rows.
The process for converting the same lace design using Gimp 2.10.34 on the Mac, beginning work in RGB mode:
1. drawing a straight line to the side of the cropped image reveals a slight lean to the right
2. using Image, Transform, and Arbitrary Rotation -0.30 improves the alignment  3. using the rectangle tool, crop to the borders of the published image.
In this instance, the cropped image measuring 199X938 pixels is at first scaled to multiples of 10 for both width and height, note the broken chain link
4. 160X960 pixels. 5. Image mode is changed to B/W indexed, and the image is scaled once more to 16X96, the size of the expected repeat, note the intact chain link  6. the final repeat, when studied, matches that from the results in the previous post  1: the result using ArahPaints tools, including its guess weave from grid, compared to
2: the Gimp final image and
3. borrowed from the previous post illustrating other considerations before actual knitting,  
which include:
if using the repeat on Brother machines, the first 2 blank rows of the design are shifted to the top.
The 16-stitch design width makes it suitable only for electronic models.
The final PNG is actually downloaded as a fair isle pattern while maintaining the required needle selection for lace, and the knit carriage remains set to knit throughout while the lace carriage selects and transfers.
The machine, depending on the model, may by default mirror the result vertically, so the final PNG can be mirrored and saved as here, prior to knitting on the 930, or the mirror function in the machine may be used after programming.
I prefer to save my files in the orientation required for the actual knitting as a means to avoid confusion or errors.
Working in Arahpaint, rotating an image turns it on its center point. To rotate a layer, selection, or image, from the Image menu, choose Rotate.  Selections can be made at offered angles, or specified degrees can be entered in the degree field, or select an area, move the pointer outside the bounding border, and then drag on any one of the small boxes at each corner while pressing the left mouse button.  To align the image,
1. load the lace inspiration
2. choose Image, select Rotate Image, and draw a line that follows the orientation of the image. The color will be based automatically on the palette being used, and altering the pencil pixel size or color has no effect.
The program then rotates the image and will inform you of the rotation angle, and the drawn line becomes straight.
To confirm alignment, click the OK or Close button in the Rotate Image window.
3. use the rectangle tool to select the content for the full design repeat, and crop the aligned image to the selection. 4.-9. continue with the steps using the tool Guess Weave from Grid, producing the same final PNG. In summary, they are:
4. crop the selected image to size
5. change the color palette to 8-bit, adjust background and foreground colors
6. reduce the number of colors to B/W, adjust the threshold, and set the number of colors to 2
7. the resulting image
8
. use the guess weave from the grid tool, crop the bounded image to the selection, magnify the results to visually check the repeat, and save the PNG if satisfied
9. the final 16X96 pattern design repeat, matching the Gimp result. The associated swatch  This Pinterest find is credited to Tatiana Demina, and is intended for use on Studio punchcard machine models.  Studio machines are capable of transferring and knitting in single carriage passes. Studying the image of the card, it can be seen that there are no blank rows anywhere, and punched holes on alternate rows indicate transfers alternating first to the left, and then to the right.
The swatch was knit using the same technique described  recently in the post Unconventional uses for punchcards 2: thread lace cards for “filet” mesh
The original 24X56 design was lengthened X2 to, shown here also doubled in width to 48X112   to match the direction of the transfers, the hint offered in the inspiration source can be followed down to indicate the first row of transfers need to be made to the right,    hence the knitting begins with the knit carriage on the left, the lace carriage on the right. As the LC moves to the left it preselects needles, and as it returns to the right it transfers them to the right.
The LC is removed from the knit bed.
The KC knits a single pass to the right and remains there.
The LC is returned to the knit bed on the left, preselects needles on its pass to the right, and transfers them to the left as it returns to that side, and is removed from the bed.
The KC knits one row to the left and stays there.
The LC is returned to the bed on the right and the process is repeated.
Preselection of needles is made by the LC toward the knit carriage, transfers are made away from it.
Whether the repeat needs to be mirrored again may depend on the machine model or the software used to download the file to it.
The direction of the first row of transfers provides the necessary clue, they need to be to the right. If to the left, mirror the pattern horizontally and begin again.
The swatch was knit in a wool-rayon blend, the results point to the difference in appearance and gauge with a change in color and type of yarn used when compared to the inspiration image The context for this can be found in To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp
the 60X74 png  and the proof of concept