More mesh dragon scales, some striped and some not

A first look at Single bed scales made with stitch transfers: Another look at the repeat, here it is mirrored for use on my 930, and shown in for working over 72 needles knit border stitches on both sides.  A reminder: when transitioning from spreadsheet-generated repeats to indexing and then scaling them in Gimp, check that the interpolation has not been changed in the program since the last time you used it, it needs to be set to none for good results with minimal if any cleanup required.  Analyzing what is happening: arrows on the left indicate the direction of the lace carriage moments. The LC makes 4 passes followed by two rows knit throughout with the exception when extra passes are required to place the lace carriage in the correct position for reversing the direction of the transfers.
The grey columns represent all knit vertical areas.
The 3 blank rows as opposed to the usual 2 in RC 27-29 and 52-54 respectively place the LC in position to reverse transfer directions, which begin to the left on the bottom half of the pattern, to to the right after the pattern midpoint is reached. The reversal helps to create a fabric that is not flat and produces scale-like projections.  A reduced repeat before any mirroring or tiling: Whether the repeat requires mirroring or not depends on the machine used and the software used for downloads. The intention is to have the first row of transfers from left to right. Punchcard users, if the repeat is suitable, may punch and use it as given. The LC preselects on the first pass to the right, and transfers selected needles producing eyelets to the left with its second pass. In many electronic machine models, the pattern is actually opened as a FI repeat and the machine itself will automatically mirror the pattern horizontally so as to have lettering, motifs, etc. appear as drawn on the knit side. For lace and tuck patterns with needles out of work, the image may require mirroring horizontally, true on my 930.
My tests with thicker yarn resulted in a flatter knit, and the LC kept having difficulty making proper transfers. Having the width of each set of transfers set at 4 means that if necessary with the specific yarn, the 7 prong tool may be used to move each group of needles in turn.
The results with easy transfers using 2/20 wool at tension 4.2, meriting further consideration for color change placementsAnother attempt, also shown after a light pressing and folding, pleats could be stitched to create other effects, and then, seeking symmetry, finally realizing each of the above repeats has a missing pair of transfers in the top half, which may account for some of the color placements being “off”. This chart now, now 58 rows in height, appears to contain the correct number of pairs of transfers in each half repeat.  Adding knit rows where transfers reverse directions, here 2 rows are knit in the base color at the end of each segment and prior to changing colors. At or immediately after design rows 28 and 56, the color in use knits for 2 rows. Color 2 follows and in turn knits for two rows, then LC use begins to select and transfer again.  At the top of this swatch, two rows are knit in the white, followed by two in the blue, and two in the white again before continuing with transfers.  The white yarn is a 2/20 wool, knit at just under tension 5, which was the tightest possible for successful transfers on my machine. The blue is an acrylic of similar thickness, which, if pressing was planned for the scales, is a bad idea since it lacked the tolerance for adequate heat and steam.
The zig-zag effect may be enhanced by adding to the number of transfers in each half in the repeat’s length and on each row in width, but not necessarily in the stitch count in the knit columns. One is then committed to knitting broader test samples.
Extending the experiment to a broader repeat, 32X58Both yarns used in the samples that follow are 2/20 wool.
Here this swatch is shown as it came off the machine, oriented sideways a change in perspective An attempt to shrink the size of the eyelets, this swatch was lightly hand felted. The issue with felting very open knits is having enough control to retain some of the openness in the structure, here the projections became rounder and flatter as well. The white yarn is from a new cone and initially needed adjustments in weight and tension in order to transfer properly.  The color changes were made with the extra knit rows after design rows 27 and 56, the result was lightly steamed and pressed.  Bringing the scales closer together, with transfers occurring 5 times in each transfer row, as well as in height The repeat, now 24X42 is suitable for punchcard machines as well The scales in this fabric are permanent. To my eye, the fabric is best when relaxed. The smallest repeat in the series of my own tests, 16 stitches wide by 42 rows,  is made up of only 3 transfers in each horizontal segment, and 5 transfer sequences before the reversal in direction. On each side of the needles in work, there are 3 knit stitches, followed by a pair of eyelets, which fold over permanently when steamed lightly creating an edging, while the remaining knit is left undisturbed. I can imagine the difference in the patterns a fine gauge machine might produce with far smaller eyelets and better definition of the 3D peaks, that said, a few more experiments may lead to developing future ideas to pursue.
If frequent color changes happen in any knit fabric, using a color changer facilitates the process. In the Brother system, color changers sit on the left side of the machine. If lace patterning is to be combined with the use of the single bed changer, the lace carriage will then need to operate to and from the right of the machine.
In order for correct needle selection to occur, when using a punch card machine, the card can be turned over horizontally, marked accordingly on the reverse, and used as-is. In electronic model machines or download software ie Ayab where lace patterns need to be mirrored for transfers to be correct, the repeats may be left and used as drawn for the first row of transfers to happen to the left.
The result of my first test combining chevrons and scales, and sorting out patterning transitions. The fabric is shown relaxed, shortly after its removal from the machine: Realizing that in the scale repeat below any reversal of transfers in design works as a coordinating chevron repeat, this swatch was knit at the same tension and using the same yarns as the above, with one more added color.
As can happen in lace knitting, a couple of bad needles and other issues resulted in spots that have visual errors or show inadequate “fixes” and elongated yarn loops. The dark color especially liked to get hung up on gate pegs, a strong argument for regularly feeling the back of the knit.
Some steaming and light pressing was required to reduce the strong curl and make the shapes more visible, losing much of the 3D scale effects, still one can begin to get a sense of the appearance of more frequent color changes in this particular lace design along with the change in the quality of the knit, seen also in the side edges. The variations could be endless, each type of repeat here was programmed separately, but once the desired rotation is worked out, a single long repeat could be programmed instead.  If the changes happen after even numbers of eyelet rows are to be formed, the count in the original repeat can be adjusted to reflect that. Committing to the above repeat, using a spreadsheet, and readjusting the number of eyelet rows in height, there are several choices.
One is to program two separate repeats, each in height required. In this case, the first could be kept continuous after programming, but the second would need to be adjusted in height for more transfer rows and reprogrammed accordingly. Making things work can be a drawn-out and convoluted process at times aside from any experience one has, and lace, in particular, can prove to be a challenge, it helps to take breaks and come back with fresh eyes. The first and last 3 rows in the 24X54 repeat in practice are not needed. A cheat sheet can be created and is handy and may be reduced in size to provide minimal information if there is no other way to keep track of color placements.
Testing the concepts using the narrower repeat of 16 stitches in width but the same in height, this sample is the result of the first try at the adjusted repeat. The fabric is steamed lightly to avoid too much stretching in width, the goal is to have the first set of scales appear across the row at the location pointed to the cyan arrow For that to happen, if the last row of chevrons ends with a transfer to the right, then the knitting for the scales should begin with transfers to the left. The reversal is commonly created by having 3 rows rather than 2 between repeat segments. Another in the series, with the intended goal being 3 scales, not 2, and playing with more color variations. Another look at pattern intersections, seeking another scale In developing one’s own designs with some practice what information is useful becomes more evident. Sometimes more is less, sometimes it is necessary to really sort out what is going on.
Back to charting: anyone with familiarity with lace knitting punchcard patterns is familiar with the arrows and other markings usually found on the left-hand side. In this fabric, standard transfers are made to the left or to the right. As explained, the chart can be created with typical markings for standard transfer directions, and since the 930, in my case, mirrors repeats vertically, the resulting repeat may be used as drawn to operate the lace carriage from the right. Working in a spreadsheet with added column markings:
A: typical arrows on punchcard repeats, the first row preselects needles moving to the right, and no transfers are made
B: design row numbers
C: the locations for knit rows using the knit carriage, and attempt to visualize locations for color changes. Reset the row counter to 000 before making the first pass with the knit carriage. In the instance, that will take place from left to right and back to the color changer. Colored cells are added as well, reflecting color change locations.
D: the arrows indicate the direction of the transfers, and match those in column A. When transfers are reversed, the stitches will move in the same direction again, forming the projections that create the scales
E: the position of each color in the color changer, blue cells mark areas where extra LC passes occur so as to set up the reversal of the direction of the transfers. The 16X84 repeat is tiled to include equal borders on each side to 51X84, the chart is rotated counterclockwise.  A test changing the color change rotation in the diagram to get a sense of matching variations to the diagrams.  Working in single color once more, the lace carriage now returned to operating from the left, testing the continuous 84-row repeat My spreadsheets are created using Numbers, here some of the tables are exported to an Excel document to possibly aid in DIY lace chevrons and scales Excel
Lastly, working multiple repeats in only one color helps assess whether the resulting fabric movement matches the specific design goal

A double bed version created with racking offers a different opportunity to explore scales with striping The chosen repeat in turn used in an accessory.  If the striping zagging formations are what appeals and the 3D elevated scales do not matter, a flat version in a mesh lace may be of interest. The repeat is continuous with no reversal of the direction of transfers, and those vertical columns of knit stitches are eliminated. The yarns used in this swatch are cotton and rayon.   

To mesh or not to mesh 9: more on mock filet design

Previous posts with some related information:
A lace mesh series: using GIMP  8/17
To mesh or not to mesh 1  5/11
To mesh or not to mesh 2  5/11
To mesh or not to mesh 3  5/11
To mesh or not to mesh 4 5/11
To mesh or not to mesh 5 7/17 a collection of mesh design repeats
To mesh or not to mesh 6: chevrons 6/20
Lace knitting tips, to mesh or not to mesh 7  7/20
To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp 5/21
Unconventional uses for punchcards 2: thread lace cards for “filet” mesh  8/17
It is hard for me to imagine a decade or more has passed since I began to blog. My approach to post content has evolved since then as has my shifting familiarity and use of software programs. Periodically topics resurface to my attention. Lace is one that crops up every few years, resurged after my purchase of Dak and my experiments with testing the lace module, and has persisted, so here I am once more looking at superimposing shapes onto a preferred mesh repeat.
There are always multiple ways to achieve a goal. Punchcard knitters are not excluded from the processes and without spreadsheets, similar planning may be executed on graph paper using colored pencils.
My go-tos now for planning out my charts on a new iMac with M1 chip and OS12 are
Mac Numbers 11.2
Gimp 2.10.24, Rosetta required
ArahPaint 6.0
img2track for download to a 930 to knit swatches, presently from a Windows 10 PC
InSync for file sharing between the Mac and the PC

The final repeats created with any of these methods need to be checked or edited to make certain they observe the rules for placement of punched holes or cells on proper rows for the specific brand and model knitting machine being used.
If the aspect ratio is particularly important, then more cautious planning may be needed.
For an indeterminate reason, the shape for superimposing on a mesh in these experiments is a heart, plotted out here in Gimp for use in a 24 stitch wide limit repeat. It is good to begin on a canvas longer than the estimated motif, magnification to 800-1800X with a 1X1grid and snap to grid make the execution and filling in of small-scale designs easy to plan and view.
In terms of drawing tools, the bucket-fill paint tool may be set to fill with the foreground color, background color, or pattern. The pencil tool normally uses the foreground color. If switching between the two tools, remember to choose the proper tool before continuing to edit repeats.
The heart was plotted out and cropped to 21 stitches by 15 rows, on a 24 stitch grid, and the image was saved, it is deliberately planned for an odd number of rows in width and height.  My chosen lace mesh repeat is 2 stitches by 6 rows. Planning a base mesh in Gimp with the above repeat saved as a pattern and used to bucket fill the canvas: The overall mesh repeat png is saved. Blank areas in every third row in the first and every third row will be skipping transfers in those areas and knitting the stitches composing the shape. The heart shape itself needs to be superimposed onto the mesh base. It is relatively small, with increases and decreases forming it easy to follow, so in the simplest method, red squares for each pattern row are filled in on the grid transfer rows, using the single-pixel pencil tool and working in RGB mode. If satisfied with the placement of the shape, use bucket-fill set to ground or foreground to eliminate red cells by filling them with white, and the mesh design is ready. If working with a card, punch black cells only. This placement is tested and kept in mind in other explorations. Using a spreadsheet: the same sort of chart may easily be created quickly in Numbers. In this instance, my table is still planned for 24 stitches in width, but 54 rows in height. An extra column is added and used on the far left to mark rows to be hidden. Beginning at the bottom left two rows were filled in a different color, the third row is left blank, all 3 cells are selected. When multiple cells are selected, depending on which side of the selection box one hovers over with the mouse, a yellow dot/  handle will appear. The tool acts on the selection. Clicking on it and dragging it with the mouse will, in this instance, repeat the selection until the mouse is released. This may be done in any direction and quickly fills in whole tables. It is not necessary to perform this extra step before hiding rows, but I find having that extra color makes it easier visually, especially when working on long repeats. It also makes for easy return to selection if hiding rows is done in shifts.
Beginning at the top of the table, holding down the command key, select rows marked with yellow cells, in this version of Numbers, table row numbers are green rather than blue,   continue to the bottom of the chart, and under the Table menu, choose to hide 36 rows. With rows hidden the mesh repeat shrinks from 6 rows to 2. A new 4 cell table is created. The 4 interior cells were chosen, copied, and pasted in the lower-left corner of the reduced height table. Once pasted, selecting the repeat again will allow one to use those yellow handles to fill the contents first toward the top, then to the right. The image on the left shows the results, with only the numbers for the unhidden rows shown on the left. In turn, the heart was the pencil tool to draw it using a third color in the chosen location. The unhiding rows function produces the expanded repeat with all knit stitches in red on the mesh grid ground. The column with the yellow cells is deleted before converting the Numbers repeat to an electronic or punchcard, the how-to discussed in other posts. Comparing the hand-drawn heart in Gimp alone on the left, to the spreadsheet results on the right, there appears to be a difference in the starting rows, and in only one other row, two black cells appear that can easily be altered in either repeat. Brother machine knitters would need to shift those 2 blank rows at the bottom of the repeat on the right to its top or to to start lace patterning on row 3.  Keep in mind that lace patterns in particular, with their infrequent markings, even in color reverse, grabbed from a spreadsheet and scaled in Gimp to final repeat size, often require a lot of “clean up. This repeat, intended for use in another post shows the difference between these 2 different programs once more. Superimposing shapes onto the same mesh requires that they be elongated X3. Gimp does not do this well, while ArahPaint does so elegantly. The result using Gimp, with the image Mode converted to 2 colors indexed and scaled in height X3 is shown on the left with marked error areas. The Arah YX3 result on the right is correct, created, and saved More choices exist, continuing to place the heart 3 rows up from the bottom, and not using multiple layers. For the heart to be pasted in place on the mesh, its white background needs to be made clear/ transparent. That is achieved by using Layer, Transparency, Color to Alpha, The layer-to-alpha image may be saved as a png with transparent background for any future use.
Work using 2 windows, A simple copy and paste will fix the image in an arbitrary location. Instead, click on the rectangle select tool, selecting and copying the heart image, paste it on the ground in the second window, where it remains as a floating selection that can be dragged to the desired location and is not anchored until the mouse is released. This may be undone and repeated multiple times.  A, copied and pasted in place on the ground, B, resulting in C
Even easier, working with the full-color, white ground heart repeat placed 3 rows up from the bottom, Aset red as the foreground colorand then use the bucket fill tool B to fill its ground with the mesh pattern, seen in C
Comparing the all in Gimp Drawing to either of the last 2 patterns, two differences appear, an extra row of transfers before removing transfer stitches to start the heart shape, and those 2 extra black pixels/eyelets Committing to the first design, 24X60, Proof of concept for the single repeat: Tiling the repeat before knitting helps one visualize secondary shapes that will be formed by it, here those pairs of extra dots are removed in areas marked with red lines, helping to make the decision about keeping them or not Developing brick repeats or half drop is possible with offset and brushes in Gimp, but, to my mind, easier in Arah. Using the Arah drawing in repeat, the design is now 24 stitches wide by 120 rows high in a brick arrangement offset by 12 stitches. The same heart, in half drop repeat, offset by 30 rows, now double wide, 48X60, suitable only for an electronic machine Changing the background grid for other stitch types: the heart is rescaled for use by 2 or 4 times in height. Again, the differences between Gimp’s incorrect scaling, A, and the Arah drawing in repeat, B The differences between the clear ground heart image dragged and dropped onto the new background or navigating between 2 windows and using the rectangle tool as described to copy and paste. Possible applications This begs the question of working on larger images. For use on a lace mesh, simpler designs apart from overall size are best, but if a mesh base is not your favorite fabric or goal, tuck, slip stitch, thread lace or even fair isle patterns may be created with more overall flexibility, using the same principles on backgrounds.
Thread lace, depending on the yarns and tension used, can provide the illusion of eyelets behind images of any size. The steps: image to alpha selected and pasted onto the ground, color reversed The final png is 129 stitches wide by 172 rows high This is the first attempt at a partial repeat test proof of concept. I have been telling people serger monofilament withstands ironing and light pressing, and periodically I test advice I have given formerly. To start with, the darn monofilament, which I even used in double bed garments, but nearly 2 decades ago, refused to feed properly or at all. Because it is nearly invisible, my knitting started with it pulling too tight, and I wiped out 12 needles out of 72 in different places on the needle bed in a single carriage pass. Determined, I sorted how to hand feed it, got the rhythm, complete a swatch. A marks an error I made in loading the second track in img2track, resulting in an added, wrong pattern row. The holes, B, C, and D were nonexistent until I tried flattening the fabric a bit with an iron, and the monofilament simply melted in various places. Other observations: there is some bubbling in the all knit areas. With ironing, that effect was lost and the areas with more mock holes widened as can be seen at the side edges. In thread lace, the end needle selection is canceled so as to have the paired yarns knit the end stitch, but pattern needles can still be selected, so if end needles are forward in pattern, it is best to push them back to B position by hand. One way to eliminate having to do that, which also reduces knitting time, is to create vertical all-white lines on either side, as in this version of the repeat now 144 X 200 pixels. I had interesting issues with having needle selection visually appear correct throughout, and the pattern itself appearing correct when checked at 1800 magnification. While the smaller sample was accurate until the filament began to melt, here I had 2 needles not knitting the yarns alternately but together, and an odd change in the center that looks as though yarn selection in those areas was reversed. The thicker yarn here is cotton, the thinner rayon. Troubleshooting is required. Unplanned tucking is a sign of damaged needles, but because the second yarn used herd is so thin, the effect was not obvious until the vertical pattern in the same area on the bed became apparent.
I am using a punchcard carriage on an orphaned 930 for the thread lace, and have not knit on more than 90 center needles in the past. Some days both operator and machine need a break. The cam buttons and undercarriage were oiled.  The first selection tests involved programming this as an all-over design. When only using part of the needle bed in a pattern, the center of the needle bed needs to be cleared by the knit carriage for the pattern selections to advance and knit properly. Doing so on part of each side of the center in thread lace and changing the culprit needles eliminated those single stitch issues. Before committing to a large width of fabric in thread lace, perhaps a practical, visible, and easy place to start for checking patterning and needle selection is to knit the ground in this pattern as a fair isle pattern before proceeding with the intended large-scale design. The finished test swatch: because of the disparity between the number of all knit stitches vs patterned ones where one of the colors is slipped on every pattern row for every other stitch, the fabric shrinks dramatically when off the machine. The knit areas pop out a bit, and a lengthwise tug makes enhances the effect  If the goal is a flat fabric panel, then blocking is a necessity. Here the piece is casually pressed, no pins, letters point out issues:
A: knit rows before any pattern selection
B: an attempt to knit stitches with a cast on comb, and no weights, lots of uneven float loops on the reverse
C: changing the amount of weight; if knitting in multiple tracks using img2track, remember to be outside the set mark with the knit carriages before selecting the next pattern row to avoid selection errors
D, E: there are occasional improperly formed tuck stitches
F: “My piece is almost finished, the weights are touching the floor but I have just a few rows left, too lazy to move the weight”, the price: some messy loops on the reverse again to match the start
G: all knit rows again, the latch tool bind off around single gate pegs was a bit snug The mesh effect was noticeable after resting, the piece measures 25 inches in width by 25 inches in height.
When moving weights up, using a ribber cast on comb carefully poked through the knit may cause less snagging and issues than using the single bed cast on comb.
This fabric evolved because of a discussion that began with a knitter who is working on sculptural shapes emerging from textured backgrounds.
I see thread lace as having potential for developing all sorts of blistered, 3D elements that have nothing to do with flowers or wearables and am planning follow-up posts using the technique for texture rather than mock lace. To be rendered usable, this piece would definitely need blocking, maybe even starching in order to be stable enough to hold its shape over time.
I have blocking wires, but over my decades of knitting have maybe used them twice, my blocking has been far more casual.

Friends lately have asked about skulls over thread lace mesh, this is an electronic repeat with room for resizing or border additions, keeping in mind that in thread lace the white areas knit both yarns, the dotted areas create the illusion of holes. The design was initially created working in black and white, with an alpha channel added a new file was opened, bucket-filled with the ground 2X2 pattern, the above was copied and pasted in the chosen position, resulting in this
The 100X92 png which in turn needs to be color reversed for use as a thread lace pattern

DAK lace module 1, template use, other software

Working with lace designs: lace poses interesting challenges in machine knitting. The name is associated with a variety of fabrics, but transfer lace is the specific topic for the moment.
Reminders with respect to transfer lace knitting:
in Studio simple lace the transfers and knitting occur for each row of the design  with each pass of the carriage
transfer lace patterns in Studio km begin with 2 blank rows, end with markings for transfers
Brother transfer lace begins with needle selection markings for transfers, ends with two blank rows. The knit carriage does not advance patterning rows unless the change knob is used to select needles as well.
Hand knitting charts typically illustrate the knit side, while in machine knitting the knitter is working looking at the purl side, so if charting for duplicating the same transfers, the HK pattern requires mirroring
The Brother lace carriages usually operate from the left, Toyota from the right
Some download programs automatically flip patterns horizontally, great if you are working with texts in most cases, but a consideration if you wish to control the direction of other stitch type formations, and lace patterns drawn in the program may need to be flipped as well in order to knit properly on Brother with the lace carriage operating from the left side
When I design, out of habit, I try if possible to work with repeats suitable for punchcard machines as well.

Facebook members who participate in machine knitting forums have access to the information generously shared by members. Sheila West published a video on drawing lace repeats on a DAK knit stitch symbols ground as opposed to the more traditional charting using lace symbols on a blank design grid, and there is also an associated downloadable PDF.

Softbyte support has been responsive and at times helpful in communicating with me, reviewing issues I encountered.

I prefer to download manuals for software when the option is available making it possible to review them when not running the program. In my enthusiasm to do so, it appears I downloaded the manual version offered in the last tab, which happens to be for section 5, graphic design studio, which by default was not helpful in using the lace module. When I initially looked for help, the information that became available was for the wrong module, 5. In using the program on Oct 21 I have not been able to replicate that issue when opening other modules.
When the program is first installed, the manuals are listed in a series of tabs, ending with that for section 5. For Stitch Designer, choose section 3, the manual appears and a way to download the associated PDF is also provided.  There are 5 help files and 5 manual files. They don’t interact at all and work completely independently from each other, can be opened from DesignaKnit or from a file browser window. 
Interactive choices using the help menu: Contents  Manual: When manuals are chosen in any module, there is an option offered to download the associated pdf by clicking on the arrow key specific page numbers based on the index may be entered and jumped to.
Tutorials: Update: The lace module is an extremely attractive solution for speeding up the lace design process whether from published charts or DIY. The left mouse button is used to draw as usual, but the right mouse button is used when drawing shared transfers in fine lace on Brother, or simple lace in Studio km.
My initial experiment and observations:
each time the program opens a new session, the normal drawing pattern appears. Selecting the Lace tool icon in the left menu bar will change the default palette to include the necessary symbols. In working with stitch symbols this is the range of available, It is possible to show any repeat tiled as well. For lace the number of stitches and rows should be close to those required by the design, its overall size may be trimmed if needed when the design is completed.
The left mouse is used to apply the symbols, I have read the right mouse has a different function and is used to draw shared stitches in Brother fine lace or in filling in simple lace designs for Studio machine models.
To select the lace mode simply click on the small icon on the left menu bar, a grey border on its left and the upper edge will indicate it is active, the palette and cursor will change. The designer may enter patterns on this view as well, but I prefer to work with symbols
It is best to begin testing with a small repeat when exploring new techniques, find his format easier to use than drawing on “stitches”. There are several options for the canvas ground color, the default is in blue. As a first step, saved as an stp, Dak opened my saved file as pictured in this view.  Wrong approach: The pencil tool must be active to continue to draw, left mouse click to place symbol, right mouse click to erase, clicking on any symbol in any one row will call up pertinent information on its location in the repeat
Is there another way to draw symbols while working on a lace design file?  use the lace tool, using the pencil tool with each type of lace symbol is not recommendedDAK row numbers do not refer to design rows, they reference row counts as would be seen in any row counter registering carriage passes
Other views for the repeat: as yarn colors and as stitch symbol palette If a symbol is missing from the drawing, the program alerts the knitter to the error.  Here there are no eyelets represented.  There was no warning for the error in the last row of the test stp, where in the last row two stitches were being moved in opposite directions on the same row. If the content is considered accurate, this window will appear, the safe button will be highlighted, click OK I found this lack of warning for some errors in later designs as well, it is a topic under review by the developer. When choosing machine knitting options lace is not offered as one,  fair isle is used To print a template for use on another machine the stp file may not be used for copying to clipboard and converting to stitches in another program. In the print menu, saves are possible for templates akin to graph paper references for working further on both electronic and punchcard machines. For the electronic printout, the choice of the machine appears to need to be set to 950i wrong side facing is chosen for the purl side view.  Stitch pattern print previews, using default settings for layout:
the stitch pattern picture was basically a numbered graph paper image with no content, pattern text, and not particularly useful
other previews:
the suggested electronic repeat: The templates for electronic models have 4 rows between transfer sequences rather than 2 as is usual for Brother. They are needed for interactive knitting where the KC passes are represented onscreen as well, Dak knitters likely set the knit carriage change knob to select needles on KCI or KCII.
For punchcard end-use, change the machine setting for print preview to Brother/Knitking standard punchcard, click ok. When you choose Fair Isle, DAK will reverse your design and that may mean that there will be two eyelets side by side or double stitches transferring because the transfers are being made in the wrong direction. DAK will invert the pattern from left to right if it has the knit method Fair Isle or Wrong Facing. If it has the Right Facing method it won’t be flipped. The knitter still needs to sort out whether right side facing or wrong side facing makes any difference in their particular brand machine outside the Dak environment. The need for added mirroring for correct transfers depends on the download program ie Ayab mirrors any programmed image automatically, or the specific brand machine ie punchcard vs. electronics may behave differently. An easy test is to use the repeat on a small swatch, if side by side empty needles appear on the needle bed, the pattern needs to be reversed. Any lace designs suitable for a punchcard machine, when they are knit on my 930 require mirroring unless the png is saved mirrored horizontally in the paint program used to create it prior to download to the machine.  the repeat:
The numbers on the left correspond to carriage passes, not design rows. While the electronic template represents the interactive kitting repeat and differentiates between rows for use of the LC and KC, leaving the KC rows unlabeled, that distinction is not made for punchcards in any way, and marked numbers are not in sequence. Published Brother punchcards contain additional symbol columns for added guidance on settings and carriage passes.
Assuming the knitter knows whether the programmed repeat will need to be mirrored or not to knit properly on their specific model knitting machine, the 24 stitch punchcard version should work on both model machines.
The numbering on this punchcard template skips 2 numbers for knit rows between transfer repeat segments as seen in the first sample, and in this later repeat, the number sequence interruptions are marked in red. In punching long cards especially, renumbering the whole would make the repeat easier to follow. This stp pattern was also created using the pencil tool in combination with symbols. In the print preview, there were 2 errors in the Dak printouts, the three blank rows rather than 2 in the outlined section between transfers, and transfers in 2 different directions occurring on the same row with the same carriage pass. I have no way to test whether the same issue would occur in interactive knitting using my own stp file. My repeat, drawn in Numbers on the right, is numbered in design rows. When choosing print, the global options allow for editing items out such as company name, date, format by simply clicking in the associated boxes choices can also be made on how to represent stitch units If the plan is to create a punchcard template and the repeat is too wide, an error message appears Paper size measurements in page set up other than US letter

other associated menu choices It is possible to save the template as a bmp of the full image. The size of the file is shown to the right of the pixel count number settings for the clipboard or bmp file, which will vary in proportion to the stitch and row count. Click on the floppy disk icon to save.  My hack for reducing the onscreen size of the templates for screengrabs I could trace in a spreadsheet was to use a 600 mm setting for punchcards, and 350mm for electronics instead of selecting a paper size. The actual printing to scale is not an issue at the moment, but it is possible to print templates to full size, involving a bit of trial and error with individual printer settings and math.
The proof of concept swatch, knit on a Brother 930 KM, mirroring the image was not necessary, the dropped stitch was a surprise design feature when the swatch was very lightly pressed its.png Regrouping after a review of my pencil tool repeat by Softbyte support: the original stp has an error in it on row 11 where yours truly had eyelets being created by having the same stitches moved in opposite directions in the same row. It is interesting that I was able to save the stp without receiving an error message as seen in this instance below when the pattern was being redrawn with transfer symbols on the wrong row, The amended final repeat,   in turn, produced a correct punchcard template using the print preview As an additional lace template test, I repeated the process on a portion of an stp file shared generously shared by a DAK FB group knitter along with photos of a completed, lovely lace sweater using it.  The results are shown sideways because of the repeat length. The 950i template places four rows at the end of each lace sequence, while as seen in the published repeat of a different lace beside it, there should only be 2. The carriage passes made by the KC in traditional lace knitting though they advance the row counter, do not advance the pattern unless it is selecting needles as well, ie in trims that combine lace with the slip stitch setting. Exceptions to the 2 blank rows rule occur when the lace shape reverses direction such as in zig-zags, or when plain knit or pattern rows are planned deliberately to mix and interact with the lace design. Please see the previous post for more on lace charting and explanations for those in-between added pairs of rows variations. Brother knitters outside the dak environment may use the templates as they are, but setting the knit carriage for pattern selection as well on KCI or KCII.

This is another lace stp pattern built using the pencil tool method. The charted symbol diagram was published in a Japanese magazine along with its published punchcard design. There is an intentional extra row at the bottom of the repeat, making it “wrong” if the intended use is on a Brother machine as a test for how the template might handle it in the print preview. Template previews were created using the setting for Brother standard punchcard bulky or Brother 950iFacilitating correct DIY designs, in addition to the warnings if there are missing symbols or any other problems with the design and their respective row locations, the module provides a warning about that extra row, explaining that if the generated pattern is used as is, the bottom row should be moved up or the LC should begin pattern selection from the right. The electronic preview continues to have a series of 4 blank rows between transfer segments. The punchcard template has 2 blank rows between each transfer segment and matches the published pattern with a 3-row exception toward the top of the card. The renderings below begin with the DAK punchcard template on the left with its confused numbering, the extra empty row at the bottom of the repeat was eliminated. The overall repeat is mirrored. It is followed by the published pattern associated with the chart, pixels are then marked for left and right transfers, followed by my amended final repeat, which when knit on the 930 required mirroringLace tool use instructions begin on page 299 of the third module user manual, Stitch designer. From the manual: when the Lace tool is clicked, lace patterns can be created by using the LMB or RMB to click and hold on the stitch cell where the eyelet needs to be, after which the mouse can be dragged in the required transfer direction and let go on the stitch that needs the corresponding decrease. Intermediate transfer stitches will be added automatically where appropriate. If the button is clicked and the stitch pattern has a method that is incompatible with lace, the warning that is shown on the right will be displayed. The Wrong side facing texture is probably the most natural choice because this is generally considered the normal method of knitting on Japanese knitting machines. Sections of Lace and Fair Isle may be used in the same stitch pattern and either Fair Isle or Wrong side facing texture are good choices when working with lace patterns.
If either of the Right / Wrong side facing texture methods is used, and there is only one color per row, it can be transparent or opaque. If there are more colors per row, the opaque color is seen as the real yarn color, while the transparent colors are regarded for memo purposes.
The lace smart symbols have an associated ‘texture’ which is used to see a representation of the finished knitting. This representation is not entirely accurate as decreases have to be shown on a single stitch cell instead of over the two adjacent cells that are affected. However, the bias of the transferred stitches, as well as the lace eyelets are well represented to give a good idea of how the stitch pattern will look when knitted.
The symbols that are specifically used for machine lace knitting are displayed with a light green background in the Symbols Organizer. The same repeat as above was redrawn, with that extra bottom row eliminated  The associated template preview for the punchcard nearly matched the one that was obtained with the pencil tool chart, had some differences: the previous image was mirrored although no dak settings were changed. As in all punchcard template numbering, the knit row numbers are skipped in the sequence on the left, so they will not match design row numbers, the small flower motif is placed differently  This sample was knit using the pattern drawn with the pencil tool, pre mirrored for use on the 930. The convention for lace designs is that they must contain an even number of rows, the one on the right is 47 rows, knits properly, but is suitable only for a border. Here a pair of extra rows were knit, followed by design row 1A wider swatchWhen attempting to use this repeat for a continuous one, unless the total number of rows is an even number, the second repeat will reverse the direction of the transfers, resulting in mispatterning and multiple side-by-side empty needles. Changing the total repeat to 48 rows by adding another blank row places all transfers properly. The 12X48 png
Adding extra knit rows at the top of the repeat ie. 6 or 8 may make the alignment of the 2 shapes to each other more pleasant.
The challenges in DIY lace patterning are many.
The same design was redrawn using only the lace tools. The appearance was the same as in the previous draft, the print preview template was two rows shorter, 46 rows long, no longer mirrored, with the flower shape slightly lower than in the other sample, it is shown here alongside the Gimp png draft for exporting the png used in the samples. Knit in continuous pattern with 6 knit rows added before restarting with pattern row 1 with LC on the left A half drop repeat is also possible. To achieve this test of a repeat drawn in a paint program, I  knit 2 rows after the last “flower” eyelet and had to flip the repeat horizontally before continuing for the top half of the repeat, producing a very different look.  There is a transfer error in the knit swatch on the right where I “repaired” a dropped stitch. Edits would be needed if one is determined to make this pattern automated as a continuous design.
Options for manipulating stitch designs in dak appear to be the following. Interested in developing an automated brick repeat for the above design, this was produced outside dak as a guideline for entering the symbols in stitch designer Using the lace tool, the areas marked in red highlight cells where wrong symbols for stitches in those areas were initially created using the lace tool. Use of the pencil tool was necessary to replace the incorrect symbols. The stp was saved with no error warning, but the resulting repeat was identical to my self-drawn one with the top half of the bricks knitting in the wrong direction resulting in mispatterning and double eyelets.
Saved stp files may be opened and further edited using either or both the lace tool and the pencil tool.
With respect to the use of the pencil tool, from the manual: “It is possible to place lace symbols onto the stitch pattern manually by activating the Pencil tool, then selecting and placing each symbol where required. However, this can easily lead to errors as the placement of each symbol needs to be well understood.
The “Check once for color changes etc.” option in the dialog can be clicked after which dak will either display “No errors found” or it will display error messages such as the ones shown here.
Clicking “OK” returns the program to the workspace where errors may be corrected. DesignaKnit does not mark the pattern when these errors occur. After correcting, “Check” can be run again to ensure all errors have been eliminated. Using the Lace tool to create lace will greatly diminish the chance of errors.”
I have encountered instances where no error messages were received, the stp was saved successfully for supposed knitting, have been told there are edits and future updates underway for both version 8 and version 9.
the right mouse button is used when drawing fine lace designs, which is not part of my present explorations
In theory, the Lace tool will:
insert the eyelet, transfer and decrease symbols in the direction of the drawing
insert a double decrease symbol where the lace transfers occur  onto a single stitch from opposite directions
prevent the placement of eyelets on adjacent stitches within the same row
warn of invalid lace sequences when saving or checking the pattern
remove the eyelet, its matching decreases, and any transfers  in that sequence with a single click of an eyelet symbol with either the right or left mouse buttons
Brother knitters need to keep this in mind when using the lace pattern in the dark environment, the knit carriage will need to be selecting needles as well. If using the templates to generate patterns for use with other download programs, the traditional use for Brother lace and punchcard machines is to have the knit carriage not selecting needles. To use the given template for the electronic in that manner, 2 out of the four blank rows between each series of transfers may be eliminated and the pattern from the electronic template if within the punchcard repeat restrictions, may be used on punchcards as well. Having plain knit rows not selecting, in my experience, makes for easier unraveling and returning to an all knit row when rows need to be unraveled to correct errors or knitting falls off the machine.
All punchcard templates keep the number sequencing for the electronic repeats, removing the extra interactive knitting rows and their numbers from the electronic template, reducing the repeat to design rows, which results in the numbering sequence on the left not matching the actual total number of rows in the repeat, making it ineffective if following those numbers when punching cards.
Making things work: the dak repeat for the brick arrangement, there are single blank rows before selection for the shifted pattern begins,  my edit in a spreadsheet, the yellow cells mark rows missing in order to get the lace carriage back to the left side before the next pair of all knit rows.  The full repeat was trimmed to 12 stitches in width, 48 rows in height, opened in ArahPaint, and drawn in brick repeat, shifting the top by 6 cells. The green lines mark the original single blank rows followed by the pairs of added blank rows with no markings, the needed corrections the Arah image was saved as a png, knit on my 930 using img2 track, and mirroring
The proof of concept swatch for the now fully automated pattern   When a repeat is sorted out it is easily modified to create other variations. Here the small flower shape is eliminated, as well as the first transfer sequence to produce stacking triangular shapes. The repeat is now 10 stitches wide by 28 rows high, so suitable only for electronics.  The swatch was lightly pressed, prior to that, there was actually an interesting 3D quality which can be common to many unblocked lace patterns. If the knitter wants to retain that quality, the quandary is then encountered as to whether one also may want the piece to lie flat, particularly at the sides and the top.
The above repeat was mirrored for use on the 930. With lace as with other fabrics, the repeat may be tiled and programmed to the width of your knitting, here for use in a 30 stitch swatch. While in other fabrics a plain knit border may be added by placing black cell vertical cells on each side of the wide repeats, this cannot be done in lace, because those selected needles will attempt to transfer multiple needles in a single pass, which is not possible. Brother offers edge stitch plastic cams to help with that.  The cast on in this instance is a provisional one, with several rows knit prior to beginning the use of the lace carriage. 

Revisiting lace repeats, symbols, and charting

WORK IN PROGRESS

Lace knitting for many introduces knitting with 2 carriages for the first time. The lace carriage advances the cards, mylars, or programmed pixels a design row with each pass. In other stitch types the knit carriage, once it is set to select needles ie using the change knob on KC, in punchcard machines,

or KCI for end needle selection, KCII for no end needle selection in electronic models, also advances the pattern a row with each pass. The advances happen in Brother machines when any carriage locks onto the belt and moves past the center 0 marking as it travels from one side of the stitches in work and past them to the other.
Electronic and punchcard published lace patterns may be used in both machines as long as when punchcard models are in use, the pattern repeat is a maximum of 24 stitches wide or a factor of 24, such as 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 stitches in width for each complete repeat segment. This exchange is possible because the knit carriage does not advance the pattern repeat in both models, it is left set for and performing plain knitting, with the change knob set to N-L.
When the knit carriage(s) is (are) also set to produce patterning, extra caution needs to be taken with the alternate carriage being off the needle bed so both carriages do not lock onto the belt, which will then be anchored on one side, and pulled toward that spot from the opposite side, possibly causing it to break. One instance in transfer lace knitting when the knit carriage also selects needles is in knitting automated edgings.
Many other stitch types may be knit with 2 knit carriages selecting needles from opposite sides. It is one way to have frequent color changes without using a color changer, tensions and cam button settings can also be different. On an electronic machine, each pass of each carriage advances the design by one row. Here patterns stop being interchangeable. With 2 carriages selecting needles, when a punchcard machine is used, as the alternate carriage makes its first pass from the opposite side, the card does not advance, so the previous preselection is repeated. To use a published repeat for either machine on the other, the repeat needs to be adjusted.
If one of the two knit carriages is left set to N-L, it will not advance the pattern, providing an easy way to add plain knit rows between patterned ones without having to alter cam button settings or the programmed repeat. In transfer lace knitting, there are many considerations when attempting to represent carriage movements for both carriages in a single chart when the knit carriage is not also selecting in pattern, but simply knitting and not advancing the repeat. The first illustrations use the machine knit repeat developed from a hand knit pattern inspiration many a year ago 2013/12/05/lace-mesh-motif-charting_-mac-numbers.
Since then software versions, computers, operating systems, and my use of them have evolved and changed. I have edited the post with additional information, inked in a different color.
Experimenting with DAK has brought me back to thinking about the issues in charting lace fabrics in particular.
Lace knitting tips including card and electronic markings for transfers and knit rows 
Mesh grounds: 2017/07/29/to-mesh-or-not-to-mesh-5-design-repeats/
Info on lace meshes for both grounds and patterns 2021/05/12/to-mesh-or-not-to-mesh-8-more-numbers-meet-gimp/
Two of the posts on using Studio repeats on Brother brands:
2019/02/23/revisiting-use-of-lace-patterns-studio-vs-brother-machines/
A Studio lace card with single blank rows between transfer segments knit on a 910
No symbols are used in this chart, generated using DAK template print preview for knitting with a Brother model 950 i. The red cells represent transfers to the left with LC operating from the left, the green cells represent transfers to the right, grey cells indicate knit stitch rows.
The knit rows in most lace unless the pattern is combining KC needle selection for slip, tuck, FI, or weaving do not advance the pattern rows.
LC actions are marked on the left, the KC ones on the right
The LC makes 4 passes:
1: preselects for transfers to the left as it moves to the right
2: transfers to the left as it returns to the left,
3: transfers to the right as it moves to the right, there is no preselection for the next row
4: moves back to the left with no transfers or preselection
The KC follows with 2 knit rows. In the chart for this pattern, representing only the repeat, there is no room to indicate KC passes on the left-hand column
The appearance of the chart or template changes if 2 empty rows are added to represent the KC passes. It may help one understand what is happening but in Brother machines, 2 of the 4 blank rows here would need to be eliminated for the pattern to knit properly.
Making distinctions in the programming for the repeat depends on its use. If one is using DAK for interactive knitting, by necessity those extra rows are needed to allow for the view onscreen of the rows involved in the plain knitting with the knit carriage. I would assume knitters are instructed to set the knit carriage to KCI or KCII, each carriage will advance the knitting for a row with each pass, extension rails are a necessity since each carriage needs to engage the belt for patterning. Using the same repeat for drawing on a mylar sheet or for download outside the DAK environment the greyed out 2 extra rows can be eliminated in marking squares or entering pixels and punching holes (depending on repeat width), and the remaining repeat should work.
If the image is being downloaded as is to an electronic, it may be used as given, with the knit carriage selecting needles and the cam button set to KC I or II.
Because printing template previews are produced using the fair isle option, the design will be mirrored, a necessity in some electronic models, but for punchcard knitting the same repeat with the extra rows removed, if accurate overall should be usable as-is. The numbering for the punchcard machine sequences however reflects the subtraction of the extra rows in the electronic template, the provided numbers then have skips in the sequences and do not match the actual design row numbers useful when a card is being punched.
Electronic carriages are equipped with a magnet, and must always travel past the center needle 0 position center mark on the needle tape. Markings on brand-specific published punchcards give clues as to which carriage to use and for how many passes. They also may vary depending on the year the punchcards or mylars were issued. To review, here are some of the markings commonly found
Lace knitting on punchcard machines a symbol summary:   There are many differences in transfer lace design: design transfer segments may vary considerably in the number of lace passes and transfers between each pair, or more in some instances, of knit rows. In the pattern below, only 2 rows of knitting are completed after 20 lace carriage passes, the bottom half is repeated X times, the top half X times, adding even more complexity. Depending on the knitting machine model, the pattern may also need to be mirrored to knit accurately. Published punchcard books offer patterns with potential errors usually sorted out. Both punchcard machines and electronics scan the card or mylar inside the machines, several rows down below what is visible to the knitter at eye level on the exterior of the card or mylar slots, so markings on both need to be made accordingly. This is a fact that needs to be considered with cable downloads of the same patterns if entering memos for knit rows. In the case of punchcards, Brother reads 7 rows down, Studio 5. In fabrics other than transfer lace adjusting for the brand is straightforward ie to knit fair isle, tuck or slip pattern if using a Studio company supplied punchcard repeat, simply start the Studio card on row 3. If punching your own, design rows match, if the blank card is marked for Brother, the numbering is accurate by default. Brother transfer lace cards begin with pattern selection, Studio brand with 2 knit rows. In this repeat, a mesh repeat is created first moving to the left, then to the right, the 2 knit rows follow 2 LC passes for transfers to the left, 4 LC passes for transfers to the right. Brother row one marking is underlined with a blue line, Studio with red A Studio repeat adjusted for use on Brother also illustrates that the number of knit rows are only two, the LC passes can vary in number between knit rows. Here LC passes are marked with outlines around pertinent row numbers on the right   Brother vs Studio: extra knit rows in Brother are not physically left as blank rows in cards, the rows for KC are still 2 blank ones, while in Studio cards there is a blank row for each knit row in the pattern. Both these samples have a 6 knit row sequence. Because Studio begins with 2 blank rows, in the repeat on the right only 4 rows are left blank at the top of the repeat. Adjusting for extra knit rows, Studio to Brother These samples are from Brother punchcard volume 4:
single blank rows between transfer segments varying numbers of blank rows between repeat segments multiple rows of knitting (8) marked aside a single pair of blank rows Some electronic examples using the 2-row spacing between transfer segments: this is a page directly from the Stitchworld electronic pattern book a pattern published on a full Brother mylar sheet this is from a studio mylar, the same holds true in terms of the number of empty rows between transfers, that is the reason why most transfer lace patterns unless they are designed as studio simple lace where transfers are made with each carriage pass, patterns may be exchanged between both brands, the only difference being studio starts with 2 blank rows, ends with transfer markings, Brother starts with transfer markings, ends with 2 blank rows.
Electronic repeats are interchangeable after taking that into account, but not mylar sheets between machines, the respective brand mylar readers differ in the number of rows below eye level where the electronic readers scan the design, the set or starting line will be in a different spot. 

Transfer lace may also be combined with other stitch types, each with its own considerations as in these instances both types of machines have the KC selecting needles as well. The punchcard published patterns need to be adjusted for use on electronic models. As already mentioned, punchcards do not advance with the first pass of the alternate carriage from the opposite side, while electronic models advance a row with each pass of both carriages:
adding KC slip stitch selection for creating ruffles and doilies
tuck stitch
weaving 1, weaving 2
fair isle

The lace module in Dak in theory will do the work for the knitter once the pattern is entered as symbols. Eyelets will be represented in single rows, a shorthand version of the previous samples. Reviewing how the transfers would appear on the knit and the purl side respectively. The LC can move only one needle at a time, so when multiple needles need to move to place the eyelets properly, the options are to use a hand tool performing the moves or to develop a pattern with multiple transfers in each segment of the final repeat. The full repeats are often very long.
Approaches for developing DIY design repeats:
2013/07/23/from-hand-knit-lace-chart-to-punchcard-1/
2013/07/24/from-lace-chart-to-punchcard-2/

 

To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp

A recent FB post led the discussion to this repeat from a 910 mylar, which does not have the immediately recognizable format of the Brother lace patterns if viewed in a small screengrab such as this. The repeat is included in Ayab test patterns. The full mylar collection and user manual may be found here http://machineknittingetc.com/brother-kh910-pattern-guide.html.
The segment including the lace pattern Brother was the first to allow programming from multiple areas on a single mylar sheet. Starting and ending stitches and rows needed to be entered, I got used to drawing boxes for each pattern as seen on the upper right, reducing errors in future knitting. The red lines on the copy highlight the repeat’s border. Mylars were read 13 rows down, punchcard machines7. The equivalent of arrow markings on lace punchcards are provided in the column on the left, which extends over the top of the drawing space by the same number of rows, allowing it to remain visible above the card reader even as the top of the mylar patterning area is reached.
The design is actually created from isolated areas of a mesh repeat discussed in a previous post. The lace carriage is used for 2 passes and then for 4 alternately, as indicated on the left side of the punchcard. The 2 passes will result in transfers to the left, the 4 make in transfers to the right. This repeat, usable in nonelectronic models, appears in my pre-punched factory basic packs as both #17 and #20. Depending on the electronic model or the software used to download patterns designed for lace, the final image may need to be flipped horizontally. This is true for use on my 930. Creating a template for mesh using numbers: begin with a table with square cells in numbers larger than you might need, ie 24 by 54. The method for doing so has been explained in previous posts. I happen to prefer cell units that measure 20 points by 20. The smallest repeat unit for use on any machine is isolated, shown bordered in red, is 4 stitches wide by 6 rows high, and drawn onto the template. The group of cells in the repeat are selected. If one hovers over any side or top and bottom borders of it, a yellow dot appears. Clicking and dragging on the yellow dot will repeat the full selection to the right, left, up, or down. Here the move is to the right The whole group is selected, and dragging on the yellow dot once more, the whole template can be filled Beginning at the top or bottom of the table, hide all blank rows. Using the command key during the selection process will allow this to be done on the whole table at once or in groups of rows at one time; 36 of the 54 rows are hidden.   At this point, there are a couple of choices. One is superimposing a solid shape. Using a contrasting color makes it easier to sort out its placement the color may be replaced with white in the spreadsheet,
unhide all rows, and the lace pattern is ready for the final steps before using Gimp The other option is to unhide rows on the colored table, screengrab as usual after removing cell borders. Open in Gimp, crop to content, eliminate the cyan row by filling it with white. It was intended as a place holder for the last row in the pattern, is not part of the final repeat.
In this instance, I used mode, indexed, to the maximum of 3 colors.
Choose the color to alpha option from the colors menu.
Using the dropper tool select the color you wish to be made clear, click OK. Create a new image of the same size.
Copy and paste the color-reduced image onto the new one.  Dotted lines will appear in areas that had the color removed previously. Clicking anywhere in the window outside the image anchors the paste and make those dotted lines disappear. If that does not work, select the rectangle tool before doing so. The file is then ready for final scaling. The last image is in RGB mode once more, converted to BW indexed, scaled to 24 by 54, and exported as BMP or choose any other format ie png, etc. to suit your needs.
Responses to alpha selection can vary depending on the original color palette used when filling cells.
Creating a template for drawing simple shapes using transfer lace, it is easier to start out with the transfer grid in a color, rows are hidden as above, eyelet shapes are drawn in black. The rows are unhidden.    In this instance, the red was selected for converting to alpha with the image still in RGB mode, copied and pasted. The pasted image may be anchored in several ways. Using image menu: select merge visible layers, or flatten image; layer menu: select anchor layer, or simply click on rectangle select tool and click again anywhere in the window. Changing the mode to black and white indexed will yield the repeat for final scaling. Each transfer design segment of the repeat is 6 rows in height and completed with 10 combined carriage passes. The lace carriage, LC, operates first, in series of two passes at first, then followed by four, repeating the double sequence throughout. The mylar, card, or computer image, do not reflect the passes made by the knit carriage KC. The latter is set to knit, does not engage the belt, does not advance the pattern. It helps to look at an expanded repeat to understand that indeed, transfers are made in 2 directions.
Referring to design row numbers, not necessarily those on a row counter:
1.  LC preselects for transfers to the left as it travels to the right
2.  LC makes transfers as it moves to the left, no preselection occurs, remains on the left side
3.  KC, moves to the left, completing the first knit row, creating loops on needles emptied by transfers, the pattern does not advance, remains on the same row
4.  KC, moves to the right, completing the eyelet stitches, the pattern remains on the same row, KC then stays on the right
5.  LC moves to the right, no preselection
6.  LC moves to the left, preselects for transfers to right
7.  LC moves to the right, transfers to right, no preselection
8.  LC returns to the left, no transfers or preselection, stays there
9.  KC moves to the left, the pattern remains on the same row
10.KC moves to the right, the pattern remains on the same row, KC then stays on the right Those familiar with eyelet formation in the more traditional transfer lace will notice the differences here, where the geometric shapes are technically superimposed on a mesh whose structure is revealed depending on where the transfers creating them take place. The fabric is easy and very quick to execute since most of it is in stocking stitch. The proof of concept swatch: The design was not planned as continuous, but is easily amended to be so. Here an alternate version is shown, with 2 linear repeats on the left, and a single expanded repeat to its right As for that mylar repeat, this is an image of the shapes with the chart collapsed, eliminating blank rows between black pixels. The resulting partial test used as drawn In fabrics designed this way, using the image as drawn (left), or mirroring it horizontally, does not visually change the result. This does not hold true in more complex transfer lace.
Several large-scale designs based on this method are found in Brother-electro-knit-lace-patterns-3 This random chart from the publication shows a pattern where the number of transfer rows between knit ones has more variation. Again, knit rows are marked in the column on the far left. Those marks on a mylar would remain visible on the outside of the machine, above the card reader as one progresses through knitting. Memo windows or handwritten charts may be the only option for accurate tracking, depending on the machine model and the row count variations. The repeat may also require it to be flipped horizontally. Simply reaching a row with no needle selection does not always mean the location for the 2 knit rows has also been reached. 

Large scale mesh, a punchcard repeat adapted for electronic

Previous posts including fabrics in this family:
2011: Large-scale mesh, breaking the rules 
2013: Large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not)
2020: Revisiting large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not)

This was the punchcard provided in the first post, knit with 4 passes of each carriage, the knit carriage set to tuck in both directions Brother punchcard machines do not advance pattern rows when two carriages are used for needle selection as each carriage begins to move from the opposite side, the same preselection is repeated. This means editing is required at times if the same designs are to be used on electronic machines, particularly true in lace combination fabrics. The process has been discussed in posts on automating lace edgings with slip stitch settings.
End needle selection is canceled in both carriages, if any end needles are selected prior to a lace carriage pass, they need to be pushed back to B position manually in order to avoid transfers resulting in decreasing stitch counts or dropped stitches.
All versions proposed below share transfers that result in 3 stitches on a single needle, with two empty needles on each side of them.  Here the needles are preselected for the next pass which will begin to fill in the double space, the needle in D position will knit, the one in B position will tuck;   this is how the yarn is laid over those 2 needles after the first tuck row is completed,  and both when using the card and in the first electronic repeat there will be a third tuck loop that is laid over the needle holding the 3 stitches. This is the appearance of the stitch formations just prior to an all-knit row  Here analyzing the actions of the punchcard, marking rows according to card actions, the repeat is expanded to include the extra duplicate rows. Though the repeat remains 24 stitches wide, it is no longer usable for use on a punchcard machine. For knitting on the 930, the design requires flipping horizontally in order to knit properly. The third tuck row may be eliminated to produce an extra all-knit row, resulting in a slight difference in the shape of the eyelets Lastly, the repeat may be amended with extra stitches and rows between each eyelet  


Lace meets FI on Brother machines

Very little has been written on this topic.
The easiest method to produce the eyelet and fair isle combination is to create ladders in spaces between vertical FI motifs. The end needle selection is canceled. The swatches show the transitions in the development of the final design

Susanna in her Machine Knitter’s Guide offers a version knit in combination with the ribber on page 218, and a small amount of information on single bed versions on pp, 220-221.
Before any DIY, I like to start with a published pattern. Toyota, in this volume,    offers 4 punchcards for use with this technique I chose to work with #170. The lace carriage in the Toyota models operates from the right side rather than the left as in Brother. The direction of the arrows marked on the card actually indicates movements for the carriage operating from that side. That fact is taken into consideration planning a possible Brother punchcard repeat. Lace direction arrows are matched based on the punchcard image being mirrored horizontally. The card in its original version is imaged on the left, mirrored on the far right, the proposed Brother punchcard in the center The proposed Brother punchcard repeat is now expanded for use on the electronic machine, ready for converting to .bmp in Gimp. Numbers in the middle of the chart on the left helped keep track of repeat segments. I also used red dots initially to mark segments as I had completed in the expanded the repeat, then erased them
  The Gimp magnified punchcard repeat  in turn in need of mirroring for the .bmp to be used in the 930the resulting fabric Observations and settings:
The knit carriage is set to FI patterning for the knit rows, the typical floats will be created. Commonly, when floats are wider than 5 pixels, anchoring the longer ones may become a preference or even a necessity. This would add time to an already complex fabric. Each FI design row is repeated twice.
The transfers in this design are made on the yarn in the color in the B feeder. I began my swatch using the light color yarn, failed to switch its position to the B with color 2 for the shape in A, accounting for the dark stripe at the swatch bottom
If KCI is used, end needle selection will be made prior to the lace carriage passes. Those preselected needles will have to be pushed back to B position by hand prior to using the LC or they will transfer on one side and drop on the other.
In this pattern, the LC operates for 8 passes, followed by 2 rows of FI throughout the piece. The first preselection row is made with the KC from the left as it moves toward its home on the right.

What of DIY? From working on the repeats for transfer lace combined with weaving, I understand patterns beginning with transfers to the right rather than the familiar to the left, are shortened considerably and carriage changes may be made as often as every 2 rows, saving many carriage passes. In order to understand the choices that need to be made, I began with a lace transfer pattern, thinking I could add contrasting color shapes in FI. I expected something like this however, the swatch had issues. The eyelets were not occurring in the same spot in both directions, the color transition at the repeat intersections was clumsy Regrouping: the easiest place to insert eyelets is in the dominant, background-color The 930 .pngA quick test: rows with no needle pre-selection will knit in only one color, end needle selection must be canceled before knitting to the other side Can the exchange of the color positions in the yarn feeder create colored shapes with eyelets on the white ground? not only does it not do so in a way I liked, but my machine was having none of it as well  Coming up with a better plan resulted in the following repeat. The transfers are made in the wanted direction on the purl side of the fabric, so their location becomes easy to check and identify during knitting. In this exercise, they will be placed in the center or the previously knit fair isle rows. Magenta cells marking the doubled stitch after transfers to the right, the cyan one the doubled stitch after transfers to the left. The two blank rows at the top of the design will knit in the background only. Building the repeat in Numbers: the eyelets within the shapes in the contrast color need to begin and end with a pair of FI rows. They are placed taking into consideration the black cell blocks immediately below them, not the ones directly above It’s good to start with a small repeat.
A: one may begin with a planned repeat, in this case, 20 rows in height
B: create a table at least twice the planned height or start with a long template that in turn will have half its rows hidden. Holding the command key select every other pair of rows beginning with 2 blank ones at the top of the table, and hide them. The location for the options to hide and unhide rows and columns:  C: Once the rows are hidden, the black cells are filled in
D: the repeat is tiled to check its alignment
E: the hidden rows are unhidden,  I like to add colored cells as shown to ensure proper placement of eyelets
F: place black cells for stitches to be transferred where desired
Previous posts describe the steps to isolate the repeat as a screengrab and importing it into GIMP. The grab is cropped to content, image mode to indexed, scale to the proper size, mirror for use on the electronic if needed, save, and use the final image to download to the knitting machine for testing.
The first pair of rows are knit in FI, so the preselection for design row 1 is from left to right.  The KCI setting will bring end needles out to D prior to lace rows, those needles need to be pushed back to B position prior to moving the LC from left to right. Continue with switching carriages every 2 rows. This repeat is 20 rows high. When knitting the last 2 rows, no needles will have been preselected, except for first and last. Push them back to B for those two rows, so only the color in the A feeder knits, and the preselected needles do not drop off the bed. The second color does not need to be removed from its location, but in executing a wide piece of knitting, the extra yarn pulled down from the tension mast as the knit carriage makes its passes may cause issues. If the yarn is removed and held aside, be sure to place it back after the 2 passes with the ground color so as to avoid forgetting to do so prior to resuming patterning using 2 colors per row. Taking it to continuous shapes and checking them in repeat: red cells represent transfers to the right, cyan ones the transfers to the left. The empty cells adjoining each of both colors represent the location of the doubled-up stitch after the transfer is made I like to check tiling for the repats along the whole process
Though the repeat is 24 stitches wide, it is not suitable for use on the punchcard machines in this format, its tiled test and .pngThe one area where the white got picked up with the contrast is not due to programming, but likely to operator error in “correcting” a dropped stitch Adding another contrast color stitch to shapes will make the number of stitches on either side of the eyelets consistent  Adding lace shapes in the ground can follow the same concept The repeat does was not planned as a continuing pattern, but here it is knit and repeated in height X 2 and with the addition of two blank rows at the top of each segment.
The possibilities are endless, with some patience, they can be manipulated to meet personal preferences and taste.

Lace meets tuck on Brother Machines

Some DIY variations in combining both stitch types:
Combining tuck stitches with lace 2 (automating them) 3/15
Combining tuck stitches with lace 1 3/15
Large diagonal eyelet lace, (a similar card and fabric, not tuck setting) 6/12
Large scale mesh, breaking rules 4/11 explains the use of punch card below
Tuck stitch combination fabrics 5/19
To execute this knit fabric, the lace carriage is set for normal lace, the knit carriage selects a pattern (KCI) and both tuck buttons are depressed. Each carriage works in sequences of 4 passes/rows throughout. The self-drawn card does not include familiar arrows on the left-hand side familiar to users of factory published lace cards Working out an electronic repeat: the punchcard repeat is on the bottom, the expanded electronic one on top, yellow cells highlight rows with tuck stitches In electronic machines, the first preselection row may be done with the knit carriage moving from left to right or the lace carriage moving from right to left, with either carriage moving toward its usual starting position. The knit carriage is set to KCI for end needle selection. Before the LC begins to move from the left the first and last needle will have been preselected, push them back to the B position. Continue to do the same if any end needles are selected just prior to a transfer row as you continue to knit. Each carriage makes 4 passes throughout the piece. The bottom row of eyelets shows the “standard” size eyelets that follow single transfers, illustrating the change in size with this technique.  With the proper tension, transferring is not a problem. I sampled on a random number of stitches. For cleaner edges, a border where no transfers occur for 2-3 stitches can be planned in programming the final piece.
Returning to Volume 4, here is a combination of lace and tuck repeat that appealed to me. I am repeating a process akin to that used in programming the woven lace samples. In this card, lace transfers are first to the left, then to the right, that sequence needs to be preserved. Colored pixels need to be used everywhere a punched hole is represented. The lace portion of the card will not tolerate color reversal. The published full repeat is for a brick configuration, I sampled the top half.  The actions of the 2 carriages on the electronic, the repeat prior to mirroring mirrored for use on the 930  The texture is more apparent on the purl side, the top and bottom edges could be coaxed into a wavy shape due to the gathering up of the knit by the tuck diamond shapes The chart for the brick configuration: An advanced technique fabric, combining lace, transfer lace, and tuck patterning

Lace meets weaving on Brother Machines 2

Early Brother punchcard volumes showed symbol charts alongside punchcard repeats. The translations at times were not the best. Here is some of the advice offered for woven lace patterns:  

This was one of the first such punchcard volumes published by Brother after the pushbutton earlier models were replaced by ones with card readers It has the added data on how each of the fabrics might look visualized in a chart prior to its expansion as a card in full repeat. This is the top half repeat of a card for pull up weaving combined with lace along with the directions for execiting the knit My experience with trying to knit CARD # 589, led me to notice immediately that all carriage passes, if the arrows are followed, are made from the same side. That avoids the repeated selections when carriages first start operating from the opposite sides. My interpretation of what the card is achieving: Taking carriages on and off the same side of the machine is nothing I would be inclined to do for any length on any machine. In theory, the identical repeat above could be used on an electronic KM in that way, but I did not get very far with that method before giving up.
The expanded the repeat for use on my 930, with programmed all-black pixel rows for any pairs of all knit rows, made for smooth, easy knitting The weaving yarn used in patterns such as these will be held in the hooks of the needles, combined with the knit stitch already there. In this instance that adds up to 5 loops that need to knit off smoothly on the next knit row, so yarn thickness choice meets with limitations.
The first preselection row is made from left to right with the knit carriage, it resumes patterning on the right, beginning the weaving pattern. End needle selection is on, KC I.
When the knit carriage is on the right and all but those single needles are selected on design rows 5 and 23, pick up the floats from the weaving yarn with a single eye tool and lift them onto the non selected needles, then bring the same needle out to E position before moving the carriage to the left to create the first all knit row.
Before transfer rows using the lace carriage, if any end needles have been selected in pattern push them back to B before traveling with it to the opposite side. The electronic repeat, followed by its .png

Later punchcard volumes ie 4 and 5 took into account the repetition issues when carriages select needles for patterns from opposite sides, and that may be the best place for card designs that may be knit following arrows as shown, in the traditional manner. This design has fewer woven rows, a larger lace motif Volume 4 offers only this advice: “the empty needles are selected at the second lace pattern, but this is not a trouble, and you may pass the L carriage to the side which is indicated on the punchcard”. I take that to mean that after a transfer if the same needle is selected again, don’t be concerned, keep moving the carriage in the direction of the arrows. Because the weaving is for only 2 rows, the use of laid in, thicker yarn is well tolerated. The punchcard repeat amended for use on electronic, shown prior to mirroring its .pngE wrapping or other weaving techniques may be used on “weaving” row preselected needles, needles can also be hand-selected in knit areas in any other programmed lace repeat to add details on the chosen row(s) without engaging the card reader. Knit 2 plain rows, select weaving needles, wrap the yarn over or around them in the desired configuration, knit 2 plain rows again, resume lace patterning. Varieties of wraps for use on every needle with yarn similar in weight to the ground, or every other needle with thicker yarn. Once the desired effect is achieved, a repeat could in turn be configured and punched or programmed to make the process easier to track.

A lace quest

This image sparked my search for a method to develop a DIY pattern for a similar lace It is taken from a video by Knitlabo, a wonderful resource for both Brother and Studio machine knitting. My first goal was to work with a recurring triangular motif in a brick repeat. The same repeat was also used in my previous post on using lace motifs in ENR (every needle rib) fabric.
The extra rows of knitting and the added contrasting color stripe between lace segments helps to visually separate them Before some light pressing, the lace had an interesting quality, harking back to my days seeking to form 3D scales A start at a brick repeat adds spaces for mesh eyelets to be added between the punchcard repeats,  the grey lines help align continuous vertical stitch placements The first effort to add the in-between eyelets is made easier if different colors are assigned to the left and right transfers, in this case, red for left, green for right Planning for the electronic repeats in a brick layout, still eyeing center lines, now every 12 columns. In addition, the bottom half of the chart is marked with the location of stitches doubled up after transfers visualizing and thus avoiding side by side transfers and other issues “on paper”. A single, full repeat is bordered in black A variation of the brick repeat, adding extra knit stitches aside previous mesh and knit shapes The related swatch segments:
A: the pattern with extra knit stitches, the error was an operator one, the result of mis-correcting a dropped stitch
B: the mesh without the extra knit spaces
C: B with extra knit rows. If adding a contrast color, knit 2 rows before changing color with the ground yarn, 2 rows or more with the second color, 2 rows of the ground once more prior to resuming transfers. The knit carriage in this fabric does not advance the pattern. The G carriage could be used to add purl rows between chosen repeat segments. The repeat is 24 stitches wide and because only the lace carriage is selecting needles and operating from the same side, it could be used, mirrored, on a punchcard machine.