Another racking tale: Passap/Brother 5

I taught in a design school in a lab with Brother Punchcard models, four 910s, and 2 bulky machines. My previous experience had been using Passap and Studio electronics, and a crash course in Brother models followed my being hired.
My E 6000 was purchased from a sewing machine center at a time when the owner decided knitting was not for her.
The 560 Studio model was later upgraded with a change in their box in exchange for my publishing some patterns for the Studio Design Magazine but was sold years ago.
There were years the Passap was my production machine for garments and accessories knit double-bed. Single-bed knits for the same end use were easier to knit on Brother, with a clear view of stitch formations vs the issues with seeing the fabric or correcting errors when working with the ribber in place.
The immediacy of easy testing with img2track on the 930 results in nearly all of my recent blog swatches.
There are still days I admit I do love the E6. The console commands along with the lock setting and pusher options on the back bed make a range of fabrics possible that are far harder to achieve in Japanese model KMs.
Looking back, these are some of my previous shares including Passap mentions
Machine cross reference chart 3/18
Brother/Passap: traveling between brands  11/18

Pile knitting on Passap/ Brother KMs 4 1/20
A racking tale: Passap/Brother 3  9/19
Translating Passap model book pattern/use on Brother 1 8/19
Fisherman_ English tuck stitch rib 1_ checks patterns_ Brother, Passap 10/18
Tubular machine knit fabrics: fair isle, Brother/Passap 11/17
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 2  7/15
Pile knitting on Passap, Brother, and Studio KMs 1 7/15
Drop stitch lace, 2 colors per row, Passap KM 10/13
Back to leaf lace, add rib, and take it to the Passap 3/12
Japanese punchcard motifs used in Passap E 6000 machines  4/11
FB shares have led me down rabbit holes I may not otherwise have entered.
In the machine knitting group, someone recently shared a series of scarves knit using the E6, providing the Duo80 diagram and the E6 technique number.  The setup is for a 2/2 rib, reverses the pusher positions, but produces the same knitDuo 80 symbols AX = Tuck, setting is the same in both the Duo and the Passap back locks
AX  serves the same function in the Duo, and is replaced by KX on the E6 front lock
The arrow keys on the back lock work the same on both machines.
Passap preselects and works on pushers initially placed in work or rest on both beds, whether manually or by console selections in the E6.
Brother preselects needles in the planned pattern on the knit bed subject to punched holes or programmed pixels, but not on the ribber, other when using lili buttons, and that comes with rules and the sole automatic repeat ie the that the number of needles in use on the ribber must be even. On the Passaps there are no such rules on the back bed.
With no arrow keys selected the same action is repeated until the lock setting is changed, so in the above, the change is made by manually setting the back lock to N for 2 rows, then back to AX for tuck on both Passap models.
The front bed in the Duo also has a fixed pattern selection, requiring the lock change to N there as well. The E6 built-in pattern selects the all-knit rows, so its lock remains in the KX setting.
The initial pusher setup is manual on both models but not location-dependent in this particular design.
The E 6 console will select the proper pattern based on the pushers in the work position. A look at pusher positions from the E6 manual. Each machine brand has its own specific vocabulary for parts and techniques. Things get a little more complicated on Brother, it is helpful to have an understanding of stitch formation on both beds before tackling more complex knits.
In Brother the needle placement on the main bed matters as it does in tuck lace, so it needs to be verified before any knitting. “Air knitting” is one easy way to do that. Rows 5 or 6 would provide the necessary preselection.
In any punchcard model or Japanese electronic machine, the knitter is usually in charge of keeping track of racking. The E6 provides console prompts for racking positions in this design, facilitating the process.
An attempt to visualize what actions need to happen on the Brother models: the needle setup will match the Duo or the rotated E6 version Considering the required patterning for each bed, empty columns in my charts represent needles that need to be pushed back to A and left out of work on both beds. Textured ladder spaces will not be formed on either bed as is seen when using similar repeats on the single bed. Adding the ribber position and configuration  The top bed can be programmed, this 24-stitch version is suitable for use in punchcard machines. The main bed will knit all needles programmed with punched holes or black pixels and will tuck unpunched squares or white pixels.
The ribber requires setting changes after the initial four and after the last 2 rows of each 6-row repeat.
In addition, there are racking changes after each repeating segment.
In this setup, there will be a knit stitch beside each tuck one up to the all knit rows, helping to anchor the tuck loops. Ribber carriage settings are noted.  Anytime there are needles out of work, cancel the end needle selection. Depending on the machine model being used the repeat may need to be mirrored horizontally to match my in-process photos, true in my 930.
Using design row 5 or 6, air knit a row to find needles that need to be in work on the knit bed. Push non-selected needles out of work, and back to the A position. After doing so, reset the pattern to design row one.
The setting for the racking indicator does not specifically matter. It is often best to consider this before casting on. Here racking is only by one position, avoid 1 or 10. Starting at 5 centers stitches in relationship to each other stitches. As knitting progresses, where the ribber needle positions become obvious and less reliant on checking numbers. Cast on bringing appropriate needles into work on the ribber.
The original needle setup.  Use any favorite cast-on method.
Starting side does not matter unless one is planning on using a color changer, in which case the first preselection row needs to happen from right to left.
Since needles will be manually pushed up to the hold position, make certain that the ribber carriage is not set to hold. In a test swatch, knit several all-knit rows before beginning the pattern. If planning a piece, start with waste yarn and ravel cord prior to casting on with “garment” yarn.
A tool that aids in selecting every third needle is extremely helpful The initial carriage setups used for rows 1-4 The placement of the first needle on the ribber with respect to that of the first on the main bed The first needle in each pair of rows on the ribber needs to be brought up to the E position in every row for the first 4 rows of the 6-row repeat, I began with the first ribber needle on the left. The needles brought up to E will knit, and help anchor down the knit bed tuck stitch on their left, and the needles on their right will tuck. In turn, the main bed selected needles will anchor loops formed on the ribber, the nonselected will tuck.
The appearance after the tuck loops have all been formed and the needles holding them up to that point are preselected forward just prior to the 2 all knit rows. The knit carriage is left on tuck in both directions, while the ribber is set to knit for 2 rows. It is not necessary to change the P lever to R, with the other buttons set to N, knit is king.  Time to rack so that the first needle on the ribber will now be to the left of the first on the main bed. Push down lightly on the first 2 ribber needles on the left before racking in case those first stitches are a bit snug, to avoid starting needles crashing into each other as you move needle positions.  Knit 2 rows.
Rack again to the initial position,  change ribber settings again, and repeat the process as described. The proof of concept: the error shows what happens when one misses changing the ribber settings back to tuck.  If that is not challenging enough, add a color change, knitting the first 4 rows using color one, and the 2 all-knit rows with color 2.  I used to tell my students to develop a sort of tune that could be sung (mentally) as a reminder of the steps in complex fabrics ie bring up 1, 2, 3, 4, rack, change color, change settings, knit 2, rack, change color, change settings, bring up, etc. but my advice if you really want to knit this fabric in a full piece is to borrow and E6 or pay someone else to knit it for you 😉

Working with diagonal patterning in machine knitting

After a slow down in my blog posts for a variety of reasons I find myself playing catch up with the eternal list of knit fabrics that I wish to explore out of my own curiosity and the attempt to answer questions from knitters who contacted me directly via the blog or have asked them in the online forums in which I am a member.
Stephen West is a prolific designer of colorful hand knits in a variety of techniques and complexity. This honey-striped scarf is an example.   Slip-stitch patterning is a likely way of knitting a similar effect combined with
the use of the concept familiar to many when making bias cast-on rags.
A fixed number of stitches is cast on and positioned as far to one side of the machine as possible. They are then decreased on a fixed side and increased on the opposite one.
The strip moves across the needle bed, when far enough on the side opposite to the starting one, it is returned to the original needle bed position and the process is repeated until the desired length is reached.
If the moves to and from are performed on solid color rows matching needle selections may not be an issue. If the repeats in other cam settings are to match, then proper needle placement can be assisted by marking the metal bed, the factory-supplied needle tape, or a custom-printed one, and hand-selection for the first design row may be required and planned.
This chart attempts to visualize the proposed movement using colored stripes. Stitches are bound off on one side and cast-on on the other to maintain a fixed width with shaped edges.  If the goal is to maintain straight bias edges, the design repeat would need to be rendered wider in order to compensate for the shifts on the needle bed in turn modifying increases and decreases at a different rate The black cells represent the adjusted stitch counts needed for each pattern band.  When an item such as a scarf is worn, both options will appear as diagonals. If any picture knitting is included and the direction of it matters when the piece is worn, appreciated particularly in representational fair isle, such accessories are best knit as 2 pieces knit from the bottom up, and grafted together at their center after the fact.
Increases and decreases are calculated based on the knit gauge carefully for garments. The approach to accessories may be more casual.
Stripes heights are varied to accommodate any specific design motifs or cam settings and in turn, are added to the base visualization charts.
Here an attempt at 45-degree striping is made by beginning on a 3-stitch tab.  Increasing on the carriage side creates loops, while those opposite the carriage form knots.
Increases and decreases are indicated by arrows.
Increases are made on alternating sides, opposite the carriage, to produce matching edges.
The red cells in the chart represent the carriage side prior to each pass.
Table cells have been rendered rectangular in a 4 to 3 ratio, estimating the difference in gauge between stitches and rows.
Striping for an even number of rows matters if color changes are made on a fixed side ie if a color changer is in use. Yarn ends at color changes may be cut or the yarn can be carried up the side depending on preference and the number of rows involved. If carried up for long stretches, the alternate color yarn not in use may be secured by e wrapping it on the end needle periodically. Care needs to be taken that the float up the side is not so short as to have an effect on the swatch length and having an effort to remedy that will leave yarn ends too short to be secured.
The result is not going to produce a proper square, garter stitch is the only knit stitch that results in approximately true square shapes.
If the center of the machine is always used for swatches, keep an eye on the stitch formation. If loops are formed repeatedly on specific needles akin to tuck stitches or problem areas such as those in the center of this swatch are encountered, they can be caused by damaged needles or sticky latches that may result from frequent use. Diagonal lines in knits that maintain straight sides are also achieved using short row/holding intarsia techniques. Segments are planned in specific orders which can be varied to form added shapes.  Chevrons would be more easily created by knitting separate strips and seaming as you knit or after the fact. The addition of small-repeat fair isle patterns is also possible. Keep in mind when bringing needles back into work to reverse shaping, needle preselection for accurate patterning in Brother machines needs to be maintained by hand selection.  Some of the published punchcard patterns can serve as a source for diagonal lines that may be tiled and programmed for the full design in addition to being used for their original intent. Numbers 52, 384, and 328 (published with error), are suitable for tuck, slip, and FI with moderately wide floats, while 335 would fail as a tuck stitch.
Tiling as in any patterning will reveal errors, such as here for 328.  The latter was edited to a 22-stitch wide repeat, becoming suitable for only electronic machine models.
The charts with the red grid on the top row were rendered as tables in Numbers. Since their end use is different, they are the color-reversed version of the cards, whose screengrabs were in turn processed in Gimp to create knittable pngs.
The smallest repeats suitable for electronics are given in the center row of images, the amended 328 cannot be reduced in size. The last row illustrates tiling for all files as BW images that may be opened and amended to suit the size of the pieces planned.
Files in png formats for the group: if pngs generated by me in BW indexed mode are downloaded and opened in editors such as Gimp, they will open in RGB mode. To make them suitable for download programs, convert them to indexed BW mode again and save the result. There should be no loss of data.
384, 12X2412X48 144X144328, 22X44
176X176
335, 12X24
24X48 144X144  52, 8X16
24X48 192X192 The black lines formed by units 2 rows in height can be followed or erased to establish short rows shaping a stitch at a time every two rows, in a view of at least 2X2 full repeats to check color placement as seen here. The method was used to isolate the previous ungridded color illustrations. Another instance of a published diagonal tuck card, in this case, incorporates a combination of 2 and 4-row tuck patterning. The repeat is 24X48 The previews may be used to replace color selections with those matching yarn colors used in the project to develop some idea as to how color shifts might affect the final piece.
Adding lettering or small shapes and maintaining the diagonal can result in distortion of the motifs.
One option to add such motifs is to form the knit by beginning on 3 stitches as in this shared swatch and planning the stripes to heights and widths that accommodate adding designs or fonts. Short-row intarsia will also produce diagonal striping, from simple to complex as seen in this chart, with knitting sequence numbered for each segment.  complex_number_01A limited number of rows may be knit in stocking stitch in areas following shapes not simply to travel to the opposite side and reverse shaping,  but also to add small rolls or hems.
Another use might be to add small vertical motif details or patterning in their usual orientation.
The limit appears to be a maximum of 8 rows of alternative patterns, in order to keep the short-rowed areas from developing into distorted edges, which may be variable depending on the yarn and pattern used.
This first swatch was knit using progressively thinner yarns, wool, wool rayon, and a 2/24 acrylic in the FI segment. FI is a slip stitch that narrows the knit. The dark acrylic color stitch definition here gets lost. The band is seen pulling in the short-row segments on both sides. The shaping in both the top and bottom segments is by 2 stitches at a time.  The result in different yarns of equal thickness, with the FI band knit at a tension one full number looser than the stocking stitch areas, with the top and bottom solid color segments now shaped 3 stitches at a time. There is a trick when making A-line skirts to change the triangles that would poke out normally at the bottom if shaping were to begin immediately used as a design feature in many runway knits recently. If between an inch or 2 are actually knit up straight before shaping starts, the problem is eliminated. Depending on the design this may be a solution or it may read as a patterning error.
There are some conventions and “rules” for short-row techniques, but they do not always apply.
Keeping good notes helps to make successful experiments reproducible.
Two more tries began to experiment with working on the first and last groups in the holding techniques on a different number of stitches than the remaining shapes, noting differences. In the first an all-knit row is made across the short-row eyelets, reducing the planned FI band from 6 rows to 5. A rough spot in maintaining even stitches on one side is noticeable.  Progress: holding happened at the start of the bottom wedge, the FI was knit at 2 tension numbers looser than the stocking stitch, for 6 rows.  The goal in the short row shaping for the triangles is to maintain vertical edges that appear as straight as possible to the eye. One need not work on large swatches, small ones can provide clues as to differences resulting from variations in the starting side of the short-row shapings.  Studying the results can lead to many variations. There are student theses and careers based on exploring limited techniques to the max.
Building a theoretical true square or other predictable shapes is subject to the yarn and tension used. Beginning with a small sample, this shows the order of knitting 2 triangular shapes with the carriage beginning to knit each shape from alternate sides. In this case, 2 stitches are to be brought in and out of holding at a time. Because each color knits for 2 rows, small slits happen in the fabric resulting in eyelets. They may be used as design features, or attempts can be made to reduce their size. One way to do so is to have plain knit rows between holding selections to keep the small slits from intersecting and becoming double height. On the left swatch, one yellow row was knit to the left before reverse shaping in the same color. In the swatch on the right, in addition, 2 rows were knit in the blue prior to reverse shaping.  Reviewing the concept and developing a chart for larger swatches: the cyan color cells represent stitches in the hold position and the white cells stitches that will be knit.
At the top of the first wedge, most needles will be in the hold position, return them all to the B position manually before knitting the next row.
With the carriage on either side, set it for KCI with the cam buttons to slip for a free pass to the opposite side, the first FI pattern row will pre-select. Holding need not be canceled, since no needles are brought far enough out for the technique.
Cancel the slip setting, change the cam setting for FI knitting, place the pairs of colors in their corresponding feeders, and knit 6-8 rows of pattern.
Bring all needles out to hold except for the first desired group, if the holding lever has been canceled, reset it and commence reverse shaping.  Merrily knitting along and you forget to loosen the tension for the fair isle stripe: And what if the FI were to actually follow diagonal colored stripes? The approach is the same. I am right-handed, my default is often to begin on the right. Left-handed knitters can mirror charts as needed to make them easier to follow.
The first triangle is shaped from right toward left, subsequent ones begin on the left, then to wrap or not wrap becomes the question. Review of wrapping, which does not disturb the stitch on or the position of the wrapped needle:   bothI obstinately use random yarns at hand, sometimes too thin for the task at hand, true here. Any type of intarsia, of which holding is one, will be accompanied by lots of yarn ends that will require weaving in. Some of the stitches were wrapped here, some not, and maybe the eyelets could be considered a pleasing design feature. The 8 rows of FI, knit at 2 full tension numbers higher than that used for stocking stitch, minimizes the size of the eyelets all on their own on both sides of its stripe. Errors in bringing an added group or not into work may not always be immediately visible, frogging this type of knitting can be painful.
I would not use the last 6 stitch modification in any future swatches. Elizabeth Zimmermann published many patterns for hand knitting utilizing garter stitch and striped diagonal wedges for garment shaping.
Machine-knit stitches do not form as close to square ones found in garter stitches. Rendering the full-scale garment on a knit leader would make knitting to gauge while avoiding tons of math calculations possible.
DIY is a bit like assembling paper cut-outs that are required to fit together, first attempts at planning do not always succeed. One may begin at different parts of the piece and seam two halves together if necessary in order to keep matching stitch formations in both directions. Stripes may be added to form secondary intersecting shapes. On the left is a simple one-piece vest concept with no miters in the back panel, which may be knit from the bottom up or as two pieces with a center seam.
The bolero style is repeated in 2 separate pieces with mirror shaping in the second and would be joined at the center back.
The knit gauge is easier to maintain in short or small wearables.   Many garments may be made following the concepts for creating “pies”.
Decades ago batwing sweaters based on a sideways circular knit concept were standard presentations at knit seminars. Short-row diagonal graduated wedges were followed by varying amounts of all knit rows.
This idea for a short sleeve garment is from a Japanese magazine. In creating such illustrations because of the scale of the publication, the aspect ratio is distorted. In the final garment, the bottom circumference can in fact be far narrower than it might appear to the eye in the sketch and may be gathered or left released depending on design goals. The neckline diameter at the end of the project, after joining one shoulder, is gathered with evenly distributed decreases to the desired measurement prior to knitting the collar.  A way to form a long sleeve item, using binding off and casting on stitches in addition to shaped wedges followed by all knit rows. Knitting a garment on the bias at 45 degrees will produce a knit fabric that drapes differently.
Horizontal patterning can turn into diagonals and chevrons, and fancy decreases may be used in the center shaping of the garment.
Pre-computer programs and knitleaders, an easy way to sort out shaping for garments, was to begin by drawing on large sheets of graph paper. An all-square grid is fine.
Calculate a 10 cm/4 inch knitting gauge to the second decimal point before any rounding off. For example, if the gauge works out to be 5.728, and the measurement needed is 19.5 inches, the multiplied value result is 111.696, which can be rounded off to a 112-row line on the graph paper.
Working in cm can actually lead to easier calculations and is required when using a charting device.
Each cell in the graph paper grid equals one stitch and one row.
For knitting on the straight grain, based on gauge, draw series dots placing them on the beginning and the ending pots for each measurement, and connect them with straight lines.
Curves such as those necessary for necklines may be composed of short straight-line segments.
When knitting from the bottom up, continue with a colored pencil, filling in squares as they jog in or out, maintaining the new outline as close to the first as possible.
For the bias knit, whether on graph paper, the computer, or a charting device, begin by drawing a 45-degree line.
Rotate and trace the unmodified original straight-line image in place, follow the lines, and mark in and out jogs once more in color for contrast.
This is a very small chart so outline jogs in far larger pieces cannot be reflected. They would produce edges not as straight as in standard knitting, which will need to be considered when joining finished pieces.
As the piece is rotated, a wider grid base is required. Consider that the motif images as they are worked on the purl side will be mirrored horizontally on the knit side, a particular consideration if any text is introduced. Comparing theoretical purl as opposed to knit views on the left, two purl views on the right.   Fonts in various stitch and row counts are useful when planning knit text.
The point at which the text or pattern is introduced needs to have enough stitches in work on the machine to contain the intended words, ie for the above, a minimum ground, independent of shaping, would need to contain more than 9 rows if solid color stripes are to be added above and below it, and 26 stitches in width in this case.
A proof of concept swatch with arbitrary shaping on every other row illustrates the need for shaping based on a calculated gauge if a square is indeed the aim.
I knit on a 930 where mirroring is automated for programmed designs, so the text was programmed as drawn.
Sometimes less information is more. It became evident very soon that the placement of the text on the left was wrong if the aim was to have it centered in the final shape, and that more rows were needed at the top of the design.
On the right, the purl side as it faces the knitter is shown, with black pixels used to represent increases and decreases. The center red line separates the needle placements on either side of 0, and the text is shown in the default mirroring. The respective swatches after their rotation preview one of the potential results A true diagonal repeat may be planned for motif patterning knit from the bottom up. The drawback is that for executing a fair isle using more than 2 colors or with multiple color changes, partially illustrated on the far right, the 32X32 repeat would need to be rotated and knit as above.  

From the Brother machine knitting techniques book, a suggestion for dividing a sweater front into diagonal halves created by using the holding technique  

The idea of chaining the eyelet areas to reduce the size of the slits is an interesting one that up to now I have not tested.

Diagonal pleats

Building more textures in needles out of work spaces


WORK IN PROGRESS

A collection of previous posts exploring some variations on the topic:
Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 1 3/15

Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 2 3/15
Ladder lace 8/13 Instructions reviewed in 2022, one of the accompanying swatches: Ladders and Lace 8/13. MK ladders, and a bit of crochet 12/16
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 1) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 2) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims or fabrics 312/17
Automating tuck stitches combined with “lace” 2 6/17
Combining tuck stitches with “lace” 1 3/15
Many fabrics other than the traditional ones familiar to hand knitters and machine knitters that create eyelet patterns by transferring and combining stitches with yarnovers often include the term lace in their name, one such is ladder lace.
No matter what machine is in use, charts may be developed and followed that include row-by-row directions for needles out of work and any movement of stitches to alter the look of the floats created in the resulting spaces.
Knitology offers endless video inspiration for lovers of hand techniques including ones relying on patterns including ladders.
There are several aids in maintaining the desired repeat in NOOW (needles out of work). When establishing the initial needle configuration, punchcard knitters can punch a single row to match the required needle selection if the repeat works within the 24-stitch constraint, and use locked preselection to make transfers in base knitting.
Electronic knitters may use the same concept, I prefer if doing so to plan for programming the width of the stitches in use on the needle bed, adding pixels for knit borders on either side. Punchcard users may need to disregard some needle selections to form them.
Another option for hand technique tracking in addition to marking the needle tape or even the needle bed is to print custom needle tapes created in a spreadsheet.   They can be marked as needed to guide hand technique selections, with colors added if preferred, and are easily swapped out if corrected or additional tapes are needed for different segments of the same technique.
A variety of printable tapes for multiple gauge knitting machines is offered by Claudia Scarpa in her blog post.
A series of printable sheets for tracking row counts at even intervals may be found at the bottom of this post.
In laddered fabrics, the edge stitch on either side of the float may widen and grow in size over time.
The 8/13 swatch uses lace transfers that produce doubled-up stitches to help with stitch stability.
Adding hand techniques serves a similar purpose in wide or varying ladder space designs created on the knit bed.
The length of the item produced combined with the added weight in the finished piece as it is hung or worn may quicken any lengthening and narrowing of the piece, requiring blocking again or at the very least pressing and steaming.
The fiber used makes a difference in the retention of the blocked shapes, in this case, man-made fibers may serve better than wool with its spring back.
If a needle is emptied, if left forward or brought back to the B position, it will pick up a loop on the next pass, and when followed by a second knit row, an eyelet is formed in the loop location.
If a loop on a previously empty needle is dropped after it is formed, the resulting ladder grows in width.
Latching ladders while on the machine creates knit stitches on the purl ground.
Stitches may be removed and returned to the needle bed, cable crossings may be involved.
Picking up the heels of specific stitches on designated rows below and placing them on the knit stitches to the right or left of the ladder space is a way of adding non-vertical shaping.
If experimenting with the number of rows knit before adding hand techniques, keep good notes in order to be able to reproduce segments in an all-over pattern. Beginning patterning with simple transfers in stocking stitch ground, here the needle configuration shifts but remains constant throughout. My proof of concept swatch is knit in 2/8 wool.  Visualizing the necessary actions:  The proof of concept: 
Adding 2X2 cable crossings: this repeat is 12 stitches wide.
A chain cast-on allows for dropping the 2 chains in the location of the starting ladders, with some weight applied to the starting rows one may proceed to the first cable crossing.
On row 6, and then again at 10-row intervals from there, the designated pairs of stitches are crossed consistently in the same direction. The needles aside from the crossing are pushed back to the A position.
Knit 4 rows.
On row 10, and then again at 10-row intervals from there move the left stitch of the pair of the center needles to its left, and the right stitch to its right, restoring the empty column at the center of the chart. Return the remaining empty needles to the B or E position
Knit 6 rows.
Repeat the process, ending with 6 knit rows. This variation uses transfer lace stitch crossings to produce larger eyelets than seen in the above swatch. Row counts for specific hand techniques can be tracked in a written or printed document if preferred. The knitting in progress: the initial needle spacing:  Emptied needles are in the process of being returned to work after the transfers to restore the initial setup, the first knit row will create loops on those needles, and the stitch is completed with the next knit pass from the opposite side     The growing pattern becoming apparent After updating the 8/13 post, these experiments continue exploring the above concept. The yarn now used is a wool rayon, which appeared not to split, and retains blocking if it is used.
The samples use an 8-row repeat with different transfer methods. The first uses two-stitch transfers. The 24-stitch version is suitable for a punchcard, 48 rows in height. the smallest electronic repeat  tiled to a 28-stitch repeat for the electronic, in the width of my planned swatch, only for the required 8-row height The now familiar double loops Beginning ladders A partial row view of stitches moved 2 at a time toward the higher end stitch count, treating the loops as one would stitches e-wrapping one of the two loops consistently in the same direction at the top of the piece will form equal eyelets on the next pass  Working with multiple loops held in hooks of specific needles: the following swatches were actually the beginning for what became the above thread
I tend to web surf in the early morning hours. Sometimes that includes coming across YouTube videos where contributors show fantastic dexterity at handling tools while developing complex fabrics using only hand techniques.
This is one example:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoJbbInlxck.
As usual, I attempted to automate as much as I could and failed to be able to execute a truly similar fabric.
In my first modified version, I introduced knit rows as seen below to make tracking of hand techniques easier and to facilitate knitting stitches/ loops groups.
The result is of course quite different from the swatch in the video.
To knit: begin with a permanent cast on over the planned number of needles. In this case, 2 needles are included to form vertical all-knit borders on both sides.
I knit most of my proof of concept swatches on an electronic machine and download a plain design repeat with a stitch count equal to the entire width of the number of needles in use on the bed.
On a punchcard model, the all-knit border needles would have to be brought out to E on every row for them to knit with each carriage pass.
Using provided repeat pngs as shared may require mirroring the repeat horizontally depending on the download program and the knitting machine model used, as well as changing the image mode back to indexed BW since downloaded designs from the posts may be converted to RGB mode as they are copied.
If working on a finished piece, knit several rows of waste yarn, followed by a row of ravel cord and a permanent cast-on, otherwise simply knit enough to hang a comb and some weights, required for most tuck knitting.
I happen to have a 2/20 wool as my go-to for most experiments that result in 4 or more loops building up in the needle hooks.
The beginning concept: hand transfers and automated tuck patterning 
The programmed repeat is planned for two rows of knit stitches between sets of loops  After the cast-on and base knit rows, program the machine and preselect the first pattern row. The starting side does not matter unless the use of the color changer is planned, in which case, the first preselection row would need to move toward it.
Because some needles are taken out of work, end needle selection is canceled.
After the first preselection row, the machine is set to tuck in both directions.
My test repeat was programmed as a single motif on the 930, with the image mirrored horizontally.
Each pattern segment is 6 rows high, the full repeat is 12 rows tall. Color changes could be introduced every 6 rows.
Following the chart for the first segment, transfer the A marked nonselected location needles to the adjacent preselected ones on their left, push the emptied needles out to A position, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches/loops out to E position.
After 4 tuck stitch rows, push any needles previously placed out of work to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass as part of an all-knit row.
As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the second all-knit row will preselect. As the carriage again moves once again to the previous side, it will knit the whole row, while preselecting for the first hand-technique row once more.
Prior to the next carriage pass, transfer each of the marked B location nonselected needles to the adjacent preselected ones on its right, push the emptied needles out to A, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches out to E.
Form loops for 4 more rows, and push any needles previously placed back to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass, forming an all-knit row. As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the next all-knit row will preselect, followed by preselection for loops and transfers again as the carriage moves again to the previous side knitting every stitch.
Repeat the process for the desired length.
End the piece with at least 2 all-knit rows after a full or half design repeat. Cast off loosely to compensate for the widening due to the type of stitch formation. This fabric is executed as a hand technique/ short rows with no automated tuck patterning assistance.  I have found when using the tuck automated setting in Brother models there is often a limit for accumulating no more than 4 strands in the hooks of the needles, while in using holding, manually pushing needles out to hold and back to work can be far more forgiving.
In this instance, loops are formed for 6 consecutive rows.
There are no all-knit rows. The color changes were made every 6 rows prior to knitting across the newly adjusted needle positions.


 

 

Pretend/ mock cables 4

The blog post Pretend/ mock cables 3  presented the concept of using tuck stitch patterning and needle preselection, a Brother feature, as a guide to creating a version of mock cable crossings.
These designs are from an ancient Japanese publication.  Technically the results are not very cable-like for these three concepts, but they share the principles behind the technique. I am offering this information as a way of interpreting and adapting the suggestions in the publication. There has been some editing of the originally shared repeat suggestions after testing them in proof of concept swatches.
The scanned inspiration source:    The punchcard repeats: symbols are used in the above chart. The elongated short inverted U shapes, with some in bold type, represent the tuck stitch locations and needles that will hold loops in a pattern. The longer, thinner inverted Us suggest which tuck loop(s) will be raised and hooked up on new locations to create the desired textured effects.
Punchcards mirror the design horizontally when in use, so the texture will appear as shown in the swatch photos on the knit side when the design is worked based on the illustrated charts on the right.
When using the tuck setting, unpunched holes will create loops on nonselected needles, punched holes will create knit stitches. Electronic patterns will use black and white pixels to result in the same selections.
Deliberately not punching holes or adding white pixels may be used to provide a marker on all knit unpunched or black pixel rows for hand techniques to take place, ie in the repeat planned for 194.
With the charts as guides, partial punchcard repeats for the three designs: Punchcards ideally require a minimum of 36 punched pattern rows to roll accurately, the single, smallest repeat segment is adequate for knitting on electronic machines.
I knit primarily on a 930 and prefer to tile the repeats in width to the number of needles in my samples. The single motif button, default on the 930, need not then be reset and the design will be automatically centered. It is not a necessary step. Centering any single repeat across the needles in use or otherwise placing it may be achieved by programming its position. In punchcard machines, the selection is fixed across the 24 stitch markings on the needle tape, other positioning may be achieved by shifting the knitting in its position on the needle bed.

My illustrations are achieved by using both Mac Numbers and Gimp.
Adding color to help visualize hand techniques, and tiling to check alignments:
192 is 8 rows in height, more than that is needed to indicate the locations for hooking loops up. It appears this happens on white squares in the published original chart, which translate to knit stitch locations, the punched holes in the card.
For some transfer locations, no needle selection clues are provided, and they are made based on visual identification.
If the transfer is to be made onto a preselected needle, push the appropriate needle back to the B position.
Visually follow the rows down to locate the appropriate tuck loop(s),
lift them onto the needle just put it back to B,
and push that same needle out to the E position after the hook up in order to form a knit stitch with the next carriage pass.
The repeat with the most frequent hand technique is 192, with hookups every 8 rows    Using light color yarn makes it easier to identify the closely packed stitch structures.
The tool used to pick up and rehang stitches can vary depending on personal preference.
Programming the design as an 8-row pattern allows for easier tracking in a design that requires actions to be taken at that specific interval.
Another view: I had a hard time finding the proper spot for picking up loops and needed extra magnification in addition to my bifocals to sort that out.
The wool used for the test swatches is a 2/8 weight.
Because transfers in the scanned publication are made on a tuck stitch row, these designs may be easier to execute on a Studio machine.
As Brother knits that last tuck row, it preselects every needle for the knit row that will happen with the next carriage pass from the opposite side. I found the location easier to track for the hand technique a row early, before the every-needle preselection.
The effect is subtle and time-consuming, a consideration if planning larger pieces of knitting. 193 is 20 rows high, with hookups every 10. In the concept swatch, some of the tuck stitches were eliminated, seen here in a 48 stitch wide repeat, allowing for a released edge on either side. The tiled X2 in height repeat checks its vertical alignment.  This time as many of the compounded knit and tuck loops as possible were moved, producing more detailed surface textures on the knit side 194 is 48 rows high, with hookups also every 8 rows.  The single 24X 48 png is followed by the tiled 48 stitches wide version and the tiled Gimp alignment check   The visualization of stitch/loop movements The hand technique occurs after an all-knit row, which in cards would be all punched, in electronics all black pixels.
In Brother kms, while the first all-knit row is made, the next with isolated pairs of preselected needles will occur.
Prior to moving the carriage to the opposite side, hook up from highlighted locations, and bring needles out to E after doing so. As the carriage travels across the bed again, all knit stitches will form while preselecting for the subsequent tuck stitch row. A rhythm will develop eventually.
Notes to self:
some days it is not good to be near a knitting machine
cables and intensive hand techniques are still on my avoid if at all possible list
keep an eye on broken ends of yarn in old cones at least periodically before knitting across whole rows
if knitting lengths of this technique, or even a large swatch, removing the ribber if it is in use will facilitate the process. Remember to check its balance when it is recoupled with the main bed
while you are busy keeping an eye out on what to pick up and which stitches did not form properly or are jumping off the main bed, remember to look up at the yarn mast periodically, especially if the tension appears to change suddenly An improvement, however, over this masterpiece a decade ago when working in my attic supplementary studio space 😉 Although all hooking up aka ruching is in the same direction, there is no apparent biasing. This fabric is quite compressed, not for someone without a lot of focus, patience, and good eyesight. This pattern emulates the wishbone trim familiar to many knitters. It is the easiest in the series to execute, with the most textured result. The knit repeat used in the swatch is 26 stitches wide and can be trimmed easily to 24 stitches wide for use with punchcard machines.
The heels above the designated tucked stitches at the bottom of each repeat are lifted up and onto the single unselected needle of an all-knit row.
End needle selection is on, and the tuck setting in both directions is used after the initial preselection row.
Though initially an all-knit border was planned on each side, several knit stitches were eliminated on one side of the swatch. The difference is seen in the edges of the work, where all-knit stitches are allowed to roll, creating a very different “trim” than where tuck patterning was left uninterrupted. Such rolls can make satisfactory added details along accessories such as scarves, where a few rows of all knit stitches may also be allowed to roll to the purl side at the top and bottom of the piece as a finishing alternative.
The 26X16 single repeat.  Tiled repeat, checking alignment  Charted information   The proof of concept swatch A mock cable trim may be knit separately, in any color or even multiple colors, and applied as you knit on a large piece or stitched on after the fact.
One variation as a hand technique: after a closed cast-on on 10 stitches, knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side of the original cast-on row, and hook up on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center. Knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side 10 rows below, hang on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center, and repeat to the desired length.
Color changes may be added every 10 rows when all knit selection is made.
The slip stitch setting in this case is used to track and facilitate the process.
End needle selection is on, with the knit carriage set to slip in both directions, with the first preselection row made after at least one base knit row.
Weight may not be necessary depending on how comfortable one is with managing the knit without them and the yarn being used.
The repeat, in turn, is tiled twice in height in the shared png A short slip stitch float will form in the location of the white pixels at the bottom of the chart and when the selection is made to match the top row of the repeat, the single float is picked up and hung on the unselected needles, Those needles are brought out to E position after the transfers.
At that point, prior to the next carriage pass, the color may be changed. The short single skipped stitch floats are shown more clearly in this image. When changing colors it is best to use yarns of the same thickness that will knit easily at the same tension, not done in the first shape in this sample.
If using 2 carriages operating from opposite sides to carry different color(s) remember that extension rails will need to be used, as both will be selecting needles and will anchor onto the belt to do so.
Floats will happen at the side(s) as colors are carried up, but they and cut yarn ends can be hidden when the trim is applied. Here a fixed number of stitches +1=11 is knit for a fixed number of rows
an eyelet is created every 10 rows A
A single eyelet was sufficient to allow for feeding the trim through on the same side and from the bottom up, B and C, upon completion of the planned strip length. The red sample on the left is knit with 2/18 silk/wool, the blue is 2/wool. It is best to avoid any fiber that will pill easily.
The blue samples were knit for 65 rows each. In DIY, begin a test by casting on an odd number of needles (11, chart row 0)
if all needles are not properly formed after a permanent cast-on, bring all needles out to E for the first 2 or 3 rows
insert a claw weight
knit the same number of rows as cast on -1 (10)
transfer a needle to the left or right so as to maintain an even number of needles on each side after the transfer, making certain the empty needle is in the work position before the next carriage pass (chart row 10)
as you knit to the opposite side a loop will form on the empty needle, the eyelet location (chart row 11)
a carriage pass to the opposite side will form the full stitch in the loop location (chart row 12)
The charted working repeat for the trims below is outlined in red 

Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets

WORK IN PROGRESS

In Brother knitting one of the issues encountered when combining fair isle patterning with short rows is that if the fair isle pattern is to be maintained, one must hand-select needles to the proper position prior to knitting across needles newly returned to work.
The short row method here is a modified version of that used in the “wisteria” post, with the addition of needles regularly left out of work.
Analyzing what is happening in fabrics in this group: the working repeats need not be symmetrical, but for the purposes of beginning to understand the moves required and developing an awareness of how the stitches on the needle bed behave, it is easier to begin by using hand selection that is rhythmic and consistent.
Avoiding dark colors is helpful in recognizing dropped stitches in time to pick them up.
With some exceptions, most machine knitting short row patterns are worked in two-row sequences with stitches brought out to hold opposite the carriage and into work on the carriage side.
Typically the first row of eyelets will be approximately half size, and the knitting may be stopped at the top of the piece to match that.
This chart begins to visualize a pattern composed of vertical columns with colors knit on every other needle, produced using the repeat. The arrows indicate carriage movements.
The grey cells represent needles out of work.
The blocks of black and white columns represent the colors in the FI pattern selected and relate to the A and B yarn feeders. In this exercise, preselection is kept constant to facilitate maintaining proper patterning as needles are pushed back into work. Often, after an initial number of rows, all but the first group of stitches in the pattern are brought out to hold. In my swatch, the fair isle pattern had already been established across the needle bed for several rows.
Here one would begin with the knit carriage on the right, COR.
COR: the first group is knit for an even number of rows, ending COR.
COR: a number of needles are pushed back into work on the left, FI needle position is restored with needles placed in proper positions, knit on one row on the combined groups to the left
COL: bring the first group’s needles out to hold, knit an odd number of rows, ending COR.
Repeat moves and selections until the last group of stitches is reached, knit an even number of rows, and end COL.
COL: reverse the process, moving from left to right.
This method results in threads appearing between the short rowed shapes. The first preselection row is made from left to right. End needle selection is canceled. Cast on is over a multiple of 6 stitches ie 36, with every 6th needle out of work. I began the sequence COR with 10 rows knit, returning COR, followed by 9 as the odd number of rows once the next group of needles is brought into work, and the last group worked is pushed out to hold, then reduced the even number to 8, the odd to 7 in the top half of the swatch.
Here the work is seen on the machine, on the left, COR, the needle selection for the pattern in the next group to its left is restored. On the right: after knitting to the left, the initial group of needles worked is brought out to hold before continuing to knit.
A mini version in a single color Changing the holding sequence to eliminate the long threads between held shapes, beginning once more to sort out the how-to before adding fair isle patterning: cast on 36 stitches, with every sixth out of work moving from left to right, knit several rows. To knit: each group of 5 stitches in work has a reference number, 1-6
first pattern row:
COR: Set the machine for hold, leaving only group 1 in work
COR: knit 8 rows on the first group of stitches on the right (1)
push second group (2) into work and knit 8 rows, returning to COR
COR: push third group (3) into work and knit one row to the left
COL: push group (1) on its right out to hold, knit 7 rows across the remaining  10 stitches, returning to COR
COR: bring a new group on left into work, knit one row to the left
COL: bring the group to its far right out of work, repeat the process across the row
when the second to last 2 groups on left (6 and 7) are reached, knit  8 rows on both, returning to COL
COL: push the second to the last group out to hold (6)
COL knit 8 rows on the last group on left (7)
COL, reverse the process repeating all selections moving from left to right for the second pattern row. Begin the process by knitting 8 rows first on the first group of five stitches on the left, which will now have been knit for 16 rows in order for the stitches to create the large eyelets that will now form.
In my swatch, I occasionally varied the odd number of rows knit between seven and 9. Even a couple of rows can make a noticeable difference depending on the color of the yarn, the tension used, and other usual suspects. Test out the idea in the swatch to help make the decision as to whether unraveling is required to keep a constant quality to the holes as the project grows, and to practice unraveling rows back to the proper location. If fair isle patterning is added, corrections become a bit more complicated.
The resulting proof of concept swatch:  With the addition of the fair isle patterning: note that here, when the last set of needles was reached, they were not worked twice before reversing direction, so the edge eyelets are of a different size than those in the remainder of the row, forming smaller waves on each side.   Any openwork fabric will likely be wider than that knit in stocking stitch or fair isle on the same number of needles, making it necessary to consider providing stretch in any rows knit at the bottom or the top of the planned project or using the contrast as part of the final design.
Adding hems to the above technique is also possible

The short row repeat used here is a modified version of the “fern leaf” one in the post. The sequences are different, every needle is in work.
I began by casting on 36 stitches, knitting 12 rows for the even number, and 11 for the odd, with random variations.
Results need not be symmetrical either in the length of the shapes or in the direction of the knit, but rhythmic repetition can help one understand stitch formation, other changes that follow can then be deliberately planned rather than accidents or errors, keeping notes while the work is in progress, will help reproduce effects.   The knitting method, and tips: the fair isle repeat is 2 stitches wide by one row high, and the respective cells are bordered in red, it may be programmed to suit.  When using a punchcard model, the card could simply be locked on any row with every other cell punched. The result will be vertical lines on every other needle, slanting in the direction in which short rowed shapes are knit.
I chose to begin my design with the first needle on the right selected to pick up the color in the B feeder and used that as the basis for adjusting selections in subsequent groups of stitches.
Electronic machines have the option of mirroring the pattern to change that, punchcard knitters can move the knitting one needle to the right or to the left to get the selection they prefer.
As additional needles are brought into work, the A and B yarn feeders selections need to be restored so as to maintain proper FI patterning.
If you have not worked with this type of technique before, it is good to start using a light color and to work in small stitch groups, not adding added patterning until later.
Attempting to visualize the movement of the stitches across the needles in work: the colored cells illustrate the movement of stitches across the needle bed as they are brought in and out of work, and the number of held rows is altered to reduce the chart’s height, does not match the directions for the test swatch that follow it exactly. The black cells represent all knit rows. 1. Cast on the desired number of stitches, in this case, 27, a multiple of 3, and knit several rows at tension appropriate for stocking stitch when using the same yarn
2. COR. Set the machine to not knit stitches brought out to the hold position.
3. Leave 6 needles (3X2, double the number in each working group) on the right in the work position, and push all the remaining stitches out to hold.
4. Knit 10 rows (an even number), ending COR.
5. Push back the first 3 needles on the left back into the work position
6. Knit one row from right to left (9 needles), end COL, and push the 3 needles on the right out to the holding position (6 needles will now be in work again).
7. Knit 9 rows (odd number) ending COR
8. Repeat steps 5-7 until you reach the last 6 stitches, knit 10 rows (even number) over these last 6 (3X2, double the number in each working group) needles, ending COL.
9. Set the machine to knit all needles out in the hold by pushing needles back or releasing the hold lever, knit 4 rows over all the needles. It is possible to vary the number depending on one’s preference, but for me, only two rows simply were not aesthetically enough.
10. Holding lever on H, reverse shaping from left to right, beginning again on 3X2=6 needles, (double the number in each working group).
Reverse the process, moving in the opposite direction, beginning with knitting an even number of rows on the first chosen group of stitches on the left.
The difference in the edging of the swatch, marked by arrows, is due to a variation in the sequence for working on the specific group of stitches. If performed as an error, it will appear as an obvious deviation if not corrected while the work is in progress. The same action may also be performed deliberately as part of the overall design.
Color changes may be made easily where the 4 rows are knit in between segments on every needle used. End with 2 rows in the first color, knit with two rows with the second color before returning to the holding sequences. 
Worked on a significantly smaller scale in one color.
This far more symmetrical result than the first effort worked in the vertical stripe fair isle pattern on 40 stitches: begin with some FI patterning, end COR
COR: bring all but the first 8 needles closest to the carriage out to hold,
Proceed as described for the single color design, but this time 4 stitches are pushed into work and returned out of work rather than 3. Knit 12 rows when even numbers are required, 11 for the odd number.
Four rows of fair isle patterning are knit at the end of each repeating segment.
It is possible to work with far larger groups as well, thus providing an opportunity for adding larger fair isle patterns into the mix. Cast on 48 stitches.
In this sample various size eyelets were produced, using 12 rows, A, which did not seem to yield the degree of 3D texture I wanted. More rows were tried where larger holes appear, B. Four rows of fair isle patterning separated each row of held shapes.
To produce a more symmetrical knit, begin working short rows COR with a group of 16 (8X2) stitches on the right, knit for 20 rows as the even number (in the range of 8X2X1.5), 19 for the odd, returning groups of 8 stitches into work knitting moves across the needle bed, ending the pattern with working 20 rows on the last 16 stitches in work on the left. Knit 4 rows restoring fair isle needle selection across the needle bed, returning COL. COL reverse shaping.   Knitting all the holding sequences in the same direction for multiple rows as in any eyelet fabric will result in a knit that biases to a degree proportionate to the number of stitches and rows in each unit. The start of yet another idea:

 

Geometric shapes in drop stitch lace 4, stitch release, added racking

Though written in 2017, the post on revisiting drop/release stitch lace 1 has had new swatches and updated design ideas added. It includes information on how to use punchcards intended for other fabrics as possible design ideas and a cumulative list of previous posts on drop stitch lace.
The Brother publications have offered this idea for end release drop stitch in one of their volumes of punchcard patterns.  Many published designs recommend beginning the knitting with the racking handle in the center position, 5 of 1-10 positions in Brother, and 0 of 6, 3-3 in Passap. Often the starting position is relative and when a lot of racking is involved, they may be varied, though not the sequences in terms of the number of movements, to different starting points if that seems to offer an easier way to track position numbers. It is one of the many things that once the method is sorted may be adjusted to personal preference. Some of my swatches below were started with the racking position on 10, some with it on 5.
Many knitters in forums appear to have success with end release drop stitch. My experience has been that episodic release of the stitches even as often as after 2 rows knit yields far more predictable results. It is how I worked my shawls produced in the technique, including these two, knit in days when I did not always photograph all my pieces Giving end release another go, this was my initial needle set up. With the majority of the needles in work on the main bed, the larger stitches in the final fabric will dominate. The stitches after the cast on have been transferred down to the ribber. The work on the machine, with stitches on the main bed released at the end of the swatch. There is a long stitch DBJ single color pattern happening which may prove to be an interesting fabric if no stitches are dropped, to preserve it, all stitches would be transferred to the top bed, and bound off.
Here the racking took place in single positions after every knit row. Dropping stitches on completion of the swatch, particularly along the edges was so fiddly and such a nuisance I simply gave up in spots, some indicated by red dots.  This watch had stitches released at the end of each shape, racking in the top portion occurred after every 2 rows knit Here the same design was knit using different yarns. The first is knit using the same blue wool, the second a tightly spun rayon. So many fabrics can be automated, sometimes the fabric is a vague look-alike cousin of the original, close enough to be a reasonable compromise. Slip stitch patterning across the top bed can offer a quick solution to bypassing a lot of hand manipulation. Assuming that was possible for this fabric, my starting repeat, 10X30 pixels: and the plan would be to knit it in a 40 stitch swatch, placed in a way so that the “mock racking” would move equally from side to side. Working on a larger than needed canvas, the design can be placed on a magnified work area with a visible grid, at the chosen starting point. If the background is left as white in BW images, moving repeat spacing may erase black pixels as copy and paste in place are used. The solution is to make the background transparent using the Layer menu, as explained in other posts on using Gimp. To save the repeat as a BW bmp or png, remove the alpha channel The final repeat is 40 stitches wide, 34 high, with blank rows added to its top to serve as a place to drop stitches and have knitting happening on the ribber only.
Depending on the download program or the knitting machine model number, repeats are automatically mirrored, so if direction matters, mirroring of the repeat may need to be performed once more.
Why the repeat will not work for drop stitch: if the KC is set to slip in both directions, the function will happen on all needles in work on the top bed. On any given row, only black pixels (or punched holes) will knit. The slipped/ skipped stitches keep elongating until a black pixel replaces the white one in that needle location. The degree of elongation is illustrated in the chart in color for part of the repeat, the yellow marks the widest gap between knit stitches. If knit as is the repeat will soon cause serious knitting problems and carriage jams.  Though designing for one type of fabric may fail, this repeat or similar could be used successfully double bed in other ways, using hand transfers on the top bed or down to the ribber. In this case, I chose to transfer down to the ribber, which avoids concerns about restoring correct needle selection, and the repeat was not mirrored for use on my 930, so the resulting knit appears as drawn on the purl side, but is mirrored on the knit side.
The fabric is far removed from the drop stitch idea, but as for drop stitch lace, stitches after the cast on are transferred to the bottom bed.
Newly selected empty needles will create eyelets with the next 2 carriage passes, and texture will appear on both sides at the transfer down locations.
The shapes created do not travel on the knitting bed any longer.
End needle selection needs to be canceled at any time that slip stitch patterning is used and does not occur on every needle on the top bed.
If the pattern is to be interrupted by all knit rows here seen as rows with no preselection in the programmed repeat, then any needles with stitches on them need to be transferred down to the bottom bed before continuing to knit.
As preselection begins again, those needles should be filled by picking up from the stitches below them on the ribber, and then the process may be repeated.

Pintucks 1 vs shadow pleats


Pintucks are in the family of ripple stitches. The size of both is limited by the number of rows that may be knitted before the stitches on the bed creating the ripples begin to ride up and off the needles. The number of rows possible for the rolls varies with the model knitting machine used and the type of yarn. The Passap strippers make their knitting easier. Generally, extra weight is required.
Basic pintucks are formed across the width of the fabric, no punchcard selection is required. For some basic instructions on forming them in a single color see the blog post on Shadow pleats knitting. Its follow-up, Shadow pleats with added patterning made me curious about the possibility of creating 2 colors, FI patterned pintucks.
For a very brief period of time, some designs were published creating similar effects by hooking up elongated fair isle patterns at regular intervals on the knitting bed.  The preselection for the next row knit in Brother machines poses interesting issues in restoring and maintaining the proper pattern throughout the design.
A lot of changing cam button settings can make many fabrics almost possible but not practical on home knitting machines. Some of the constant switchings of functions may be achieved by knitting with separate pairs of carriages selecting the pattern, which in electronic models advances every row, making this an electronic “special”.
Ribber fabrics produced with 2 knit carriages selecting needles introduced the idea of using a KC with a modified sinker plate to make some fabrics easier and includes a knit sample of patterned ripple fabric.
The goal here is to try to create rolls evocative of the shadow pleated swatches in a double knit.
Because of the rolling on the knit surface, designs should be lengthed at least X2. The initial test used the same pattern as that in the shadow pleated samples with the number 4, double-length key selected on the 930. The carriage setups The width of the fabric is limited. Though the KC on the right may be moved off the machine if needed, the coupled carriages cannot be since the ribber and KC used on the left do not lock together in any way, and with the stops removed the ribber carriage could conceivably slip completely off its bed. The end of the belt still needs to be cleared, but this is about as far as one can safely move, with the KC just clear of the set mark on the left of the top bed. End needle selection is used in both knit carriages.
Extension rails are required.
The coupled carriages although selecting needles will be knitting on both beds to begin and end the fabric and to seal the folds setting the pleats.
To begin, test the tolerance for the number of rows knit on the top bed only. It is possible to coax extra rows by pushing fabric down between the beds by inserting a thin knitting needle between the beds at the start of the pintuck or halfway through and weighing each end. Longer rolls and hems tend to flatten.
The main bed will be knitting on every needle and FI is essentially a slip stitch, so the tension needs to be at least that for the yarns used in single bed knitting. More pronounced rolls may be produced if the tension and stitch size are adjusted accordingly.
Normally the sealing row would be knit in the light FI color. In these samples, the yellow yarn is used to help assess how those knit rows interact with the folds and to what degree they are visible.
The first try:
1. tested a solid color 8-row pintuck a single time, then switched to 6-row sequences and continued. Even though a contrasting color is used to seal the tucks, it is not immediately visible
2. the second carriage is set to FI and begins to operate from the right. Out of habit, I knit with weaving brushed down, a bad idea in this instance
3-4. this fair isle design is used double-length and forms some very long floats repeatedly, not the best choice even for single bed FI, definitely problematic here, time to regroup.
Comparing the surface to the shadow pleat fabric For a different execution of the same design using a different main color on a different knitting day, see the bottom of the post.
Moving on to a simpler, random, smaller, 12X10 repeat planned for knitting on a 33 stitch swatch and rendered double-height planning six-row pintucks, Visualizing the possible design along with placement of sealing rows represented by all-white pixel rows in the diagram. The single 8-row fold advances the remaining pattern by 2 rows, resulting in a subtle change in the design: My swatch used white for the ground as in the above right, the 8-row transition is marked by the red arrow.  Knitting was easy and smooth, the 8-row tuck required a bit of coaxing. The fabric lies flat, does not have the drape of the single bed shadow pleats, it is not suitable for the same end-use.
Plain every needle rib knit is quite a bit wider, a consideration for casting on and binding off or transitioning to another fabric if this technique is used as part of a different fabric. This file was also downloaded and lengthened X2 The pattern is not very pronounced, but the short floats make for easy knitting. Comparing the fabric to the single bed shadow pleat using the same design The pintuck main bed FI yarn could be slightly thicker. Since the 6-row sequence appears to work well, if the fabric is to be pursued, the design could be planned and adjusted accordingly.
Issues encountered in DIY deliberate design planning: beginning in Numbers, a table is set up with enough rows to accommodate more than the height of the planned design. Since the fabric planned would knit 6 rows on the top bed, then followed by 2 rows on both beds not affecting the design, starting at the bottom of the table, use the command key and work on hiding 2 rows following groups of 6 for the height of the table  The theoretical design in beginning stages:
1: the rows marked in green are hidden
2. a design is drawn using 2-row blocks and shaping
3: it is tiled, appears worth pursuing.
The expected carriage actions, color reversing the repeat so that the dark color will knit in feeder A of the FI single bed sinker plate Points to consider while removing the use of the ribber from the equation:
both knit carriages are set for the end needles to select. When knitting fair isle this is necessary to keep the contrast color knitting from separating from the base color along the design edge. If at any point there are single-color stripes, the end needles if selected need to be pushed back to the B position, or the second color will catch the first and last needles in work, forming a float from side to side. If the yarn is removed from the B feeder and end needles are not pushed back to B, stitches on them will drop. My first try The transition to color reverse shown tiled Leaving the contrast color in the B feeder on the all knit black pixel rows created the first mess. Because of preselection, the return to knit dark rows has every needle coming forward as the single bed KC is traveling back to the right, resulting in another mess.
Regrouping so the first pair of rows with no preselection will knit the dark color, the second pair of rows with no preselection will knit using the paired carriages, sealing the fabric, the larger geometric shape has 2 rows with no needle selection nearly at its halfway point.  The broken threads are due to stitches getting hung up on gate pegs, missed until more knitting had been completed. With more attention, knitting went more smoothly, and the planned design is identifiable.    Perhaps as a farewell to the topic or out of sheer stubbornness now that the above had been knit and I have had some practice, I returned to the more straightforward knitting of that double-length flower pattern with far improved results. Some of the floats trapped behind the long stitches created on the ribber can be seen bleeding through on the right. Comparing the scale once again to the shadow pleats This fabric may fall in the category that need not be knit simply because one can. That said it may serve well in bands joined onto larger pieces, or any use for it may only be limited by patience and imagination.

 

Using Layers in Gimp for color separations

In December 2022 I began to experiment with layer transparency please see the post Gimp Update for Mac 3.  Over the years I have developed personal methods for creating color separations for many types of knit fabrics, born from lots of experimentation when published resources were absent or extremely limited.
I continued to share methods as they evolved from increasing familiarity with specific programs or as I was introduced to new ones.
Since I began to use paint programs including Gimp I had very limited experience using layers and did not consider how they might be used in color separations for BW knit repeats.
In my last post on fantasy fair isle ribber fabrics, Claudia Scarpa shared her layers method and subsequently published a Youtube video for obtaining a separation for a very similar fabric to the one I developed beginning with a large design motif that in her instance was also placed specifically on a larger ground.
Her method for separations in 2 color work sparked my interest in using the steps to yield knitting patterns for varied textures and stitch types, beginning with dbj.
Using
will display layer options in my Mac on the bottom right side of the screen A simple geometric shape is scaled in Gimp to twice its height, check that Quality Interpolation is set to None. I have sometimes had issues with scaling in Gimp, particularly when working with small repeats. The cause appears to have been that the Quality, Interpolation, needs to be set to None and may randomly change while working through several steps in processing any image or after a program restart. Arahpaint scaling is still an excellent option for knitters who have it available.
the white ground of the resulting image is rendered transparent by using Color to Alpha and will constitute the first layer for the separation process Select New Layer from the Layers menu (see chart), choosing the background or foreground color so as to have a white screen. It will share properties with the alpha repeat such as pixel count, magnification, and the grid view if used.
Use the pencil tool to draw a repeat that will be used to fill the new layer, followed by using the rectangle tool to select what will become the pattern used to bucket fill the whole layer.
The latter may be the smallest possible selection or even that of complete rows as in my chart. Copy the selection, it will be saved to the clipboard and remain available for filling from pattern unless the program is quit unless it is saved as a pattern for future use.
After using the rectangle select tool, remember to click in the window outside the image to set the layer prior to using the bucket fill tool in the pattern fill setting or the whole layer will simply fill in with a single color. In the layers dialogue, use the mouse to drag and drop the alpha image icon for the triangle layer onto the newly created one. The selected icon will appear surrounded by a border when chosen, a new icon will appear during the step.  Both layers measure the same pixel dimensions, no placement adjustments are necessary. The mode, highlighted here is changed in a later step.  Color invert the new image  Click on the downward pointer to the right of Normal and select Difference. The result is a repeat that may then be saved and used doubled in height to knit DBJ in a variety of settings.
Elongation after download can be avoided by working with the same initial image scaled in height X4 and following the same process, saving and using the repeat on the far right. The same separation was achieved using other methods in the post on fantasy fair isle.
Possible DBJ settings on Brother machines using the elongated final repeat are shown in this grab, part of the postEOR refers to a repeat that would require double length after the download, the same machine settings apply to any image created in a double-length format prior to download. Are punchcard knitters left out? In the post on the color separation used for the KRC equivalent separation for a punchcard two results were presented, the full card and the starting design shown with the color reversed repeat of the above. The process begins with obtaining the double-length separation after saving the last file on the right as png discard any files still open. Open the saved png and process it the same way, changing the ground Save the last file as png. Punchcard knitters would need to tile the fileX4 in width and in height X2 but the final repeat appears different than that in the punchcard post, the proof of success or failure is in the knitting. If the swatch is knit on electronic models, the first preselection row is made from left to right, as it would be if using the built-in color separation. The main bed for this fabric after the preselection row is set to slip in both directions, the ribber, using an even number of needles, is also set to slip in both directions with lili buttons. The 8X32 png The result from repeating it twice indicates the separation indeed works. When a color separation is downloaded it is used as one would a fair isle. If the motif is representational and direction on the knit side matters, any repeats may have to be mirrored horizontally if they are automatically reversed by either your software prior to download or your machine model after it.

There has been renewed interest in the MK FB group on drop stitch lace recently. I plan to address using this repeat in a future post on knitting the fabric using img2track. The 16X72 double-length png A quicker matching result:
begin with the motif lengthened X4
open a new layer, bucket fill a striped ground, and use transparency to change the white in the result to alpha. The layers are immediately combined into a new image
color invert the resulting file
change layer mode by selecting difference from the menu, save the resulting png
Tiling to visualize alternative repeats, beginning with the 24X72 pixel fileThe file for the image in the center, modified to 24X144 pixelsThe file for the image on right, modified to 48X144 pixels  Removing the color on every other row for use in specialty fabrics ie drop stitch lace using a modified stitch dropping tool with a now edited 24 stitch repeat, suitable for punchcard models:  The image is processed as for the previous separation, the final png is exported. Open the saved in Gimp.
From the Layer menu choose new.
Create a pattern for bucket-fill in pattern using color, in this case, blue.
A new image immediately appears, export it as a png.
Open the saved 3 color png.
In the tools menu choose the second option for fuzzy select by color, the icon will change. Using the rectangle tool, select a single blue row, after the selection, press and hold down the shift key and repeat selections of multiple rows in the same color. Each selection will be bordered by a dotted line. Release the shift key. Click on the rectangle select tool and then again in the work window outside the image to set it. Dotted lines will disappear. The same action is repeated if working on segments of the full file at a time.
Export the fully altered file as png ready for download, or print a gridded version to follow in punching a card. The 24X72 new png MOSAICS: For proof of concept, I intend to use separations for fabrics accompanied by knit samples in previous posts,  beginning with a mosaic one, achieved in the post. The images shown are for the final repeat as separated there are shown at the top of this new image. Below comparisons are made between the original download file and its companion elongated repeat alongside the same developed using LayersBoth results require scaling X2 prior to knitting, whether by button setting changes in the repeat after download or in Gimp prior to. After reaching the step where the layer mode is changed to Difference (or Exclusion), stop and save the png, using color reverse at this point will revert to previous a previous layers view open the saved png in Gimp, use color reverse, then scale the result doubling its height, save the png for download and knitting without changes in any machine settings. Testing another image separated in a previous post: the original charted image is now rendered in black and white the repeat as png  tile check The process in LayersThe very last file on the right is saved as a png. In turn, it is opened again in Gimp, scaled to twice its height The non-elongated repeat actually matches that in the punchcard, which was knit with the machine set to double length Exclusion is the alternative Layer mode which when following the same process yields identical results. A block slip stitch design from the post requires color inversion and doubling the length. A: design motif
B: lengthen X 4
C: color reverse
D: new layer filled with pattern
E: color to alpha immediately results in F
F: save png for download

Revisiting fair isle, thread lace, 3D surface potential

WORK IN PROGRESS

Tuck and slip stitch are commonly used to produce very effective textured surfaces often accompanied by color changes. Those color changes require knitting with yarn always in the A position in the sinker plate, and color changes are made by replacing the yarn in that position by hand, or by using the color changer. Fair isle and thread lace operate differently, as they carry and work with two yarns at once. Some of these samples were also presented in the post on fair isle variations
For textured surfaces using wire for one of the two colors makes the fabric moldable, here 32 gauge stainless steel wire is used as color 2, card#2 Using end needle selection when there are needles out of work results in single stitch width vertical columns of color that are planned in this instance as guides for sewing machine stitching lines. The width of the fabric is limited because of the number of needles actually knitting the pattern, but the technique offers the opportunity for a coordinated bicolor fringe with placement on the motif from casual to very deliberate, either side may be chosen as the “public one What may be firing in one piece could provide a tube for insertions on either side of the knit.
The fringing here is created by having needles out of work with one or two needles in work at their outer edge anchoring the deliberate floats on one side, trimmed when the piece is complete, before felting. The triangles are formed with single decreases followed by increases to reverse the shaping keeping the fringe edge needles in a fixed position. There is some rippling along the shaped edge, but the remainder of the fabric is fairly flat. Felting creates a reversible knit, shrinkage, possible stiffness, and potential limitations in the width of the final fabric are considerations when planning wearables. These factors become irrelevant when the goal is sculptural form.  Creating blistered surfaces the easy way,  leaf pattern variations: poly-cotton and raffia on the bottom, fishing line as the second yarn line on top. I have found the line for 6lb or fewer works best. The knit is flat. Felted rayon chainette and wool; when the main color is wool and the rayon renders the floats there is minimal blistering the result from reversing the yarn positions creates more bubbling
Here elastic is used as the second color in the thread lace setting.  Using wool and acrylic non-felting yarn, the original mylar repeat was altered to twice as long and rendered twice as wide as well the difference in finished width The yarn positions in two color single-pass knitting, remain fixed in their relationship to punched holes. In fair isle patterning, the back feeder, usually labeled A, knits the ground on non-selected needles in the B position. The yarn (red) in the forward, B feeder, knits the stitches on needles selected to the D position which correspond to punched holes or black squares in a mylar, black pixels in a computer file for download. In thread lace, the back A position yarn knit both yarns together, while the forward B position yarn, red thread, knits the forward yarn/color, with the other yarn creating the single set of floats behind it.
Not all machines have a thread lace carriage, I use a punchcard model KC on my electronic machines 
Sinker plates in different model years may also differ.
In terms of blistered fabrics in 2 colors using elastic yarn as one of the two fibers, the results in FI and its double sets of floats are shown on the left, the thread lace version with only the elastic creating the single float on the right.  Thread lace patterning may also be used with a thin, non-felting yarn knitting the areas of the pattern intended for the 3D texture in the forward yarn position. The rear position yarn needs to be wool or other fiber that will felt and shrink with processing. In the finished piece, the wool floats may be left in place, trimmed, or the thin shapes may even be trimmed out leaving openings that do not ravel In addition, large thin fabric shapes can be stiffened over enclosures to create permanent effects in sculptural pieces.

 

Ribber fabrics with stitch transfers between beds 2

A collection of embossed patterns created by isolated groups of stitches being brought in and or out of work on the ribber
2021/05/09/double-bed-embossed-patterns/
2021/02/25/brother-shadow-lace-rib-transfer-carriage/
2021/03/11/slip-stitch-patterns-with-hand-transferred-stitches-double-bed/
2020/08/13/ribber-fabrics-with-stitch-transfers-between-beds-1
2017/12/20/combining-kc-patterning-with-racking/
The inspiration fabric in the 2020 post and one of the resulting swatches The inspiration fabric recently found online, source not knownAnalyzing the structure: it appears the fabric is knit with slip stitch textured patterning on the top bed, and occasional needles in work on the ribber creating elongated stitches that float on top of the light-colored rows.
Slip stitch textures narrow the fabric width considerably, so the single-color areas would need to be knit in slip stitch as well, here a 1X1 repeat is chosen.
Needles brought up to work on the ribber are planned to interact at intervals with stitches on the top bed. The starting concept working in Numbers In slip stitch patterning the white pixels slip, the black pixels knit. This repeat is 20 stitches wide, so not usable for a punchcard machine. The first draft is 20 stitches wide by 32 rows highThe test swatch: Any adjustments in the dark color stripe between will need to be made within the repeat itself, the floats in the light color will be wider by using a simple color reverse. The color reversed, modified repeat is now 20 stitches wide by 28 rows  The test swatch was executed using the same red/yellow yarn combination, then in black and white using different yarn thickness and tensions.
The width of the spaces between stitches on ribber can be varied, creating shifting size “window panes” resulting in a knit fabric with a very different aesthetic.
The reverse surface is not particularly exciting. A comparison to the mirrored original inspiration, likely knit in thicker yarns The knitting process: with any textured or very lacy knits casting on and binding off require special consideration.
In test-swatching, knit the pattern single bed first to sort necessary tensions and visual appearance, follow with plain knit rows using the dark color,
use the ribber cast on comb to poke through the knit, hang ribber weights, bring needles into work on the ribber, stitches will be formed on it with the next pass. The ribber stitches need to be knit as loosely as possible, test the rib pattern and tensions.
If using only the coupled knit and ribber carriages, the first preselection row is made toward the color changer from right to left, the dark color knits first.
Needle pre-selection changes serve as guides to both color changes and to carriage setting changes on the ribber.
After every other needle preselection, the dark color knits with the ribber set to knit.
When the needle preselection changes to the alternate patterning, the color is changed, the ribber is set to slip in both directions. The main bed only will knit, in this instance, for 4 rows each time.
After every other needle has been preselected again, the color is changed to dark, the ribber carriage is set to knit in both directions, the process is repeated throughout.
I used a modified KC sinker plate and a second knit carriage selecting needles as shown in the 2018 post
A possible alternative for casting on a finished piece:
cast on every other needle rib from right to left
knit 2 circular rows, followed by an all knit row, the carriage will be on the left side once more
transfer all ribber stitches up to the main bed, bring up the desired needles on the ribber to pick up loops for new stitches before the next pass, with the first and last needles in work on the ribber.  Read the first row of the pattern, cam set to KC1 to ensure end stitches are knit when patterning occurs only on the top bed.
Knit to the left.
The first stitch on the left may need to be filled picking up a ridge from the stitch above it to form properly.
The knit carriage is now set to slip in both directions and knitting continues as described previously.
Once a pattern is set up, the same design can be explored in different ways.
Here the swatch was knit in a single color with the ribber set to knit in both directions on every row.
Because there are many more rows on the ribber knitting than on the main bed, the vertical line created by its stitches is not smooth and is forced up at the top of the piece, creating a wavy edge. The cast on was deliberately loose. To tighten it up at the edge of the body of a narrower knit, every other loop can be picked up with a latch tool or crochet hook moving toward the yarn end at the cast on edge and is pulled through the previous one, producing a chain stitch. When the end of the row is reached, the yarn is pulled through the last chain and secured.