Pretend/ mock cables 4

The blog post Pretend/ mock cables 3  presented the concept of using tuck stitch patterning and needle preselection, a Brother feature, as a guide to creating a version of mock cable crossings.
These designs are from an ancient Japanese publication.  Technically the results are not very cable-like for these three concepts, but they share the principles behind the technique. I am offering this information as a way of interpreting and adapting the suggestions in the publication. There has been some editing of the originally shared repeat suggestions after testing them in proof of concept swatches.
The scanned inspiration source:    The punchcard repeats: symbols are used in the above chart. The elongated short inverted U shapes, with some in bold type, represent the tuck stitch locations and needles that will hold loops in a pattern. The longer, thinner inverted Us suggest which tuck loop(s) will be raised and hooked up on new locations to create the desired textured effects.
Punchcards mirror the design horizontally when in use, so the texture will appear as shown in the swatch photos on the knit side when the design is worked based on the illustrated charts on the right.
When using the tuck setting, unpunched holes will create loops on nonselected needles, punched holes will create knit stitches. Electronic patterns will use black and white pixels to result in the same selections.
Deliberately not punching holes or adding white pixels may be used to provide a marker on all knit unpunched or black pixel rows for hand techniques to take place, ie in the repeat planned for 194.
With the charts as guides, partial punchcard repeats for the three designs: Punchcards ideally require a minimum of 36 punched pattern rows to roll accurately, the single, smallest repeat segment is adequate for knitting on electronic machines.
I knit primarily on a 930 and prefer to tile the repeats in width to the number of needles in my samples. The single motif button, default on the 930, need not then be reset and the design will be automatically centered. It is not a necessary step. Centering any single repeat across the needles in use or otherwise placing it may be achieved by programming its position. In punchcard machines, the selection is fixed across the 24 stitch markings on the needle tape, other positioning may be achieved by shifting the knitting in its position on the needle bed.

My illustrations are achieved by using both Mac Numbers and Gimp.
Adding color to help visualize hand techniques, and tiling to check alignments:
192 is 8 rows in height, more than that is needed to indicate the locations for hooking loops up. It appears this happens on white squares in the published original chart, which translate to knit stitch locations, the punched holes in the card.
For some transfer locations, no needle selection clues are provided, and they are made based on visual identification.
If the transfer is to be made onto a preselected needle, push the appropriate needle back to the B position.
Visually follow the rows down to locate the appropriate tuck loop(s),
lift them onto the needle just put it back to B,
and push that same needle out to the E position after the hook up in order to form a knit stitch with the next carriage pass.
The repeat with the most frequent hand technique is 192, with hookups every 8 rows    Using light color yarn makes it easier to identify the closely packed stitch structures.
The tool used to pick up and rehang stitches can vary depending on personal preference.
Programming the design as an 8-row pattern allows for easier tracking in a design that requires actions to be taken at that specific interval.
Another view: I had a hard time finding the proper spot for picking up loops and needed extra magnification in addition to my bifocals to sort that out.
The wool used for the test swatches is a 2/8 weight.
Because transfers in the scanned publication are made on a tuck stitch row, these designs may be easier to execute on a Studio machine.
As Brother knits that last tuck row, it preselects every needle for the knit row that will happen with the next carriage pass from the opposite side. I found the location easier to track for the hand technique a row early, before the every-needle preselection.
The effect is subtle and time-consuming, a consideration if planning larger pieces of knitting. 193 is 20 rows high, with hookups every 10. In the concept swatch, some of the tuck stitches were eliminated, seen here in a 48 stitch wide repeat, allowing for a released edge on either side. The tiled X2 in height repeat checks its vertical alignment.  This time as many of the compounded knit and tuck loops as possible were moved, producing more detailed surface textures on the knit side 194 is 48 rows high, with hookups also every 8 rows.  The single 24X 48 png is followed by the tiled 48 stitches wide version and the tiled Gimp alignment check   The visualization of stitch/loop movements The hand technique occurs after an all-knit row, which in cards would be all punched, in electronics all black pixels.
In Brother kms, while the first all-knit row is made, the next with isolated pairs of preselected needles will occur.
Prior to moving the carriage to the opposite side, hook up from highlighted locations, and bring needles out to E after doing so. As the carriage travels across the bed again, all knit stitches will form while preselecting for the subsequent tuck stitch row. A rhythm will develop eventually.
Notes to self:
some days it is not good to be near a knitting machine
cables and intensive hand techniques are still on my avoid if at all possible list
keep an eye on broken ends of yarn in old cones at least periodically before knitting across whole rows
if knitting lengths of this technique, or even a large swatch, removing the ribber if it is in use will facilitate the process. Remember to check its balance when it is recoupled with the main bed
while you are busy keeping an eye out on what to pick up and which stitches did not form properly or are jumping off the main bed, remember to look up at the yarn mast periodically, especially if the tension appears to change suddenly An improvement, however, over this masterpiece a decade ago when working in my attic supplementary studio space 😉 Although all hooking up aka ruching is in the same direction, there is no apparent biasing. This fabric is quite compressed, not for someone without a lot of focus, patience, and good eyesight. This pattern emulates the wishbone trim familiar to many knitters. It is the easiest in the series to execute, with the most textured result. The knit repeat used in the swatch is 26 stitches wide and can be trimmed easily to 24 stitches wide for use with punchcard machines.
The heels above the designated tucked stitches at the bottom of each repeat are lifted up and onto the single unselected needle of an all-knit row.
End needle selection is on, and the tuck setting in both directions is used after the initial preselection row.
Though initially an all-knit border was planned on each side, several knit stitches were eliminated on one side of the swatch. The difference is seen in the edges of the work, where all-knit stitches are allowed to roll, creating a very different “trim” than where tuck patterning was left uninterrupted. Such rolls can make satisfactory added details along accessories such as scarves, where a few rows of all knit stitches may also be allowed to roll to the purl side at the top and bottom of the piece as a finishing alternative.
The 26X16 single repeat.  Tiled repeat, checking alignment  Charted information   The proof of concept swatch A mock cable trim may be knit separately, in any color or even multiple colors, and applied as you knit on a large piece or stitched on after the fact.
One variation as a hand technique: after a closed cast-on on 10 stitches, knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side of the original cast-on row, and hook up on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center. Knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side 10 rows below, hang on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center, and repeat to the desired length.
Color changes may be added every 10 rows when all knit selection is made.
The slip stitch setting in this case is used to track and facilitate the process.
End needle selection is on, with the knit carriage set to slip in both directions, with the first preselection row made after at least one base knit row.
Weight may not be necessary depending on how comfortable one is with managing the knit without them and the yarn being used.
The repeat, in turn, is tiled twice in height in the shared png A short slip stitch float will form in the location of the white pixels at the bottom of the chart and when the selection is made to match the top row of the repeat, the single float is picked up and hung on the unselected needles, Those needles are brought out to E position after the transfers.
At that point, prior to the next carriage pass, the color may be changed. The short single skipped stitch floats are shown more clearly in this image. When changing colors it is best to use yarns of the same thickness that will knit easily at the same tension, not done in the first shape in this sample.
If using 2 carriages operating from opposite sides to carry different color(s) remember that extension rails will need to be used, as both will be selecting needles and will anchor onto the belt to do so.
Floats will happen at the side(s) as colors are carried up, but they and cut yarn ends can be hidden when the trim is applied. Here a fixed number of stitches +1=11 is knit for a fixed number of rows
an eyelet is created every 10 rows A
A single eyelet was sufficient to allow for feeding the trim through on the same side and from the bottom up, B and C, upon completion of the planned strip length. The red sample on the left is knit with 2/18 silk/wool, the blue is 2/wool. It is best to avoid any fiber that will pill easily.
The blue samples were knit for 65 rows each. In DIY, begin a test by casting on an odd number of needles (11, chart row 0)
if all needles are not properly formed after a permanent cast-on, bring all needles out to E for the first 2 or 3 rows
insert a claw weight
knit the same number of rows as cast on -1 (10)
transfer a needle to the left or right so as to maintain an even number of needles on each side after the transfer, making certain the empty needle is in the work position before the next carriage pass (chart row 10)
as you knit to the opposite side a loop will form on the empty needle, the eyelet location (chart row 11)
a carriage pass to the opposite side will form the full stitch in the loop location (chart row 12)
The charted working repeat for the trims below is outlined in red 

Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets

WORK IN PROGRESS

In Brother knitting one of the issues encountered when combining fair isle patterning with short rows is that if the fair isle pattern is to be maintained, one must hand-select needles to the proper position prior to knitting across needles newly returned to work.
The short row method here is a modified version of that used in the “wisteria” post, with the addition of needles regularly left out of work.
Analyzing what is happening in fabrics in this group: the working repeats need not be symmetrical, but for the purposes of beginning to understand the moves required and developing an awareness of how the stitches on the needle bed behave, it is easier to begin by using hand selection that is rhythmic and consistent.
Avoiding dark colors is helpful in recognizing dropped stitches in time to pick them up.
With some exceptions, most machine knitting short row patterns are worked in two-row sequences with stitches brought out to hold opposite the carriage and into work on the carriage side.
Typically the first row of eyelets will be approximately half size, and the knitting may be stopped at the top of the piece to match that.
This chart begins to visualize a pattern composed of vertical columns with colors knit on every other needle, produced using the repeat. The arrows indicate carriage movements.
The grey cells represent needles out of work.
The blocks of black and white columns represent the colors in the FI pattern selected and relate to the A and B yarn feeders. In this exercise, preselection is kept constant to facilitate maintaining proper patterning as needles are pushed back into work. Often, after an initial number of rows, all but the first group of stitches in the pattern are brought out to hold. In my swatch, the fair isle pattern had already been established across the needle bed for several rows.
Here one would begin with the knit carriage on the right, COR.
COR: the first group is knit for an even number of rows, ending COR.
COR: a number of needles are pushed back into work on the left, FI needle position is restored with needles placed in proper positions, knit on one row on the combined groups to the left
COL: bring the first group’s needles out to hold, knit an odd number of rows, ending COR.
Repeat moves and selections until the last group of stitches is reached, knit an even number of rows, and end COL.
COL: reverse the process, moving from left to right.
This method results in threads appearing between the short rowed shapes. The first preselection row is made from left to right. End needle selection is canceled. Cast on is over a multiple of 6 stitches ie 36, with every 6th needle out of work. I began the sequence COR with 10 rows knit, returning COR, followed by 9 as the odd number of rows once the next group of needles is brought into work, and the last group worked is pushed out to hold, then reduced the even number to 8, the odd to 7 in the top half of the swatch.
Here the work is seen on the machine, on the left, COR, the needle selection for the pattern in the next group to its left is restored. On the right: after knitting to the left, the initial group of needles worked is brought out to hold before continuing to knit.
A mini version in a single color Changing the holding sequence to eliminate the long threads between held shapes, beginning once more to sort out the how-to before adding fair isle patterning: cast on 36 stitches, with every sixth out of work moving from left to right, knit several rows. To knit: each group of 5 stitches in work has a reference number, 1-6
first pattern row:
COR: Set the machine for hold, leaving only group 1 in work
COR: knit 8 rows on the first group of stitches on the right (1)
push second group (2) into work and knit 8 rows, returning to COR
COR: push third group (3) into work and knit one row to the left
COL: push group (1) on its right out to hold, knit 7 rows across the remaining  10 stitches, returning to COR
COR: bring a new group on left into work, knit one row to the left
COL: bring the group to its far right out of work, repeat the process across the row
when the second to last 2 groups on left (6 and 7) are reached, knit  8 rows on both, returning to COL
COL: push the second to the last group out to hold (6)
COL knit 8 rows on the last group on left (7)
COL, reverse the process repeating all selections moving from left to right for the second pattern row. Begin the process by knitting 8 rows first on the first group of five stitches on the left, which will now have been knit for 16 rows in order for the stitches to create the large eyelets that will now form.
In my swatch, I occasionally varied the odd number of rows knit between seven and 9. Even a couple of rows can make a noticeable difference depending on the color of the yarn, the tension used, and other usual suspects. Test out the idea in the swatch to help make the decision as to whether unraveling is required to keep a constant quality to the holes as the project grows, and to practice unraveling rows back to the proper location. If fair isle patterning is added, corrections become a bit more complicated.
The resulting proof of concept swatch:  With the addition of the fair isle patterning: note that here, when the last set of needles was reached, they were not worked twice before reversing direction, so the edge eyelets are of a different size than those in the remainder of the row, forming smaller waves on each side.   Any openwork fabric will likely be wider than that knit in stocking stitch or fair isle on the same number of needles, making it necessary to consider providing stretch in any rows knit at the bottom or the top of the planned project or using the contrast as part of the final design.
Adding hems to the above technique is also possible

The short row repeat used here is a modified version of the “fern leaf” one in the post. The sequences are different, every needle is in work.
I began by casting on 36 stitches, knitting 12 rows for the even number, and 11 for the odd, with random variations.
Results need not be symmetrical either in the length of the shapes or in the direction of the knit, but rhythmic repetition can help one understand stitch formation, other changes that follow can then be deliberately planned rather than accidents or errors, keeping notes while the work is in progress, will help reproduce effects.   The knitting method, and tips: the fair isle repeat is 2 stitches wide by one row high, and the respective cells are bordered in red, it may be programmed to suit.  When using a punchcard model, the card could simply be locked on any row with every other cell punched. The result will be vertical lines on every other needle, slanting in the direction in which short rowed shapes are knit.
I chose to begin my design with the first needle on the right selected to pick up the color in the B feeder and used that as the basis for adjusting selections in subsequent groups of stitches.
Electronic machines have the option of mirroring the pattern to change that, punchcard knitters can move the knitting one needle to the right or to the left to get the selection they prefer.
As additional needles are brought into work, the A and B yarn feeders selections need to be restored so as to maintain proper FI patterning.
If you have not worked with this type of technique before, it is good to start using a light color and to work in small stitch groups, not adding added patterning until later.
Attempting to visualize the movement of the stitches across the needles in work: the colored cells illustrate the movement of stitches across the needle bed as they are brought in and out of work, and the number of held rows is altered to reduce the chart’s height, does not match the directions for the test swatch that follow it exactly. The black cells represent all knit rows. 1. Cast on the desired number of stitches, in this case, 27, a multiple of 3, and knit several rows at tension appropriate for stocking stitch when using the same yarn
2. COR. Set the machine to not knit stitches brought out to the hold position.
3. Leave 6 needles (3X2, double the number in each working group) on the right in the work position, and push all the remaining stitches out to hold.
4. Knit 10 rows (an even number), ending COR.
5. Push back the first 3 needles on the left back into the work position
6. Knit one row from right to left (9 needles), end COL, and push the 3 needles on the right out to the holding position (6 needles will now be in work again).
7. Knit 9 rows (odd number) ending COR
8. Repeat steps 5-7 until you reach the last 6 stitches, knit 10 rows (even number) over these last 6 (3X2, double the number in each working group) needles, ending COL.
9. Set the machine to knit all needles out in the hold by pushing needles back or releasing the hold lever, knit 4 rows over all the needles. It is possible to vary the number depending on one’s preference, but for me, only two rows simply were not aesthetically enough.
10. Holding lever on H, reverse shaping from left to right, beginning again on 3X2=6 needles, (double the number in each working group).
Reverse the process, moving in the opposite direction, beginning with knitting an even number of rows on the first chosen group of stitches on the left.
The difference in the edging of the swatch, marked by arrows, is due to a variation in the sequence for working on the specific group of stitches. If performed as an error, it will appear as an obvious deviation if not corrected while the work is in progress. The same action may also be performed deliberately as part of the overall design.
Color changes may be made easily where the 4 rows are knit in between segments on every needle used. End with 2 rows in the first color, knit with two rows with the second color before returning to the holding sequences. 
Worked on a significantly smaller scale in one color.
This far more symmetrical result than the first effort worked in the vertical stripe fair isle pattern on 40 stitches: begin with some FI patterning, end COR
COR: bring all but the first 8 needles closest to the carriage out to hold,
Proceed as described for the single color design, but this time 4 stitches are pushed into work and returned out of work rather than 3. Knit 12 rows when even numbers are required, 11 for the odd number.
Four rows of fair isle patterning are knit at the end of each repeating segment.
It is possible to work with far larger groups as well, thus providing an opportunity for adding larger fair isle patterns into the mix. Cast on 48 stitches.
In this sample various size eyelets were produced, using 12 rows, A, which did not seem to yield the degree of 3D texture I wanted. More rows were tried where larger holes appear, B. Four rows of fair isle patterning separated each row of held shapes.
To produce a more symmetrical knit, begin working short rows COR with a group of 16 (8X2) stitches on the right, knit for 20 rows as the even number (in the range of 8X2X1.5), 19 for the odd, returning groups of 8 stitches into work knitting moves across the needle bed, ending the pattern with working 20 rows on the last 16 stitches in work on the left. Knit 4 rows restoring fair isle needle selection across the needle bed, returning COL. COL reverse shaping.   Knitting all the holding sequences in the same direction for multiple rows as in any eyelet fabric will result in a knit that biases to a degree proportionate to the number of stitches and rows in each unit. The start of yet another idea:

 

Machine knit fringes 4, long loop patterning

Related posts on creating loops:
long-loops-a-bit-on-method.
long-stitches-on-km/
some-long-stitch-swatches/
for double bed long loops in various designs in single or multiple colors see drop stitch lace

I became curious about creating long loop shapes on a knit ground using continuous strands of yarn, forming loops in the same direction, and allowing for knit rows between them resulting in returning the yarn to the starting loop formation side. My own preference is to make the loops with the knit carriage on the right, anchoring them with the following carriage pass to the left. To continue doing that, the yarn would either need to be cut leaving a yarn end, or it needs to travel back to the left, where it can form the next row of loops from left to right.
In these tests, the movement of the yarn back to the left was achieved by having it weave on every other needle from right to left.
Triangular shapes are easily recognized, and I began with a moderately large one, at first planning for loops on every other needle. Black cells on the right represent loop locations, and green the weaving pattern formed as the carriage knits right to left.  The length of the loops determines end-use, long loops can become fringe, and short ones the macro version of pile knitting.
Tools to aid loop formation that are fixed in height across the needle bed are needed if the pattern is not used as a single motif, but rather as a recurring one. Separate strands of yarn on bobbins or balls or cones would need to be used for each shape. The loops in this swatch are large, so there are extra knit rows between each set.
I use colors and yarns that are randomly on hand for swatches unless I am planning a specific finished item.
The first swatch is worked with loops on every other needle, the second with loops on every, as shown in the photos
Worked as a single motif:
KC II: preselection is made from left to right
COL: make loops moving from left to right using ribber gate pegs, I like to bring needles to be wrapped out to hold as I move across each row, wrapping frequency may be varied apart from needle preselection, knit a row to left, anchoring them  COL: knit to right, the needles for the weaving pattern to the left will preselect COR: check that weaving brushes are down, place yarn over preselected needles, knit a row to the left, securing the weaving pattern, the yarn end will be on the left again COL: knit a row to the right, needles for the next row of loops will be preselected
COR: use the yarn now on the left again to form loops from left to right, knit a row to the left to secure loops. Repeat the process. The resulting shape brings holiday knitting to mind.
The loops worked on every other needle and on every needle. The original preselection repeat may be used. The only yarn ends that need to be dealt with are at the beginning and end of the shape, the reverse of the knit has the appearance typically seen in knit weaving, where the thicker yarn forces the stitches in the background one apart. What of recurring shapes with reversing directions? It occurred to me plastic straws may prove to be handy tools for creating the loops and easier to manage than rulers. The maximum length of the straw is a limitation. Exploring the technique in a single motif gives one the opportunity to explore issues and limitations.
My straw is 10.25 inches wide, made of plastic, is not rigid, and can be squeezed flat easily. When using it as a loop guide, it was held low enough below the knitting on the top bed on the carriage side to allow some ease in the loops so the straw can have an easier time dropping below the sinker plate when the knit carriage passes over it, it can even partially collapse if needed.
I found managing the straw soon became rhythmic and easy.
The lengths of the straw on both sides of the loops serve as a handle on the left, and on the carriage, right side, the extra length can be guided down a bit to keep it from angling up and getting caught in the sinker plate.
Once the carriage begins to knit across I encountered no problems. The straw may get pushed slightly to the left with the carriage pass. Planning possible actions and a starting repeat with single rows knit between loops. In this instance, loop formation happens when the carriage is on the right, and weaving when the carriage is on the left. The latter means the weaving yarn is laid over selected needles in the wrong direction, with the long end of the yarn away from the knit carriage. That said because weaving happens only on every other needle X3 and on a max of 7 on every other needle, the first selections were no problem, and the second was manageable with some caution. The arrows indicate the direction of the carriage movement after the loops are formed, and after the yarn is laid over the preselected needles for weaving.
The image on the right is the repeat tiled in Gimp to evaluate its vertical alignment. It is 14 pixels wide and 20 high, could be used in a punchcard and placed on the center of the card making it recur centered in each 24 stitch location on the needle bed.
If an attempt is to be made knitting several repeats, vertical columns of plain knit between the pile knit columns are desirable.
The needle preselection will begin on 14 stitches, so only for the first 2 rows, the needles preselected for the first 7 stitches of the 14, shown as grey cells, push the needles involved back to B.   Depending on the machine model and software used for the download, the repeat may need to be mirrored to achieve the result planned in the drawing, which is true in my 930. The starting png may be placed on a wider canvas in Gimp, here is a 30 stitch mirrored version for use on my 930. The resulting design is quite dense but successful. Planning moves on for weaving to happen with the yarn in the proper direction, particularly if more than one design is to be attempted horizontally, and to make the loops less dense.  Extra rows of plain knitting are added between loop formation.
Here the design is placed once again on a 30 stitch ground but is now 40 rows high, drawn in the direction desired, not yet mirrored. It is expected the aspect ratio for the shapes will change, becoming elongated. Again, preselection for the first seven stitches on the right for the first two times selection occurs on those needles is canceled with needles pushed back to B. Clothespins, as seen in the lower right, can come in handy to put slight weight on yarn ends to help hold them in place at the start of the piece or as it progresses. The proof of concept swatch shows a very different appearance in the distribution of the loops from the first sample. It is possible to knit more than multiple series of shapes. Enough spacing between the forms is required to allow for using of more than one straw.
I had the easiest result by leaving the straws uncut.
Each straw end on the carriage side again needs to be kept down until the sinker plate begins to pass above it.
It is a good idea to try the method first and practice some hand selections.    The rows where all 14 stitches in each group were worked required a bit of extra care, but knitting was quite manageable Long loops may also be created with i-cords, strips of knitting, or fabric, strung beads, and imagination is the limit depending on preference, available materials, and the specific design. Even tiny beads may be used to create loops as seen in this swatch. Dental floss may be used as the very strong “thread”, secured with e-wraps on the knit background where needed.
For threading the beads onto lengths of the chosen thread, a tool I have used (which also comes in handy for threading a serger) is an “EEZ-THRU” floss threader, recently available in this brand  Here strips of knitting are used along the edge and knotted, strips are also applied to the body of the swatch during knitting for contrasting color interest I cords may be applied to the edges of a  knit ie scarves, but there are a lot of ends to weave in. There are trade-offs if techniques are explored to use continuous strands with limited or no cutting.
There is a hand knitting pattern called foxpaw, for which some illustrations may be found in the photos related to the advertisement for this class https://stitches.events/shop/classes/west-2022/intro-to-stacked-stitches-6/.
A while ago I was interested in trying out a simplified version using the knitting machine, the project has remained a UFO (unfinished object) since then.
The graduated size cording here were created by knitting lengths of i-cord on 4 stitches, knitting X number of rows, folding the cord upon itself, and joining the second half to the first using seam as you knit, continuing with the next shape immediately after completing the join. When applied to a cast on edge, if the goal is to use the technique for a substitute fringe, the double cords are a bit dense compared to the body of this particular knit and too close together. Perhaps creating a trim by applying the double cord to a side edge of a vertical strip and then in turn to where needed would produce a better result, or limited numbers of graduated cord lengths might provide interest in the body of a knit.

 

“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with short rows 2

Some previous posts exploring hand techniques that might be considered to fall in this family of stitches:
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: tuck lace trims and fabrics 1
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: tuck lace trims or fabrics 2
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with “chains”
Search for “wisteria”
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with short rows 1, June 2017 began to explore some of the fabrics presented in this category in a Portuguese language publication I do not speak or read the language, so my swatches are best guess efforts at producing similar knits.
2022: In the latest Mac OS 12, an interesting feature is available now, but not at the time of the original writing of this post.
A: choose the design, in this case, #2, screen grab the image, import it into photos
B: open the image, position the pointer over the text, left click and drag to select the desired text
C: control-click on the selection, choose translate text, and then choose a language. If a specific language selection is not made, the mac translates automatically into the preferred language for your region
D: click and choose copy translation to copy it to clipboard for saving into a document ie Text Edit so that it may be saved for later use or printed if desired
The result offers a starting point but is in need of added editing
1% Career: You weave from right to left.
A)Side of the Car, leave 4A at work and rest at rest. Tecer 6C.
B) On the opposite side car, put 2A to work (the 2A next to those that are
So at work). Weave 1C.
C) On the opposite side of the car, put 2A on rest. Weave 5C. Car is saying-
Ta.
D) Continuously repeat items B and C until the carrera is finished. Do you want to di-
Zer: until the last 2 points are left at work and, with these 2A weaving
6C, instead of 5 (car will be left).
28 Career: weaves from left to right,
C) Continuously repeat items A to D, or soybeans, after the career or
The car will be on the right, fI
Continuously repeat the 19th and 28th career, 

Guidelines at the beginning of the pub for #1, translated more slowly with added editing:
CLARIFICATION FOR THE EXECUTION OF THESE POINTS
A: in crochet stitches, the scheme is repeated across the entire width of the machine
B: in the “crochet ends”, braids and flowers, thread only the needles. Islands as indicated by the symbols in the scheme. Alternative: in crochet stitches of gallons and flowers thread the thread only on the needles as indicated in the diagram symbols
C: when starting to weave the car must always be on the right side unless the symbols in the scheme indicate otherwise, for example, crochet stitch #9
D: in crochet stitches count a career whenever the tip of the wire stays at the other end of the machine
E: the tension must be adjusted according to the stitch and thickness of the thread to be used, in general voltages 1-3 are used.”
Some familiarity with larger-scale patterns in this family can help visually with duplicating them independent of the written original language directions.
These fabrics share common hand technique movements across rows, singly, or in pairs. Similar structures are not presented in numerical order in the pub but will be here.
The yarn choice makes a critical difference both in managing the knitting and in how blocking, or not, affects the finished fabric. The knit carriage travels many times across each stitch as the technique is worked, with possibly pilling, so softly spun yarns should be avoided.
Clean the machine of any leftover fibers, while avoiding over-oiling which may leave dark streaks in the finished product.
Cast-ons and bind-offs need to be very loose to compensate for the fact that the completed knit will have considerable sideways stretch. Chain cast on 2 in work, 2 out of work, end with 2 needles in work
bring all stitches out to hold except for the first 2 stitches on the right
COR knit 8 rows
push adjacent pair of needles away from the carriage into work position, knit a row to left
COL bring the previously knit pair of needles out to hold
knit 7 rows, end COR
bring adjacent pair of needles opposite carriage into work, knit a row to left, end COL
COL when the last pair of needles is returned to work knit 8 rows
reverse shaping: bring the second pair of needles on left into work, knit a row, push the first pair of needles out to hold, and continue the process for the desired length
The yarn used is a 6X18 rayon, a “no memory” yarn that changes considerably with pressing. The arrows mark an operator error in tracking the sequence, the top and bottom edges are obviously narrower than the resulting mesh.  Number 11 is a close relative but worked on every other needle The rayon used in the previous sample, and a 2/8 wool, were less successful than a 2/11 acrylic in knitting the swatch. The stitches need to be as tight as possible while also needing to be able to knit off properly
make a very loose chain cast-on on an even number of needles, then drop every other chain, taking every other needle completely out of work, and ending with a needle in work
bring all stitches out to hold except for the first stitch on the right
I believe the directions are given for knitting only 2 passes, I preferred the look with the count doubled to 4, so, COR knit 4 rows
push adjacent needle away from the carriage into work position, knit a row to left
COL bring the previously knit pair of needles out to hold
knit 3 rows, end COR
bring adjacent pair of needles opposite carriage into work, knit a row to left, end COL, knit 3 rows
COL when the last pair of needles is returned to work knit 4 rows, continue with
reverse shaping: bring the second pair of needles on left into work, knit a row, push the first needles out to hold, and continue the process for the desired length
In the top part of the swatch I knit 8 rows at starting and ending sequences, feeling the sides were tight, 6 may be the best answer
bing off very loosely after the last stitch is worked for 4 rows
The same directions apply in this instance, the first sample worked with no needles out of work I added 3 chains between cast-on and bound-off stitches, making for a better top and bottom edge. The difference in width is highlighted on the bottom right, where I missed doing so between two stitches. At the end of each row, prior to reversing direction, I knit 6 rows rather than 4, ending with 4 rows only on the last needle prior to binding off. The swatch was not steamed or pressed.
This knit begins on every needle I cast on chaining over 2 needles, followed by two extra chains where the ladder is expected, cast-off also with two extra chains in ladder spaces. The knit sequence is similar to the previous swatch, but needles are now moved in pairs
COR work first 2 stitches for 2 rows
push two needles on left into work, knit one row to left
COL *push the first 2 stitches to hold, knit one row to the right
COR bring the next two stitches on the left into work, knit one row to left
COL push previous 2 stitches to hold, knit one row to the right**
bring 2 stitches on left into work knit one row to left,
repeat across the row
when the last pair of stitches are left, COL knit two rows on them, and reverse shaping. Ending each sequence with two knit rows will produce fairly straight sides, knitting four rows on end stitches, except prior to binding off,  may echo the movement of the in-between spaces and make the ladders at the sides more visible Eliminating those ladders or floats, here eyelets are created where stitches are held for two rows. Care needs to be taken if stitches are dropped or other patterning errors are made in order to retain the correct pattern. Cast on and bind in this instance were executed with single chains added in between those on needles in work.
Version 1:
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
repeat until there are 2 needles left in work, knit 2 rows
reverse shaping
end with 2 rows knit on the last pair of stitches before binding off
Version 2 adds 2 rows knit on every needle between holding pattern reversals, the fabric grows in length far more quickly
Cast on from left to right on every needle
COR knit 2 rows, bring all needles except for the first 2 on the carriage side out to hold
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
repeat until there are 2 needles left in work, knit 2 rows, end COL
COL push remaining needles into work, knit 2 rows on all needles
COL bring all needles except the first 2 on the left into work, knit 2 rows
reverse shaping, ending with 2 knit rows on the far right
COR push all needles into work, knit 2 rows on all needles
COR bring all needles out to hold except for the first 2 on the right
repeat all
end with 2 rows knit on the last pair of stitches before binding off

chain cast on 2 in work, 2 out of work, end with 2 needles in work
worked in 2 pairs, 4 needles at a time
COR knit 6 rows on the first two pairs of stitches on the right push pair of needles on the left into work knit one row push first 2 of needles out to hold knit 5 rows CORpush next pair on left into work, knit one row  push the third group  on  its right into hold position, knit 5 rows across remaining  4stitches bring a new group on left into work, knit one row
bring the pair to the far right out of work
repeat  process across row
when  the last pair of needles on the left is pushed back into work, knit one row
COL knit 10 rows, bring the third pair of needles into work, knit one rowPush the first pair of needles out to work, knit 5 rows, continue with reverse shaping.
If the pattern is to end on the right (or left), knit 6 rows on the last 4 stitches and stop, otherwise when the opposite side position is reached, knit 10 more rows before reversing and continuing in the pattern.
Tracking rows worked: 7 ladders are created in each space, 12 on each end. Depending on yarn and stitch size watch to see that even tension is maintained particularly on the first 2 stitches worked on each side.
The swatch is shown before and after some light pressing, the arrow marks some looser stitches on the side edge.

Latch tool cast on from left to right, chaining 4  in no needle, future ladder spaces
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring the first needle on left into work, knit 1 row to the left on three stitches
COL bring the first needle of the previous pair on the right out to hold, knit one row to the right on two stitches
COR bring the closest needle on the left into work, knit 1 row on three stitches
COL bring the second needle of the previous pair on the right out to hold, knit one row on two stitches
repeat working on 3, then 2 stitch sequences until there are only 2 needles left in work, end COL
COL knit two rows, begin  reverse shaping by putting one needle into work on the right, knit one row on three needles
COR bring the first stitch on the far left out to work, knit one row on 2 needles
continue reverse shaping, ending with 2 needles in work on the far right
COR knit two rows on 2 stitches, repeat and continue the process until 2 stitches are left in work on the left, and reverse again
end fabric with 2 rows knit on last 2 stitches in work
latch tool bind off with chaining X 4 in ladder spaces
keep an eye on sequences, the floats are created in series of three, with experience knitting similar patterns, errors become easy to spot during is knitting Shell shapes: #4 and # 20 directions are given in the 2017 blog post Some of the trims in this pub may be far more easily and quickly executed using tuck stitches.

Tuck trims 4 and other edgings

WORK IN PROGRESS

In the FB machine knitting groups questions about tuck-lace trims have once again surfaced with regards to their design and use as edge finishes or decorative details. Some automated potential details have been covered in previous posts
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: tuck lace trims (and fabrics 1)
Tuck lace trims (and fabrics 2)
Ribber trims 3: one trim, four variations
Ribber trims 2
Ribber trims/edgings 1
The trims, however, may easily be created on any machine using hand needle selection and holding techniques. Over the years a number of names have been assigned to such trims, from idiot’s delight to shell, cockle shell, double shell, and scallop shell.
Trims are generally knit vertically, are often quite “lacey”, applied upon completion, generally with their knit side out. Some people think of them as mock crochet. They can go from tiny to heavier double-edge versions.
Generally, they benefit from being knit slowly with some weight to help hold the stitches in place and have the groups of tuck loops knit off properly. Start with a few rows of waste yarn and ravel cord to anchor to hold the weight, follow with a permanent cast on-on needles represented by grey squares in each group. Knit 2 rows on all needles and begin in the pattern. The method for creating tucked loops manually is to bring needles out to hold after setting the knit carriage accordingly. Until those same needles are pushed back into work loops will build on their shanks and will be knit off when the involved needles are pushed back into work. The limit with automated patterning for tuck in 4.5 mm machines, unless very thin yarn is used, is often 4 rows. There is greater tolerance in tucks created by hand techniques, but as with any fabric, it is best to test on swatches prior to committing to significant lengths of fabric. 
When knitting trims and ruffles, end with several rows of waste yarn in a contrasting color, allowing for unraveling and binding off after application if the trim is too long, or for unraveling to a knit row and knitting more if the initial length is too short. Seam-as-you-knit might not be the best method to use if the intent is to retain the shell-shaped forms trim sides.
It is possible to visualize repeats both singly and in groups using tools from simple graph paper to spreadsheets. Japanese machines may not tolerate more than 4 rows of held or tucked loops unless the yarn is on the thin side, machines like Passap or Superba have a far greater tolerance.
Pivoting around a center stitch and adding width in vertical trims makes them foldable around a finished edge. When using electronic machines the garment’s finished edge may be picked up and the repeat for some of the trims can be programmed on the width of the piece for a predetermined height and bound off. If one is using a punchcard with single repeat vertical patterning or for more than one vertical trim with blank spaces in between them, the card would not be suitable for a finish on a horizontal knit edge.

To knit: bring needles in positions represented by yellow squares out to hold,  push back to knit by the number of rows indicated in the chart.
A good source for pattern ideas can be found in punchcard volumes in the sections marked for thread lace. To add to the mix, once the repeat is worked out, transferring needles intended to be left out of work on the main bed may be transferred to the ribber when knitting trims as well.
Segments marked with green cells may be grouped in a variety of ways to create repeats in different widths, asymmetrical ones are also a possible consideration
Two repeats on a single cardThe process for knitting a sample as a hand technique: Cast on the 7 stitches marked in work, bring needles2, 6, and 10 to holding position set the knit carriage to hold
knit 4 or chosen number of rows
push needles back into work position and knit one or chosen number of rows
return needles 2, 6, and 10 to hold
repeat the process for the desired length
bind off or remove onto waste yarn
An electronic or punchcard repeat for 4 tuck row: I like to start my repeats with an all knit row when possible. The design may be knit as a single motif, and though it is symmetrical whether the machine model used flips the image horizontally or not can have an effect on whether the uneven number of needles will be to the left or to the right of 0. If there is any question a few air knit rows will clarify pattern needle placement.
The automated repeat: The samples below were knit using a 2/8 wool, at T4, are shown folded along their center on the right of the photos, with the open edge on the left as they came off the machine. The usual single bed tension for this yarn might be 7 or 8, depending on stitch type. The greater the number of knit stitches on either bed, the closer the tension will have to be adjusted to that used in stocking stitch for the same yarn. Wool also has memory, will want to roll to knit side at the top and bottom, to the purl side along vertical edges, steps often need to be taken to reduce the rolls. Using this repeat as a stand-alone, the roll is severe, with the cast-off edge picked up, continue from there, a rolled edge with no stitching required is formed, no further finishing required, is shown after light steaming Even if a repeat for automating the trim or edging is designed and may have been used before, it is best to test the repeat as a hand technique in any new or untested yarn first to see how many loops can build up before the stitches on each side may not knit, or the loops themselves might not knit off properly as a group on the next all knit row. Five rows were the limit for this yarn A bound off edge was picked up, purl side facing, a side edge could be as well. Test to see which side facing may suit your piece best. Ten plain knit rows were followed by holding for 5 rows on every sixth needle, followed by a central single all knit row, 5 more rows held on the same needles locations, ending with 9 rows knit on all needles, and the trim was bound off. It may be folded to the purl or the knit side before being stitched into place and is likely to require some blocking. A variety of edgings may be produced by simply hooking up ladder floats created by leaving needles out of work after X number of rows. In this instance chain cast on over 11 needles, dropping the center 5 chains and taking the corresponding needles out of work.
Knit 12 rows.
Pick up six floats and the chain from the start of the piece, bring them to the front of the knit, and place them on the needle marked with red cells at the right.
Knit 6 rows, pick up 6 floats again, place them on needle marked with red cells to the left,
repeat This variation uses the thicker blue yarn, knit at tension 4; 12 rows are knit before hooking up the lower groups of six ladders, which makes the floats easier to pick up or count using a single eye tool. Repeating selection on the same side allows the trim to be easily bent around corners  Trims using holding alone border on the possibility of automation using slip stitch programming. A simple one to start: cast on 7 stitches, with the center needle out of work. Knit a few rows, set knit carriage to hold.
COR: push needles at left out to hold position
knit 8 or chosen even number of  rows on needles 5, 6, and 7 on the right
COR: push needles 1, 2, and 3 on left to D position, knit 3 or a preferred odd number of rows, ending with the carriage on the left
COL: reverse the holding sequence  The single out-of-work needle produces a ladder that nearly disappears after the trim relaxes, any our of work needle arrangement may be tried between the two groups of 3 needles in work.
Adding holding: cast on needle arrangement shown. The 3 stitches will roll to the purl side creating an edge that looks very similar on both sides of the trim. knit 3 or more rows, end COL
bring the 3 needles on the right out to hold, knit a row
COR wrap the inside needle of the 3 in holding, knit back to left 5 times
COR knit 5 rows (or DIY odd number), ending on the opposite side
COL reverse shaping

Double bed embossed patterns

Some of the previous blog posts containing applicable samples:
Ribber fabrics with stitch transfers between beds 1Slip stitch patterns with hand transferred stitches, double bedBrother shadow lace, rib transfer carriage Combining knit carriage needle selection with racking   Racked patterns 5: Passap/Brother 2
directions and samples from manuals including racking on tuck stitch and other ground variations, this on a tucked ground, in a thin yarn 

Embossed, raised textures are familiar in single bed work using stitch structures such as tuck, slip, weaving, gathered and ruched hand techniques, and in double bed as pile, blister, lace, and ripple patterns.
When embossing is done double bed, the background fabric is knitted in purl stitches on one bed, and the raised design or panel in knit stitches on the other. The first method produces double knit patterns where all needles are working on the back bed, coupled with selected needles for the pattern on the opposite be. The raised, embossed portion is a double knit, showing relief on a purl ground. The second method is to use knit/ purl combinations, easiest to execute with a G carriage.
The striped ground occurs in areas where there are no needles in work and selected for patterning on the main bed. A cabled pattern to try: color changes in these instances are every 2 rows.
Because there are needles completely out of work on the main bed along with pattern selection, this is an instance where end needle selection must be canceled.
The first preselection row is from right to left toward the color changer.
Any transfers or stitch manipulations between or on either bed are made before the first pass to the right with the next color.
The knit carriage is set to slip both ways on the first pass in pattern from the left and stays there, the ribber is set to knit in both directions throughout. Depending on the yarn and the pattern distribution the all striped areas will be longer than those gathered by slipped rows. As usual, begin with a plan. After the first preselection row, transfers are made down to the ribber as indicated at the top of the chart. Cable transfers are made after every 14 knit rows, with stitches crossed on rows 15 and 31. After the cable cables are twisted, the stitches in the color that is going to knit in the next pass are brought out to E so they will knit in that color before the pass to the right, and again before the pass to the left, rows 16 and 32, Y.If the intent is to have solid vertical columns of color, those areas as in column marked A, need to be adjusted for using alternating colors as well. Using the repeat on the left of the chart After the first preselection row to left, transfers are made down to the ribber, stitches that will compose cables are selected in the pattern,
colors are changed after return to the left, and every 2 rows, stitches in the color that does not knit become elongated. Because column A was not color separated for alternating colors, each color in the corresponding needles will knit with every two carriage passes, and the result will be a striped vertical column Cable twists should be planned to retain the correct movent, can alternate each time or repeat in series, charts for location and direction of twists are helpful to avoid errors. The solid vertical columns here are planned in only one color, could be programmed to alternate as well. The repeat used in my swatch includes a solid column on each side of the finished piece, the color swap in the twist at the top can be an unplanned error or serve as a deliberate design change

Analyzing the stitch structures involved for planning 2 color DIY:
two-color ribs on a striped ground require cards or electronic repeats that select each color alternately. Fabric where the backing on the ribber or back bed in machines such as Passap knits all stitches every row is often referred to as half or full Milano. The backing may be also be knit using slip/ tuck settings.
Working in a single color, in half Milano and every needle rib course is followed by a plain knit row on the opposite bed, it is a 2-row repeat. In full Milano fabric, a row of every needle rib is followed by a plain knit row on one side of the fabric, and then by a plain knit course on the other. The repeat is three rows high. On every third row, the ribber carriage must be set to slip for one row, in the direction in which the carriage will be moving, prior to knitting a row with every needle preselection on the top bed. The setting is changed back to knit for 2 rows when the carriages reach the opposite side. The required cam change will happen on alternate sides. Both sides of the fabric have small stitches alternating with longer ones formed by slipped rows. half Milano full MilanoOften an all slip setting is used on the top or front bed, the result has less elasticity than a full needle rib, and the knit will have a tendency to curl toward the side which shows fewer knit rows, so in a finished piece side borders in the same stitch type should be considered.
Adding color changes in the ground requires altering the repeats.
Hand techniques may be used to modify ribs by cabling, racking, transferring stitches to the backing. When knitting again on empty needles, if you want eyelets, simply keep knitting. If not, hang the pull loop from the adjacent stitches on the opposite bed before resuming knitting.
Cable color placement must be reversed at the cable crossing.
Racked sequences are made along with stitch transfers.
To emboss other than vertical ribs the needle selection needs to be changed every 2 rows. This can be done manually, following a chart, or with programmed patterning whether with punchcard or electronic options.
Plaiting can produce 2 color variations without color separations.
When increasing stitches, moving the adjacent stitch onto the new needle, leaving it empty, will change the eyelet location a stitch away from the edge.
When moving stitches for decreases, lateral transfers may be made with multiple stitch transfer tools for different effects.
Transfer carriages can speed up the process.
To start the pattern one can begin with a cast on only on the ribber or back bed, or transfer non-selected stitches after the first preselection row on Brother as seen in most of my previous swatches, with 2 rows knitting on the backing alone, and 2 rows of the main color knitting on both beds. With either cast on, the preselection row is made toward the color changer with needles in work position on the main bed, so the knit carriage needs to be set to slip so as not to pick up unwanted loops on the top bed as it moves toward the color changer, and will remain set to slip both ways throughout the pieces.
As mentioned, the term Milano refers to ribs composing weft knit structures where one side of the fabric knits more rows than the other.
In half Milano, a single long stitch is created in the pattern color, in full Milano small stitches alternate with a row of longer stitches created when traveling back to the color changer.
The preselection start is determined by the type of long stitch, and how the repeat is programmed. I prefer to start my repeats with knit rows.
A half Milano swatch is begun with all stitches on the ribber bed, COR: the needle actions for each design row if patterning were on every needle are shown below. Designing may be easier to plan or chart on a template, followed by actions for each pattern design row with the second color. Half Milano on left, full Milano on right for use in 2- color-work 
Half Milano stitch formation on the left, full on the right Planning for a half Milano shape design outlined with added borders and with vertical columns at intervals in the alternate color: every 4th row is marked in yellow as the underlying template. A simple shape is charted out, marked with black cells, the pattern starts with a knit row. Preselection in slip stitch is made toward color changer, black pixels will pick up stitches moving to the right, slip top row moving to the left. Decreasing to maintain the dominant color shape is not necessary, while the border, in this case, is shaped by decreases made by transferring non-selected needles to the ribber before knitting with that color from left to right. Border cells are added immediately up and to the side of those planned for knitting on the previous row, their respective cells are outlined in green. Software programs make it easy to alter the repeats and add borders  if wanted
Actual knitting will indicate whether adjustments are needed in making the repeat continuous vertically or with some added striped ground only rows in between. I had not noticed a stitch hung up on a gatepeg, explaining the distortion in the row marked by yellow arrows, where the yarn was caught and pulled up. 

These techniques share some features with the category of double bed appliqué, where one bed knits the main fabric while the other creates the shapes, which are attached to the fabric as you knit. In the finished fabric the purl side is the right side, the ground may be created in a solid color or striped. Both shapes are knit at the same time, as opposed to performing the technique on a single bed. As usual, the color changers should be threaded so that yarns feed smoothly and do not cross. With simple shapes as in shadow lace, no punchcard may be necessary, while cards or electronic repeats simplify the steps and help prevent mistakes.
In Japanese machines, for each row in the charts 2 rows are knit in the background first on the ribber, followed by 2 rows in the shape color on the alternate bed.
Smooth yarns and contrasting colors that still allow identifying knit structures easily are best. There is a limit to the number of colors that may be knit at once. Beginning with hand techniques: it is good to chart out the design before tackling it, and with color changers limited to holding 4 colors, if planning several shapes, the sequences in the color changes may need to be plotted out ahead of knitting as well.
Purl loops are the tops of the stitches in the row immediately below the stitches on the needle on the opposite bed, marked in green, while sinker loops consist of the yarn that is between the stitches on the needles, marked in red. Hanging the purl loops will help to eliminate or reduce the size of the eyelets. Take care not to use the sinker loops between the stitches, marked in red.  In executing the fabric as a hand technique, the main bed is still set to slip in both directions, the ribber to knit every row
1. Knit 2 rows on the ribber alone
2. Bring needles to be worked in the pattern at the upper working position D or E, hang loops from ribber if there are increases if preferred, knit a row
3. Bring needles in pattern manually to D or E again, knit the second row of the appliqué
Repeat steps one and 2
In published directions color 1 usually refers to the ground color, which knits on the ribber only. Color 2 generally knits on the patterning bed as well. When most needles are in work on either bed, the tension for the yarn on that bed approaches the one used for that same yarn if it were being used single bed.
Punching all squares in 2 consecutive rows, or programming 2 all-pixel rows filled in completely across followed by two unpunched blank or all white pixel rows makes the process quicker. Punching or filling in single rows may be done as well, but requires elongation X2. Increases or decreases may be done on more than single stitches, and less frequently than with every pattern pass.
Fully fashioned shaping alters the edge of the appliques and places the eyelets in pattern, at or away from the edges. In Brother machines preselection of needles needs to be retained after any stitch manipulations.
Adding shapes with additional eyelets: practice shaping, keep notes, fully fashioned=FF  Begin with simple shapes, examining the quality of increases and decreases, whether single or multiple, eyelet formation.  Picking up from the row below before the next pass with the contrast color eliminates eyelets
picking up from row below at any point during knitting decreases in the number of stitches, in contrast, may be made by transferring down to the ribber prior to changing back to the ground color Simple increases or decreases are made by moving stitches laterally in either or both directions.  Increases may be made by moving contrast color stitches laterally, followed by the choice as to whether to fill in the empty needle or allow it to create an eyelet.   Fully fashioned increases or decreases are made by moving a stitch or a group of them to the adjacent needle/s to the left or the right and then taking the double stitches back to the original position, leaving a single empty needle for the planned eyelet formation. There should not be multiple needles with no stitches on them unless the goal is to expose a stripe of ground typically, in these exercises, there should be single empty needles after transfers, making certain proper needle selection for the pattern group is maintained Combining eyelets with lateral increases When transferring stitches, watch for any loops getting caught on gate pegs, as seen on the left below, increases and decreases may be pre-formed on more than single stitches

Planning a medallion: cyan cells represent transfers to the left, the magenta to the right. At the top of the single medallion, the stitches were transferred to the ribber prior to knitting with the same color once there was no needle preselection for it on the top bed.
Programming repeats to help track needle transfers as well: it is possible to start with a published repeat, though once the principle is understood, required markings for DIY become easier. Electronic machines leave one free in planning repeat width. In this test, a repeat from the Stitchworld pattern was used. In its built-in memory format, it will not work, the repeat needs to be altered. Each sequence of passes with the LC consists of 4 passes, followed by two rows knit with the KC. Two rows are added to each lace passes sequence, which will knit on the ribber only, in the contrasting color. Transfers to left and right are marked in cyan and magenta. The specific software used or machine model may require that the repeat be flipped horizontally prior to being knit, true on my 930. Markings on the left are for ribber actions and settings, those on the right for the main bed. K indicates that that bed will be slipping, K that it will knit. The first preselection row after the chosen cast on is from right to left with end needle selection canceled and the knit carriage already set to slip in both directions, with all required needles on the top bed in the B position.
Transfers are made prior to carriage passes made with the pattern color, in this case, white. If a transfer patterning row follows a white row on the ribber, extra white rows will appear on the striped ground seen in this test, where the ribber remained set to knit every row in both colors  To eliminate the extra white rows, the main bed stays set to slip every row, the ribber settings alternate. It is set to slip for two rows immediately after knitting with the red yarn, then will be reset and knits for 4 consecutive rows.  Transfers to create eyelets are made on selected needles on each of those two rows, always toward the carriage, even as the transfers themselves change directions as the angles of the shape decrease toward its center on the top half of the design. After the first transfer and the carriages travel to the right, a long float will be evident, will “disappear” on the return to the left. Patterning selection will reappear as the carriages return to the left. The color is not changed. The ribber is set to knit in both directions again, forming stitches on both beds for the first two rows, followed by a color change and knitting in the red, on the ribber only for 2 rows, completing a sequence of 4 knit rows before the ribber being set once more to slip.  For consistency, I changed the settings on it to slip before picking up the white, changed it again after preselection of lots of needles meant the top bed stitches needed to be knit on both beds again. The first proof of concept, observing choices: as with other samples, the first patterning row after all stitches are transferred to the ribber requires a choice as to whether to pick up from the row below or simply allow empty needles to pick up loops on the next pass, the choice throughout here, marked A. Reducing stitches may be done by transferring down to ribber, B, or lateral transfers, C. D marks the spot for a possible shape design shape. Arrows on the purl side point to the direction of transfers, cyan to left, magenta to the right  As with single bed lace, the first pass after transfers creates loops on empty needles, which here need to be kept in upper work, D position after transfers. For non Brother knitters, Brother positions are A, B, D, E, skipping C. Knitting over the loops on the next pass on that bed completes the stitch. This design is knit as continuous, the striping at the bottom is wrong because the red was not picked up after the first 2 rows knit in pattern with white,  most sequences for the remaining fabric are 4 passes with white in the feeder, followed by 2 in the red.  All eyelets here are reduced in size by picking up from the row below, all transfers for decreases are made laterally, the border is set to a width of 4 stitches, the pivot point for the repeat has been narrowed the differences at the edges of the shapes.  Many of the same principles may be applied to designs using tuck stitch settings, where the striping will appear vertically rather than horizontally
2 color ribbed brioche stitch on Brother knitting machine 1
Lace transfers meet fisherman rib, 2 color ribbed brioche on Brother machines 2
Geometric shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck stitches 1
More on Lace transfers in single color rib 

Origami inspired 2: more pleats and folds using ribber

WORK IN PROGRESS

Periodically I search out previous drafts, this post was started in September 2019. Drawn to folds in a variety of ways again, I am publishing it in progress with the intent of adding more information and related swatches.

Some previous posts with related topics and technique swatches: origami-inspired pleats1, racked patterns Passap/Brother 2, ribber pleated fabrics, and some possible needle arrangements 3.
There are many considerations if long panels or wide ones are required when setting up repeats in addition to what happens at the edges of patterns in racking as one bed moves near or past the needles in work on the opposite bed. If something like a skirt is planned, the choice must be made as to which side of the knit is preferred, and the end stitches of each panel should be on the underside of the piece unless the join is a deliberate design feature. To achieve that, some panels may need to be wider than others. If the pleats are bulky and involve deep foldovers, panels may be attached to yokes to reduce bulk at the hips. If working from illustrations for pleats for another brand, the needle setups shown may need to be reversed, or, since many such fabrics are reversible, if manual set up and no additional patterning on the Japanese machines knit bed or European true double bed they can be knit as illustrated. Lock settings for the Passap are given with the back lock first (ribber settings on Brother), then for the front bed lock (top, knit bed on Brother). Cast ons must be fairly tight so there is no flare at the bottom of the pleats. They usually start on a standard needle setting. Needle transfers are usually made after the cast-on is completed, sealing the stitches with one row of all knit stitches. Swatches should be a minimum of 100 stitches wide by 100 rows if the end goal is a gauge significant garment. All fabrics with texture may change in both appearance and gauge after a period of rest. Some shaping if needed may be obtained by tension changes, OOW needle arrangements on either or both beds, or stitch type within folds (ie adding fisherman, half fisherman, EON patterning, etc.)
Pleat formation on the double bed is “easy” because the pleats are formed “automatically” according to the needle arrangement on each bed. That is true if the resulting folds are created by stocking stitches in vertical bands. My goal is not to provide patterns. There are many well-written ones easily available.

How small can one go? A tiny pleat: It is easier to transfer stitches when the ribber is set to P (Passap handle up). Remember to return the setting to half-pitch before continuing. The pleat is reversible, shown on both sides, reminds me of shadow pleats racking by one position X3 at first, and then X 5 in each direction did not produce results worth the effort IMO, the result is subtle, the reverse side of the fabric is slightly stretched in the bottom photo. Here the fold is created by 2 stitches tucking for 2 consecutive, then knitting on the same needles for 2 rows on regularly spaced pairs of needles on either bed. Most knitting is on a single bed. A lacey series of eyelets begin to appear, and in some random racking at the top of the swatch, the possibility of developing a secondary pattern due to the combination of racking and tucking begins to show. The middle image is of the fabric slightly stretched.  Passap Brother: the ribber can do the stocking stitch background, every needle in work, carriage set to knit. The setup is the same as the Passap diagram. A repeat with 2 black rows of squares followed by 2 white can be programmed on the top bed. On every needle selected rows, pairs of needles will knit, on the white, no selection rows the same pairs of needles will tuck for 2 rows. Moving away from vertical ribs becomes significantly easier if one has a G carriage. The alternative option is to create geometric folds that require transferring between beds. Any of these fabrics are best knit in a yarn that has memory and can spring back. Yarns such as acrylic can be permanently flattened by pressing, resulting in loss of texture. A quick experiment: black cells represent knit stitches, blue purl ones The needle setups: after casting on, transfer for a stitch configuration based in this case, of blocks that are 5 stitches wide. A single needle on the opposite bed is used on each outside edge of all needles in work.  When there are no groups of stitches in work on both beds the pitch can be set to and remain on P, which also will make transfers easier, as needles will be point-to-point. The ratio used in the test was in multiples of 5. The groups were 5 stitches wide, 15 rows high, with all knit 10 rows in between the repeats. The fabric is shown first relaxed as immediately off the machine, then lightly steamed and stretched. The yarn is a 2/18 wool, far too thin for this use, and likely to flatten considerably with pressing. The close-up of the purl side offers a better view of the resulting folds The repeat, 10 stitches by 40 rows. More on Knit and purl blocks to create folding fabric_ “pleats”Pleated, plaited shadow lace Pleated one color “shadow lace” in Slip stitch patterns with hand transferred stitches, double bed

Pleated dbj A repeat that will spiral, usable in spiral socks Spaces between any and all blocks may be adjusted to suit one’s preferences.

Bowknot aka butterfly or dragonfly stitch in more than one color

There has been a resurgence of interest in this stitch in the FB machine knitting group and discussion exploring a variety of methods for creating it. The inspiration, taken from a commercial sweater-knit:   For some single-color variations see Bowknot/ Butterfly stitch on the machine and No longer a mystery pattern.
I program repeats whenever possible, find it useful in eliminating errors, particularly in longer pieces. My own first experiments for this fabric were conducted using the fair isle setting, which is essentially a slip stitch automatically working 2 colors with each pass of the knit carriage single bed. Slip stitch patterns with hand transferred stitches, single bed explores some of the methods for bringing slip stitch floats to the knit side of these fabrics, which is part of the hand techniques necessary to achieve the colored versions. As with any knit fabric yarn qualities, color contrasts, tolerance for proper stitch formation are all variables.
For vertical columns in 2 colors, it is only necessary to program a single, fixed row with a punchcard or electronic, or choose any pixel-based repeat akin to this with full pairs of alternating stripes. I like to plan with selected needles at each end of the sample With the machine set to FI, needles not selected will knit a ground color, while selected needles will knit the color in the B feeder. It is easier to manipulate the slip stitch floats from purl to knit side if working in the non selected groups of needles. Having the columns in odd numbers of stitches makes it easier to handle steps that require finding the center needle in each group if one is wanting to maintain symmetry. In my first test, I manipulated only the selected groups of needles to work the float movements, leaving the floats from the other color undisturbed, which makes the process far more convoluted than it needs to be. In this and in the subsequent sample I manipulated the left and right-hand pairs of floats moving them to the front of the knit, leaving the choice of what to do with the remaining center floats. In A they were brought up on top of the center needle in E position before knitting the next row. In B they are lifted into the hook of the needle brought out to B position, so that stitch is knit in color 1, while in C the remaining single stitch floats are simply left alone. In a couple of spots the yarn split, getting hooked up creating bleed through, and what would result in an issue if that happened on the group of floats that were to be moved. As stated, the process is easier and quicker working on non selected groups. Above, the yellow yarn was thicker than the blue. To maintain proper color selection in the non-selected column, the center needle needs to remain in B position, with the slip stitch floats below it before the next row knits. If the needle is brought out to E, it will knit in the contrast color, forming floats in that color on the purl side, and a knit stitch in what was planned as an all-solid column on the knit. The results are seen at the top of the first sequence in the swatch. I chose to limit my number of floats to 4 to keep the process manageable, moved stitches on the left of the center needle to the front of the knit, then followed with those to its right. One of the many things to explore in hand technique fabrics is finding a way to handle tools that may be more comfortable than others, practicing on single blocks of color first can help establish that. Below both yarns are equal weight and thinner. The floats formed by the color in the B feeder are also hooked up on the center needle in each vertical group in that color, forming a pattern on the purl side as well. The needle position for selection for B feeder yarn also needs to be maintained. Bringing the needle out to E ensures it will knit on the next pass. In both of my tests, the slip stitch floats on the knit side lie more horizontally than the lifted up floats on the purl  Other ways of working the fabric, along with a history of the FB thread offered by Claudia Scarpa including a single bed slip stitch version with an English downloadable PDF http://ratatatata.it/dragonfly/
her youtube video illustrates a different way of managing floats than mine.
JuliKnit offers 2 videos knit on Silver Reed 1, and 2. Both are knit using the ribber, the first method uses holding to gather loops on each of the beds, the second begins to address automation for needle selection on the top bed using DAK, with the selection on the ribber remaining manual. The stitch illustrations generated in DK offer knit stitch simulations such as these Executing her versions on a Brother machine requires some interpretation. The fabric is constructed using the ribber in conjunction with the main bed. The vertical columns are 5 stitches wide.
Colors are worked one at a time. If a color changer is to be used, an even number of rows would be required for each pattern segment. For 4 floats followed by an all knit row, the repeat would be 5 rows high, so one consideration would be operating with the second color from the right, requiring free passes. Studio machines release the top of the knit carriage at an angle from the bottom, so that explains the move seen in the video in order for the carriage to be moved to the right. Brother machines use the slip stitch setting in either or both directions, to achieve that. Using both buttons avoids any confusion. All needles in use must be in the B position for the “free pass” to avoid dropped stitches. The number of rows gets adjusted in the videos eventually to 6.
When working on the top bed, the ribber is set to slip both ways.
For those unfamiliar with Studio settings a brief review: the Studio SRP60N ribber introduced the option for knitting emulating the lili selection in Brother. The grey plastic piece on the left of the studio ribber, the autoset lever, when cleared would essentially duplicate setting Brother levers to slip manually in both directions, clearing it again would return it to knit. Cast on either EON or EN rib. Transfer needles in a 5X5 rib beginning and ending with a single needle in work on the ribber on the far left and right,  setting up the initial needle arrangement for the fabric. Black dots represent needles in work on both beds, red ones the initial needles that will be worked in holding position on the top bed. The video knits each color for an even number of rows. Bring the first and last needle into work on the ribber before knitting each row. The remaining stitches knit only on the main bed. The knit carriage is set to knit, the ribber to slip in both directions. Pick up the chosen color on the left, knit for an odd number of rows, when carriages are on the right, push held needles back to work position so they will knit on the pass back to the color changer. The ribber knits the next color. A review of the Brother ribber carriage for those not familiar with it COL: main bed will now slip in both directions, set it accordingly. The ribber only knits. The center needle on the top bed that held the butterflies is transferred down to the ribber, illustrated in the red dots over black ones. The center needles in the blank areas on the ribber, blue dots, are brought up to hold, the ribber levers are set to knit in both directions, holding levers are set to hold in both directions as well,   knit for an odd number of rows, with carriages on the right, push held needles back to work position so they will knit on the pass back to the color changer. COL: knit carriage changes back to knit settings, the ribber slip setting in both directions is restored. The center stitches that formed ribber butterflies are transferred up to the top bed, needles at the center of the blank areas on the top bed are brought out to hold. The color is changed, and the process begins again. My first efforts were met with dropped stitches after a few rows and expletives. My second efforts fared no better, I simply could not avoid dropped stitches on either bed, perhaps because of my yarn choice and the small tension it required. Working on the single bed once more, using the slip stitch setting and knitting one color at a time, I achieved a fabric more similar to the original photograph. The chart reflects the number of needles in my test swatch, with a 2 knit stitch border added on each side Each color knits for 4 rows. At the end of each 4-row sequence, the non selected needles allow for manipulation of the floats. The transfers in the piece begin on row 5. Before the next row is knit in the alternate color, the slip stitch floats are reconfigured, bringing stitches 1 and 2, 4 and 5 in each group to the knit side of the fabric, leaving the center floats undisturbed. Bring the whole group out to E position so they will form knit stitches with the first row of contrast as the carriage moves to the right. Knit 4 rows. The carriage will once again be on the left unless 2 carriages are in use from opposite sides. The center needle in each group of 5 will be left unselected. Lift floats up onto that center needle, and bring it out to E position so that it will form a knit stitch in the next color to be used. The final result, closer to original

 

 

Slip stitch patterns with hand transferred stitches, double bed

It is also possible to create solid color patterns on the purl side on a striped ground by at first transferring all stitches down to the ribber, then, in turn, using slip stitch selection on the top bed to choose only the stitches that will be manipulated on the main bed. A similar repeat worked on the single bed, may be found in the previous post on Slip stitch patterns with hand transferred stitches, single bed. And a relative, including a double bed version: Bowknot/ Butterfly stitch on the machine, and: A no longer “mystery pattern”.
When working over a striper backing, the color changer is generally in use, and changes happen in even numbers of rows. In my test swatches changes are made every two rows, and whether single or double bed, the color yarn creating the solid color shape needs to not knit while the alternate color is worked only in the background. The held stitches grow in length.
End needle selection is canceled in my samples. The extra needle selection prior to the next all knit row helps track the direction of the moves, stitches are moved three at a time, there are no cable crossingsThings do not always “work”, that is part of the process The next step for me was to explore cable crossings on elongated stitches working double-bed. A basic pattern on any programmable machine for playing with elongated stitches on one bed while knitting every stitch on the other is to program pairs of blank rows followed by solid punched or black pixel rows. The yellow line in this chart illustrates the row on which cabling might occur. Programming the width of the needle bed allows for only the stitches forming vertical columns in chosen locations to be put into work, allowing one to place groups that will involve crossings anywhere on the chosen pattern width. A base is knit in the ground color, which slips for 2 rows on the main bed, creating the elongated stitches that will be cabled. I had no problem with 2X2 cables,  but as in working on the single bed, for me, straightforward 3X3 crosses were not cooperative, even when I attempted to introduce extra knit stitches on the sides that were then dropped for added give on the last slipped row, taking me back to the drawing board. Cabling, returned to in a later post, with adjustments, making things work. Continuing with shapes on striped grounds, this is the result of a self-drawn pattern  The approach is different than in the blog post on Brother shadow lace, rib transfer carriage, where shapes were created in only one color, and the textured patterns by bringing needles in and out of work on the ribber. To create the striped ground in the above, color changes happen every 2 rows. The ribber knits every needle, every row. With the ribber on half-pitch, the transfers are all made from the main bed needle to the needle immediately below it and slightly to its left.
In the chart on the left, the green cells represent black pixels that will be programmed for patterning on the top bed, red cells, the stitches on the top bed that need to be transferred down to the ribber on the respective row.
Grey cell rows stand in for all blank ones in the final repeat.  This design is too wide for punchcard machines, but the fabric is possible there as well in different widths, isolated or all over. After casting on, all stitches are transferred to the ribber. Border, plain knit stripes can be added by simply having a larger number of needles in work on the ribber than the planned pattern width. With no needles selected in the pattern on the top bed, those ribber stitches will simply knit every row.
These fabrics are a little different than those with needles out of work on the main bed while using the slip stitch setting, in which case KC II on electronics, end needle selection needs to be turned off on all models. When all needles are in B position, depending on the pattern, KCI may be used. Simply using KCII eliminates any guesswork.
The first preselection row is toward the color changer with the knit carriage set to slip in both directions, only patterned area needles need to be in work. Non-selected needles, as usual, perform no function while those corresponding to where black pixels or punched holes occur will pick up loops on the top bed, initially creating eyelets, and then continue to form knit stitches until any of the corresponding stitches are transferred down to the ribber. The pattern yarn forms a short stitch in one direction, an elongated one in the other. A detailed close-up of stitch formations Plain striped rows in areas without the design continue to be knit in the slip stitch setting, or every needle in work on the top bed will pick up loops.
When hand manipulating stitches it pays to be mindful of maintaining all needles in the pattern in B position, not accidentally sliding them back to A.  In the past, I have attempted pile knitting on my machines. Studio machines produce the best fabric in the category, I have read Toyota performed as well. Books such as this are a good source for pile designs, including the card repeat used in my proofs of concept Punchcards, in theory, may be used as given and set to double length, while for use in electronics drawing the pattern single height and using the double-length setting is also an option. Starting sides and fixing errors have always been more confusing for me when using the double-length feature, I prefer to punch holes or program pixels as I intend to knit them. The isolated reduced repeat for use in the electronic is charted, with an initial one-pixel error in 2 consecutive rows, marked with red cells. In transcribing any design, it is worth checking repeats multiple times after eyeballs and brains have had a rest. This was my start:
The design process using Numbers before exporting the repeat to Gimp for reduction to B/W png: in this approach, the repeat is drawn double height to start with. The red cells represent stitches that will be transferred down to the ribber before knitting the next row in the pattern color from left to right.  The first test is of an isolated motif. The yellow arrow points to the pixel error, the cyan to the positions where some needles in the full repeat were “accidentally” placed in A position, not B, resulting in pattern stitches not being formed.  Another review of the original card, a final adjustment in the repeat: Tiled view, committing to the result, the larger test swatch Two other options for charting the fabric in numbers: A. draw the repeat as given
B. starting cell size used was 20X20, change the height to 40
C. mark corner blank cells and screengrab for Gimp import
D. the repeat processed in Gimp matches the first version
Any simple Fair Isle repeat may also be used. The numbering in the charts matches what is normally seen on the left edge of the tables
A. the FI repeat, 8 rows high
B. a table slightly longer than double the repeat height, hide even-numbered rows
C. copy and paste the FI design on the table with hidden rows
D. unhide rows, isolate the repeat, adjust cell height, and continue to process as described above 

The original punchcard design may be used in a different manner if the goal is a single color fabric. The design may be copied as is, then filling in the blank lines with the same holes or pixels as in the row directly below it. Here, in addition, the repeat is altered to accommodate a half drop repeat on the right with a few pixels changed. My initial proof of concept is 32 stitches wide, narrower than the full repeat The rows need to be scanned before every pass, as transfers to the ribber are not symmetrical due to the shapeshift on the right of the design. The world of possibilities grows even further for single color shadow lace, when, examining the same design, one recognizes that the pile knit card, with the blank rows filled in in pattern, is the same as the fair isle version of the repeat, rendered double long Some authors have suggested plaiting as an alternative to creating shapes with true brioche, which can be complex.  To my mind, plaiting falls in the beauty being in the eye of the beholder category, I prefer far crisper color distinction in my knits. This sample from the previous shadow lace post uses thick and thin yarns  Using the image adapted from the studio pile card once more, I tested using 2 yarns of similar weight, the adjusted test repeat: its accompanying test swatch

I have long been interested in pleated knits, both single and double-bed. Working single color or with plaiting makes the repeats easier for DIY designing. Seeking proof of concept for possible “origami” pleating: on the left, yellow marks the spots for transfers to the top bed, which will create folds out toward the knit side. For folds toward the purl side, stitches are manipulated on the ribber, with the final design repeat shown on the right. The ribber carriage is set to knit throughout. The needle from which the stitch is transferred to the main bed is moved completely out of work. After the transfer, the main bed needle accepting it is returned to the D position.
The knit carriage is set to slip in both directions, end needle selection is canceled.  Subsequently,  non-selected needles, 1 in the photo, serve as guides for transfers to the ribber, made every two rows. The needles emptied from the transfers need to be maintained in the work, B, position. The selected needles, 2 in the photo, will pick up loops automatically, creating eyelets as seen in previous swatches. The swatch would have benefited from tighter tension or thicker yarn, the folding effect is greater than reflected in the photo. Initially, those pairs of center stitches were not transferred up to the main bed, showing the absence of that fold when that action is omitted. Any of these patterns benefit from deliberate planning of the placement of the pattern on the main bed, not done in this instance.   Transitioning to smaller repeats, tiling will help avoid patterning “errors” as seen here where the full diamond shapes reverse  Graph paper or spreadsheet planning will help avoid misses in necessary transfers in areas where all needles have been selected the file for multiple repeats after color reverse the test knit as using transfers as described above and here the empty needles creating the eyelets were filled by picking up the purl bar from the stitch below on the ribber. A lot of work for a change that is not significant in the structure of the fabric.  In my last test on eliminating holes and how that affects the degree of the folds, transfers to fill in newly selected needles on the top bed were made from below the adjacent needle on the top bed, B, as opposed to immediately below on the ribber, A If patterning is used to track transfers, needle selection on the top bed needs to be maintained throughout, the result of this process is not interesting enough and just too fiddly and time-consuming for me to be interested in exploring it further There is an interesting scale and depth of fold comparison between this version and the first using the repeat, achieved by tightening the tension as much as possible, and possibly by reducing the size of the eyelets.

Exploring manipulations with more than one color patterning on the main bed: there is a type of DBJ that relies on knitting the same color for 2 rows that is inherently different from the KRC built-in separation that is the default in the Japanese model machines. It causes elongation in the design, while the KRC version minimizes it. The differences and methods of the corresponding color separations have been discussed in other posts. Stitch manipulations may occur when working DBJ as well. Simple designs make the best start for beginning to explore the topic An easy variation is to plan full repeat segments mixed with a striped ground worked only on the ribber Take care if copying and pasting single columns to alter a repeat width that the whole column is indeed copied and that if using the pencil tool flood fill is not used unintentionally. The original intent was also to correct the elongated slip stitch segments on the edge of the programmed vertical designs marked in blue, but the paste with errors in red accomplished creating the same issue The design is programmed for DBJ. Because of the color separation used, the first preselection row is from right to left. Before knitting the first pattern row, all 10 non-patterning needles on the main bed were transferred down to the ribber. The first segments were knit using striper backing, with the ribber knitting every stitch, every row, in both colors. When a slip stitch is used with needles out of work on the main bed, end needle selection should be canceled. In A it was not. The result is that end needles alongside the out-of-work column knit with each color in each row. In B, end needle selection was canceled, and one can now see the elongated slipped stitches that result from areas that should have been marked with the contrasting color As long as the number of stitches on the ribber is even, lili buttons may be used, affecting the scale of the pattern in both height and width. In A, they were used with the ribber set to slip in both directions, in B, set to tuck in both directions. C marks the return to the N/N setting, with needle transfers to mark a possible pleat. The initial pleat idea charted out for single stitch folds, stitches transferred to ribber in the R columns, to the top bed in the T columns The result is a fairly soft pleat, the choice below was to retain end needle selection.  Various ribbed pleat configurations are explored in Pleats: ribbed, folding fabrics. This repeat may not be the best to use for a variety of reasons, but experimenting while using the same design and yarns can be useful in understanding stitch formations. Theoretically, the alternating direction of folds should create sharp or knife pleats. folds up asPaired transfers in the planning stages: because the repeat is small and has a single center pivot point, it is rendered once more, adding columns Here the transfers planned to opposite beds are marked on a 48 stitch repeat with red cells.
The resulting fabric relaxed on the left, lightly steamed on the right Note: the color positions in the design have been reversed from those in the first swatch. If “floats” are noted at any time in the spaces where needles are out of work on the ribber, look for dropped stitches.

Vertical bands of color,  even in patterns may be transferred to and from beds to achieve a sort of intarsia effect. One option is to work with vertical bands of fixed color, using the KRC built-in separation. When shifting gears it is useful to remember the starting side for the preselection of the first row of patterns. With many of the previous patterns, designed for color changes every 2 rows, starting side was on the right, toward the color changer. With KRC in use, the first preselection row is away from the color changer on the left, moving toward the right. With either method, starting on the wrong side will knit stripes as opposed to planned patterns.  Needles in locations where only the backing is to be shown are transferred down to the ribber. Leaving the eyelets, they were transferred back up to the main bed when brought into work to reverse or change the shape. Addition and subtraction of stitches take place before the next pass with the alternate color. Here movement is random, to get some sense of the effect, it could be made deliberate by following a chart or color separating and automating the pattern, with its starting side on the right.  This sample is from a much earlier post. Transfers could be made less frequently to change the angles in the resulting shapes, always onto the same color What of having shapes appearing in each of the 2 colors on a striped ground? Eliminating some of the guesswork I used the repeat from a previous single-bed blog post on block slip stitch color separations The repeat, 32X44The resulting sample, the yarn is thin, might have benefited from tighter tension and more contrast.  These fabrics and related shadow lace ones fall in the category of double bed embossed patterns, many more variations are possible, and deserving of their own post.

Knit weaving 2: swatches, experiments

WORK IN PROGRESS 

Many of these swatches are part of my stash from my teaching days. They were usually not intended for finished pieces, merely to illustrate a range of possible results with the techniques, often produced during my demonstrations. The colors were chosen to stand apart in the shared yarn stash in the studio, intended only for my personal use and for easier visibility during demos. The latter were being videotaped from some height and projected onto a large screen during classes for added visibility. At times enrollment was between 15 and 20 students per session.
Eyelets indicate tension # used for ground yarns. It is best to avoid dots between whole numbers. If swatches are too small to reflect the tension used, knots can be placed on yarn ends at the start of each experiment. The ends themselves may need to be doubled to make knots palpable.

thin mohair over a cotton/poly chenille over cotton, tests for a pillow 
chenille ground, wool weft hooked up floats vertical weave, the second with a scorched spot from an iron, experimenting with direction of wraps, a combination of loops and wrapswool ground, felted, monochrome acrylic weft, cut floats wool weft over cotton, cut floats, further trimmed in the top photo The same card 3 ways: the weft is too soft, the effect is lost in monochromatic version, cut floats become muddied with wear worked in the intarsia method, with a separate yarn strand for each shape, possible on monofilament to create floating shapes when placed over another fabric layer crochet start as cast on fringe woven with multiple strands of thin yarn appliqued to a long swatch.   beads strung through dental floss hooked on periodically, horizontal wraps;

ladders and long stitches with a needle or tool such as this, found in fabric stores, 10.5 inches in length automated pattern with added weaving through ladders “loop embossing”, separate threads were worked in and out vertically through ladder spaces worked on bulky 260, tension 2, using card 1 weaving and lace combinations. Weaving yarns may be laid in between the beds with the ribber in use. This is the option for “weaving” on the Passap. 1: shows the rib needle configuration, 2: racking is added, 3: floats are teased out. In the latter, a sewing machine could always be used to anchor added float arrangements. In this swatch, a waffle weave effect of sorts was intended between EON rib columns. The horizontal pairs of treads are an easy guide for feeding the yarn across rows with the work off the machine. Here the chenille was “woven in” off the machine using a tapestry needle, double-strand at the top 2 rows, single below them. Beads can also be threaded and laid in one at a time between the rib columns, Any fabric with eyelets may be used as a ground for inserting fabric strips, very thick yarns, even hard objects such as rods or twigs. A quick grab of random studio bits resulted in these: torn fabric has frayed edges that can be used to create secondary patterns depending on the fabric, and the way the strips behave depends on the width of the cut. A bodkin is useful in the threading process. Bodkins measure about 3 inches, and cost about $3 in US sewing supply stores a narrower strip of the same fabric began to permanently twist using thick yarns  Plastic bag strips “woven” on a Passap, “floats” were cut after finishing the piece used in a wearable made during my student days for a “recycling” art day. Hooking “things” on in a variety of ways, varied wraps, mixed techniques roving
strips of torn silk individually placed  wire shavings, on bulkylace and trims hair decor and kite string tube knit on child’s circular “machine”

Finished items from eons ago, the pillow used the gauge calculated based on  the chenille swatch included above, the sweater was for my mom, likely knit in the very late 1980s