Another racking tale: Passap/Brother 5

I taught in a design school in a lab with Brother Punchcard models, four 910s, and 2 bulky machines. My previous experience had been using Passap and Studio electronics, and a crash course in Brother models followed my being hired.
My E 6000 was purchased from a sewing machine center at a time when the owner decided knitting was not for her.
The 560 Studio model was later upgraded with a change in their box in exchange for my publishing some patterns for the Studio Design Magazine but was sold years ago.
There were years the Passap was my production machine for garments and accessories knit double-bed. Single-bed knits for the same end use were easier to knit on Brother, with a clear view of stitch formations vs the issues with seeing the fabric or correcting errors when working with the ribber in place.
The immediacy of easy testing with img2track on the 930 results in nearly all of my recent blog swatches.
There are still days I admit I do love the E6. The console commands along with the lock setting and pusher options on the back bed make a range of fabrics possible that are far harder to achieve in Japanese model KMs.
Looking back, these are some of my previous shares including Passap mentions
Machine cross reference chart 3/18
Brother/Passap: traveling between brands  11/18

Pile knitting on Passap/ Brother KMs 4 1/20
A racking tale: Passap/Brother 3  9/19
Translating Passap model book pattern/use on Brother 1 8/19
Fisherman_ English tuck stitch rib 1_ checks patterns_ Brother, Passap 10/18
Tubular machine knit fabrics: fair isle, Brother/Passap 11/17
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 2  7/15
Pile knitting on Passap, Brother, and Studio KMs 1 7/15
Drop stitch lace, 2 colors per row, Passap KM 10/13
Back to leaf lace, add rib, and take it to the Passap 3/12
Japanese punchcard motifs used in Passap E 6000 machines  4/11
FB shares have led me down rabbit holes I may not otherwise have entered.
In the machine knitting group, someone recently shared a series of scarves knit using the E6, providing the Duo80 diagram and the E6 technique number.  The setup is for a 2/2 rib, reverses the pusher positions, but produces the same knitDuo 80 symbols AX = Tuck, setting is the same in both the Duo and the Passap back locks
AX  serves the same function in the Duo, and is replaced by KX on the E6 front lock
The arrow keys on the back lock work the same on both machines.
Passap preselects and works on pushers initially placed in work or rest on both beds, whether manually or by console selections in the E6.
Brother preselects needles in the planned pattern on the knit bed subject to punched holes or programmed pixels, but not on the ribber, other when using lili buttons, and that comes with rules and the sole automatic repeat ie the that the number of needles in use on the ribber must be even. On the Passaps there are no such rules on the back bed.
With no arrow keys selected the same action is repeated until the lock setting is changed, so in the above, the change is made by manually setting the back lock to N for 2 rows, then back to AX for tuck on both Passap models.
The front bed in the Duo also has a fixed pattern selection, requiring the lock change to N there as well. The E6 built-in pattern selects the all-knit rows, so its lock remains in the KX setting.
The initial pusher setup is manual on both models but not location-dependent in this particular design.
The E 6 console will select the proper pattern based on the pushers in the work position. A look at pusher positions from the E6 manual. Each machine brand has its own specific vocabulary for parts and techniques. Things get a little more complicated on Brother, it is helpful to have an understanding of stitch formation on both beds before tackling more complex knits.
In Brother the needle placement on the main bed matters as it does in tuck lace, so it needs to be verified before any knitting. “Air knitting” is one easy way to do that. Rows 5 or 6 would provide the necessary preselection.
In any punchcard model or Japanese electronic machine, the knitter is usually in charge of keeping track of racking. The E6 provides console prompts for racking positions in this design, facilitating the process.
An attempt to visualize what actions need to happen on the Brother models: the needle setup will match the Duo or the rotated E6 version Considering the required patterning for each bed, empty columns in my charts represent needles that need to be pushed back to A and left out of work on both beds. Textured ladder spaces will not be formed on either bed as is seen when using similar repeats on the single bed. Adding the ribber position and configuration  The top bed can be programmed, this 24-stitch version is suitable for use in punchcard machines. The main bed will knit all needles programmed with punched holes or black pixels and will tuck unpunched squares or white pixels.
The ribber requires setting changes after the initial four and after the last 2 rows of each 6-row repeat.
In addition, there are racking changes after each repeating segment.
In this setup, there will be a knit stitch beside each tuck one up to the all knit rows, helping to anchor the tuck loops. Ribber carriage settings are noted.  Anytime there are needles out of work, cancel the end needle selection. Depending on the machine model being used the repeat may need to be mirrored horizontally to match my in-process photos, true in my 930.
Using design row 5 or 6, air knit a row to find needles that need to be in work on the knit bed. Push non-selected needles out of work, and back to the A position. After doing so, reset the pattern to design row one.
The setting for the racking indicator does not specifically matter. It is often best to consider this before casting on. Here racking is only by one position, avoid 1 or 10. Starting at 5 centers stitches in relationship to each other stitches. As knitting progresses, where the ribber needle positions become obvious and less reliant on checking numbers. Cast on bringing appropriate needles into work on the ribber.
The original needle setup.  Use any favorite cast-on method.
Starting side does not matter unless one is planning on using a color changer, in which case the first preselection row needs to happen from right to left.
Since needles will be manually pushed up to the hold position, make certain that the ribber carriage is not set to hold. In a test swatch, knit several all-knit rows before beginning the pattern. If planning a piece, start with waste yarn and ravel cord prior to casting on with “garment” yarn.
A tool that aids in selecting every third needle is extremely helpful The initial carriage setups used for rows 1-4 The placement of the first needle on the ribber with respect to that of the first on the main bed The first needle in each pair of rows on the ribber needs to be brought up to the E position in every row for the first 4 rows of the 6-row repeat, I began with the first ribber needle on the left. The needles brought up to E will knit, and help anchor down the knit bed tuck stitch on their left, and the needles on their right will tuck. In turn, the main bed selected needles will anchor loops formed on the ribber, the nonselected will tuck.
The appearance after the tuck loops have all been formed and the needles holding them up to that point are preselected forward just prior to the 2 all knit rows. The knit carriage is left on tuck in both directions, while the ribber is set to knit for 2 rows. It is not necessary to change the P lever to R, with the other buttons set to N, knit is king.  Time to rack so that the first needle on the ribber will now be to the left of the first on the main bed. Push down lightly on the first 2 ribber needles on the left before racking in case those first stitches are a bit snug, to avoid starting needles crashing into each other as you move needle positions.  Knit 2 rows.
Rack again to the initial position,  change ribber settings again, and repeat the process as described. The proof of concept: the error shows what happens when one misses changing the ribber settings back to tuck.  If that is not challenging enough, add a color change, knitting the first 4 rows using color one, and the 2 all-knit rows with color 2.  I used to tell my students to develop a sort of tune that could be sung (mentally) as a reminder of the steps in complex fabrics ie bring up 1, 2, 3, 4, rack, change color, change settings, knit 2, rack, change color, change settings, bring up, etc. but my advice if you really want to knit this fabric in a full piece is to borrow and E6 or pay someone else to knit it for you 😉

Ribber trims 4

Ribber trims 2  presented a series of ideas for edgings I meant to return to. Rather than adding more to that post presently, I am expanding on the topic here.
Scalloped trims are popular in single-bed knits. Preventing any needles from knitting for any number of rows will form a wave. If automatic needle selection is used, they may be formed using both the tuck and slip stitch settings.
This version from the Brother Ribber Techniques, with knitting directions included in Ribber trims and edgings 1 If there is a problem in double bed versions using loops formed by holding stitches or tuck patterning, try completing a tubular cast-on before starting either sequence.
Using tuck stitch rows created manually way can work as a cast-on method:
Begin with a familiar yarn and tensions to form the usual zig-zag row from right to left
Set the ribber to slip in both directions
Bring every 6th needle on the top bed out to hold, and set the knit carriage to knit. At that point the yarn will be knitting solely on the top bed, so tension needs to be adjusted closer to what may be normally used in knitting it in stocking stitch.
Set the ribber to slip in both directions. 
Make at least 4 passes on the main bed, 6 will yield more of an effect but may be hard to manage on Japanese machines while in Passap, the strippers facilitate the process.
My first swatches were knit using 2/8 wool, which pushes the limits for smooth knitting in every needle rib on the 4.5mm machine. After knitting 5 rows the top bed stitches began riding up.  The next row needs to be knit across both beds, sealing the scallop.
Bringing the top bed needles all the way forward can help with that, but to ensure gathered loops will knit off properly, a bit of fiddling may be required, any tool can be used to push down lightly on alternating sides of the loops to keep the stitches to their side from unraveling. Release the hold lever on the top bed, set the ribber to knit in both directions, and continue in every needle rib to the desired length
The top images show the result of forgetting to set the ribber to knit, so there are 2 extra all-knit rows on the top bed, the bottom images were knit with the proper setting transition Since the top bed only knits for several rows, the ribber stitches can be seen elongated on this side of the knit Switching to a 2/20 wool, the same needle spacing, and holding stitches for 6 rows: One last fiber switch, a different 2/20 wool shade.
Here the detail is used at the bottom of the stocking stitch swatch rather than a ribbed one.
Watch for loops hung up on gatepegs, seen below in the top swatch.
The scallop shape wanted to turn toward the knit side but did set with some steaming.
Upon completing the holding sequence, transfer all ribber stitches to the top bed.
The tension in the swatch remained the same throughout, but in the bottom views, a loose joining row (perhaps too loose) was knit after transferring all ribber stitches to the top bed, as is often done for smoother transitions in single-bed hems. After the single loosely knit row, the tension is adjusted set to a number appropriate for the specific yarn in single-bed work.  This information and pngs expand on the knit charts in the 2019 post. If the pngs are copied, check that mode has not been altered to RGB automatically, and index back to BW mode prior to downloading them to machines for knitting.
Though, in general, starting side does not often matter, when testing techniques consistently beginning on the same side and leaving a yarn end will help identify which surface is knit facing or purl facing and whether that is of implications in the specific design.
Designing the repeat tiled for the width of the bed when working on electronic machines allows one the opportunity to add all knit borders in specific widths and to program the result as single motifs without concerns about needle placements on the knit bed or how to influence edges.
Punchcard knitters are faced with fixed 24-stitch locations on the needle bed, all knit borders would require manually bringing the needles involved out to E before each carriage pass.
As always, white pixels/unpunched areas tuck, and black pixels/ punched holes knit.
These repeats can make for interesting all-over fabrics as well as serve for edgings that flair and form bottoms that are wavy to different degrees.
12X18Knit using a superfine 2/18 merino: the tension on either or both beds may need to be adjusted repeatedly for stitches to form and knit off properly, reflected in stitch size variations here.  What happens when one is so engrossed with watching stitch formation that the fact that the cone has just run out of yarn is completely missed 12X24 Switching yarn to 2/18 silk wool at the same tension produces knit with a very different density and drape. Light bounces off this yarn interestingly, making it harder to photograph in sharper focus.  Here the same brand and weight yarn, steamed and pressed lightly, resulting in some flattening of the tuck texture’s 3D effect. Different colors or even different dye-lots of the same color in any yarn can behave differently with all else being equal.  The relaxed and stretched view and an attempt at showing its ruffling effect.  A very interesting surprise: a few years ago during one of my temporary obsessions I developed racked scale-like 3D patterns, this series reflects some of my first attempts One of several illustrated repeats designed for assistance from needle patterning preselections  I wondered whether the triangular repeat for the trim above modified to a diamond shape might produce similar results. The proof of concept swatch was far easier to knit, with no racking, and no critical tracking of all-knit row locations than the every needle rib version.12X24, rendered suitable for punchcard use The tiled repeat for a sense of resulting pattern movement 10X24 is missing the single all-knit vertical column seen above also tiled for visualizing the pattern’s movement 12X12 knit using the tuck setting,  or the slip stitch setting, making for more subtle results

Seaming, joining, picking up stitches 3, ribbed knits

These illustrations are not my own work, they were taken from various out-of-print Japanese published resources including manuals for different machine brands, or handouts received decades ago, in the days of international machine seminars, and altered and resized.
For more information on seaming and joining also see the previous posts: Seaming, joining and picking up stitches on knits 2, which includes some illustrations on joining ribs as well
Seaming, joining, picking up stitches on knits 1
The plan here is to provide additional illustrations for joining ribbed stitches in various configurations so as to maintain the stitch arrangement  rib join through the edge loops of knit stitches 2X2 rib ending with one stitch 2X2 rib join ending with 2 stitches

2 X 2 rib join ending with 2 purl stitches, 1 full stitch from the edge  Attaching ribs to garments: it often is best to weave under and out of single bars at a time, particularly in bulkier knits and in short ribbed edgings. If the stitches are small, it is possible to weave under bars 2 at a time, always test on swatches before committing any technique to a garment.
In A there is a fully formed knit stitch on each edge while in B, some shaping may be seen. The gauge for the ribbed fabric vs stocking or other techniques may be quite different, so in joining, it may be necessary to adjust sequences of pick-ups on either side in order to ease any differences in fabric lengths and maintain a smooth, flat join. Attaching to a V-neck, adjusting for shaping

Working with diagonal patterning in machine knitting

After a slow down in my blog posts for a variety of reasons I find myself playing catch up with the eternal list of knit fabrics that I wish to explore out of my own curiosity and the attempt to answer questions from knitters who contacted me directly via the blog or have asked them in the online forums in which I am a member.
Stephen West is a prolific designer of colorful hand knits in a variety of techniques and complexity. This honey-striped scarf is an example.   Slip-stitch patterning is a likely way of knitting a similar effect combined with
the use of the concept familiar to many when making bias cast-on rags.
A fixed number of stitches is cast on and positioned as far to one side of the machine as possible. They are then decreased on a fixed side and increased on the opposite one.
The strip moves across the needle bed, when far enough on the side opposite to the starting one, it is returned to the original needle bed position and the process is repeated until the desired length is reached.
If the moves to and from are performed on solid color rows matching needle selections may not be an issue. If the repeats in other cam settings are to match, then proper needle placement can be assisted by marking the metal bed, the factory-supplied needle tape, or a custom-printed one, and hand-selection for the first design row may be required and planned.
This chart attempts to visualize the proposed movement using colored stripes. Stitches are bound off on one side and cast-on on the other to maintain a fixed width with shaped edges.  If the goal is to maintain straight bias edges, the design repeat would need to be rendered wider in order to compensate for the shifts on the needle bed in turn modifying increases and decreases at a different rate The black cells represent the adjusted stitch counts needed for each pattern band.  When an item such as a scarf is worn, both options will appear as diagonals. If any picture knitting is included and the direction of it matters when the piece is worn, appreciated particularly in representational fair isle, such accessories are best knit as 2 pieces knit from the bottom up, and grafted together at their center after the fact.
Increases and decreases are calculated based on the knit gauge carefully for garments. The approach to accessories may be more casual.
Stripes heights are varied to accommodate any specific design motifs or cam settings and in turn, are added to the base visualization charts.
Here an attempt at 45-degree striping is made by beginning on a 3-stitch tab.  Increasing on the carriage side creates loops, while those opposite the carriage form knots.
Increases and decreases are indicated by arrows.
Increases are made on alternating sides, opposite the carriage, to produce matching edges.
The red cells in the chart represent the carriage side prior to each pass.
Table cells have been rendered rectangular in a 4 to 3 ratio, estimating the difference in gauge between stitches and rows.
Striping for an even number of rows matters if color changes are made on a fixed side ie if a color changer is in use. Yarn ends at color changes may be cut or the yarn can be carried up the side depending on preference and the number of rows involved. If carried up for long stretches, the alternate color yarn not in use may be secured by e wrapping it on the end needle periodically. Care needs to be taken that the float up the side is not so short as to have an effect on the swatch length and having an effort to remedy that will leave yarn ends too short to be secured.
The result is not going to produce a proper square, garter stitch is the only knit stitch that results in approximately true square shapes.
If the center of the machine is always used for swatches, keep an eye on the stitch formation. If loops are formed repeatedly on specific needles akin to tuck stitches or problem areas such as those in the center of this swatch are encountered, they can be caused by damaged needles or sticky latches that may result from frequent use. Diagonal lines in knits that maintain straight sides are also achieved using short row/holding intarsia techniques. Segments are planned in specific orders which can be varied to form added shapes.  Chevrons would be more easily created by knitting separate strips and seaming as you knit or after the fact. The addition of small-repeat fair isle patterns is also possible. Keep in mind when bringing needles back into work to reverse shaping, needle preselection for accurate patterning in Brother machines needs to be maintained by hand selection.  Some of the published punchcard patterns can serve as a source for diagonal lines that may be tiled and programmed for the full design in addition to being used for their original intent. Numbers 52, 384, and 328 (published with error), are suitable for tuck, slip, and FI with moderately wide floats, while 335 would fail as a tuck stitch.
Tiling as in any patterning will reveal errors, such as here for 328.  The latter was edited to a 22-stitch wide repeat, becoming suitable for only electronic machine models.
The charts with the red grid on the top row were rendered as tables in Numbers. Since their end use is different, they are the color-reversed version of the cards, whose screengrabs were in turn processed in Gimp to create knittable pngs.
The smallest repeats suitable for electronics are given in the center row of images, the amended 328 cannot be reduced in size. The last row illustrates tiling for all files as BW images that may be opened and amended to suit the size of the pieces planned.
Files in png formats for the group: if pngs generated by me in BW indexed mode are downloaded and opened in editors such as Gimp, they will open in RGB mode. To make them suitable for download programs, convert them to indexed BW mode again and save the result. There should be no loss of data.
384, 12X2412X48 144X144328, 22X44
176X176
335, 12X24
24X48 144X144  52, 8X16
24X48 192X192 The black lines formed by units 2 rows in height can be followed or erased to establish short rows shaping a stitch at a time every two rows, in a view of at least 2X2 full repeats to check color placement as seen here. The method was used to isolate the previous ungridded color illustrations. Another instance of a published diagonal tuck card, in this case, incorporates a combination of 2 and 4-row tuck patterning. The repeat is 24X48 The previews may be used to replace color selections with those matching yarn colors used in the project to develop some idea as to how color shifts might affect the final piece.
Adding lettering or small shapes and maintaining the diagonal can result in distortion of the motifs.
One option to add such motifs is to form the knit by beginning on 3 stitches as in this shared swatch and planning the stripes to heights and widths that accommodate adding designs or fonts. Short-row intarsia will also produce diagonal striping, from simple to complex as seen in this chart, with knitting sequence numbered for each segment.  complex_number_01A limited number of rows may be knit in stocking stitch in areas following shapes not simply to travel to the opposite side and reverse shaping,  but also to add small rolls or hems.
Another use might be to add small vertical motif details or patterning in their usual orientation.
The limit appears to be a maximum of 8 rows of alternative patterns, in order to keep the short-rowed areas from developing into distorted edges, which may be variable depending on the yarn and pattern used.
This first swatch was knit using progressively thinner yarns, wool, wool rayon, and a 2/24 acrylic in the FI segment. FI is a slip stitch that narrows the knit. The dark acrylic color stitch definition here gets lost. The band is seen pulling in the short-row segments on both sides. The shaping in both the top and bottom segments is by 2 stitches at a time.  The result in different yarns of equal thickness, with the FI band knit at a tension one full number looser than the stocking stitch areas, with the top and bottom solid color segments now shaped 3 stitches at a time. There is a trick when making A-line skirts to change the triangles that would poke out normally at the bottom if shaping were to begin immediately used as a design feature in many runway knits recently. If between an inch or 2 are actually knit up straight before shaping starts, the problem is eliminated. Depending on the design this may be a solution or it may read as a patterning error.
There are some conventions and “rules” for short-row techniques, but they do not always apply.
Keeping good notes helps to make successful experiments reproducible.
Two more tries began to experiment with working on the first and last groups in the holding techniques on a different number of stitches than the remaining shapes, noting differences. In the first an all-knit row is made across the short-row eyelets, reducing the planned FI band from 6 rows to 5. A rough spot in maintaining even stitches on one side is noticeable.  Progress: holding happened at the start of the bottom wedge, the FI was knit at 2 tension numbers looser than the stocking stitch, for 6 rows.  The goal in the short row shaping for the triangles is to maintain vertical edges that appear as straight as possible to the eye. One need not work on large swatches, small ones can provide clues as to differences resulting from variations in the starting side of the short-row shapings.  Studying the results can lead to many variations. There are student theses and careers based on exploring limited techniques to the max.
Building a theoretical true square or other predictable shapes is subject to the yarn and tension used. Beginning with a small sample, this shows the order of knitting 2 triangular shapes with the carriage beginning to knit each shape from alternate sides. In this case, 2 stitches are to be brought in and out of holding at a time. Because each color knits for 2 rows, small slits happen in the fabric resulting in eyelets. They may be used as design features, or attempts can be made to reduce their size. One way to do so is to have plain knit rows between holding selections to keep the small slits from intersecting and becoming double height. On the left swatch, one yellow row was knit to the left before reverse shaping in the same color. In the swatch on the right, in addition, 2 rows were knit in the blue prior to reverse shaping.  Reviewing the concept and developing a chart for larger swatches: the cyan color cells represent stitches in the hold position and the white cells stitches that will be knit.
At the top of the first wedge, most needles will be in the hold position, return them all to the B position manually before knitting the next row.
With the carriage on either side, set it for KCI with the cam buttons to slip for a free pass to the opposite side, the first FI pattern row will pre-select. Holding need not be canceled, since no needles are brought far enough out for the technique.
Cancel the slip setting, change the cam setting for FI knitting, place the pairs of colors in their corresponding feeders, and knit 6-8 rows of pattern.
Bring all needles out to hold except for the first desired group, if the holding lever has been canceled, reset it and commence reverse shaping.  Merrily knitting along and you forget to loosen the tension for the fair isle stripe: And what if the FI were to actually follow diagonal colored stripes? The approach is the same. I am right-handed, my default is often to begin on the right. Left-handed knitters can mirror charts as needed to make them easier to follow.
The first triangle is shaped from right toward left, subsequent ones begin on the left, then to wrap or not wrap becomes the question. Review of wrapping, which does not disturb the stitch on or the position of the wrapped needle:   bothI obstinately use random yarns at hand, sometimes too thin for the task at hand, true here. Any type of intarsia, of which holding is one, will be accompanied by lots of yarn ends that will require weaving in. Some of the stitches were wrapped here, some not, and maybe the eyelets could be considered a pleasing design feature. The 8 rows of FI, knit at 2 full tension numbers higher than that used for stocking stitch, minimizes the size of the eyelets all on their own on both sides of its stripe. Errors in bringing an added group or not into work may not always be immediately visible, frogging this type of knitting can be painful.
I would not use the last 6 stitch modification in any future swatches. Elizabeth Zimmermann published many patterns for hand knitting utilizing garter stitch and striped diagonal wedges for garment shaping.
Machine-knit stitches do not form as close to square ones found in garter stitches. Rendering the full-scale garment on a knit leader would make knitting to gauge while avoiding tons of math calculations possible.
DIY is a bit like assembling paper cut-outs that are required to fit together, first attempts at planning do not always succeed. One may begin at different parts of the piece and seam two halves together if necessary in order to keep matching stitch formations in both directions. Stripes may be added to form secondary intersecting shapes. On the left is a simple one-piece vest concept with no miters in the back panel, which may be knit from the bottom up or as two pieces with a center seam.
The bolero style is repeated in 2 separate pieces with mirror shaping in the second and would be joined at the center back.
The knit gauge is easier to maintain in short or small wearables.   Many garments may be made following the concepts for creating “pies”.
Decades ago batwing sweaters based on a sideways circular knit concept were standard presentations at knit seminars. Short-row diagonal graduated wedges were followed by varying amounts of all knit rows.
This idea for a short sleeve garment is from a Japanese magazine. In creating such illustrations because of the scale of the publication, the aspect ratio is distorted. In the final garment, the bottom circumference can in fact be far narrower than it might appear to the eye in the sketch and may be gathered or left released depending on design goals. The neckline diameter at the end of the project, after joining one shoulder, is gathered with evenly distributed decreases to the desired measurement prior to knitting the collar.  A way to form a long sleeve item, using binding off and casting on stitches in addition to shaped wedges followed by all knit rows. Knitting a garment on the bias at 45 degrees will produce a knit fabric that drapes differently.
Horizontal patterning can turn into diagonals and chevrons, and fancy decreases may be used in the center shaping of the garment.
Pre-computer programs and knitleaders, an easy way to sort out shaping for garments, was to begin by drawing on large sheets of graph paper. An all-square grid is fine.
Calculate a 10 cm/4 inch knitting gauge to the second decimal point before any rounding off. For example, if the gauge works out to be 5.728, and the measurement needed is 19.5 inches, the multiplied value result is 111.696, which can be rounded off to a 112-row line on the graph paper.
Working in cm can actually lead to easier calculations and is required when using a charting device.
Each cell in the graph paper grid equals one stitch and one row.
For knitting on the straight grain, based on gauge, draw series dots placing them on the beginning and the ending pots for each measurement, and connect them with straight lines.
Curves such as those necessary for necklines may be composed of short straight-line segments.
When knitting from the bottom up, continue with a colored pencil, filling in squares as they jog in or out, maintaining the new outline as close to the first as possible.
For the bias knit, whether on graph paper, the computer, or a charting device, begin by drawing a 45-degree line.
Rotate and trace the unmodified original straight-line image in place, follow the lines, and mark in and out jogs once more in color for contrast.
This is a very small chart so outline jogs in far larger pieces cannot be reflected. They would produce edges not as straight as in standard knitting, which will need to be considered when joining finished pieces.
As the piece is rotated, a wider grid base is required. Consider that the motif images as they are worked on the purl side will be mirrored horizontally on the knit side, a particular consideration if any text is introduced. Comparing theoretical purl as opposed to knit views on the left, two purl views on the right.   Fonts in various stitch and row counts are useful when planning knit text.
The point at which the text or pattern is introduced needs to have enough stitches in work on the machine to contain the intended words, ie for the above, a minimum ground, independent of shaping, would need to contain more than 9 rows if solid color stripes are to be added above and below it, and 26 stitches in width in this case.
A proof of concept swatch with arbitrary shaping on every other row illustrates the need for shaping based on a calculated gauge if a square is indeed the aim.
I knit on a 930 where mirroring is automated for programmed designs, so the text was programmed as drawn.
Sometimes less information is more. It became evident very soon that the placement of the text on the left was wrong if the aim was to have it centered in the final shape, and that more rows were needed at the top of the design.
On the right, the purl side as it faces the knitter is shown, with black pixels used to represent increases and decreases. The center red line separates the needle placements on either side of 0, and the text is shown in the default mirroring. The respective swatches after their rotation preview one of the potential results A true diagonal repeat may be planned for motif patterning knit from the bottom up. The drawback is that for executing a fair isle using more than 2 colors or with multiple color changes, partially illustrated on the far right, the 32X32 repeat would need to be rotated and knit as above.  

From the Brother machine knitting techniques book, a suggestion for dividing a sweater front into diagonal halves created by using the holding technique  

The idea of chaining the eyelet areas to reduce the size of the slits is an interesting one that up to now I have not tested.

Diagonal pleats

Long vertical button holes/ slits in knit fabric 1: intarsia

There has been a long thread in the machine knitting FB page lately that arose from a share of these 2 images.  There are three hand-manipulated methods available on most machines. True intarsia knits all parts of a design simultaneously and is best suited for complicated designs. Short-rowing is best suited to diagonal shapes, while the slip method is to vertical shapes. Both knit designs one section at a time and have no floats between shapes on the purl side.
True intarsia is also called bobbin or tapestry knitting.
Members contributed their concepts along with some of their swatches illustrating the idea that effects similar to the cables on the left could be executed in intarsia.
One member shared an Instagram link with a body of work by cari + carl using the technique.
I have been knitting for decades. Intarsia on the knitting machine along with cables or most hand-technique-only finished garments is something I have avoided at times, simply because they were too time-consuming when knitting items for sale in shows or even galleries, at others because some evoke my personal flight response.
I used to hand knit as well, preferred lace, intarsia, and most definitely complex cables knit on 2 needles.
Prior to attending a design school as a student, I worked in a shop that happened to sell knitting machines but whose main income came from selling yarn and lessons to hand knitters. As part of my responsibility, I had the job of hand knitting bulky intarsia sweater samples which at the time featured large images, often of birds or other animals, that were sometimes wrapped over the shoulder and onto the back or sleeves.
As I began to work on Brother machines, I acquired all the related accessories. My intarsia carriages other than in demos were stored unused for years. I gave away my yarn-brake years ago,  and very recently shipped my Brother 260 bulky intarsia carriage to a Parsons student, so by default any of my experiments at present will be knit on a standard km.
I was stuck on the idea at first of large stitch count cable crossings being made by using holding techniques and initially could not imagine how the same could be done using an intarsia carriage. It took a while for me to sort out in my brain that slits may be created in intarsia by simply not wrapping stitches as the knitting continues and maintaining color changes across the row of knitting, resuming yarn crossings in the areas that require joining.
Some considerations: using the intarsia carriage, the stitches are formed in stocking stitch, so the resulting knit strips will tend to curl to the purl side, far more noticeable in narrow strips, perhaps less so in yarns that will result in stitches that are permanently set by blocking. Using bulky yarns on appropriate gauge machines may also lessen the curling.
Experimenting with familiar yarns helps determine whether the familiar knit carriage tension when using them on the single-bed matches that achieved when the intarsia carriage is in use.
My Brother Machine Intarsia Standard carriage is the KA-8210 model:   It was intended for use on early Brother punchcard models listed in the manual. Trippers were required to advance the row counter in later models.

The B tripper doesn’t engage in my carriage, the A tripper does, and triggers the row counter in my 930.
The yarn placement for intarsia knitting is the same as that used in knit weaving.
“Sinkers” are provided with the accessory, and frequently turn up in the “identify this please” questions in forums. I have a tendency developed early on to use clothes pins as small weights when needed, used them in the swatch that follows, and if bobbins filled with yarns are used instead of the yarn balls or cones, their weight will be enough to keep yarn lengths manageable.
Each area of color has its own yarn supply, usually wound on bobbins.
Yarn bobbins are available in a variety of materials and sizes from cardboard to plastic or even wood. The overall shape may vary, but the concept of wrapping yarn around the center of a narrowing shape and slipping an end through a slot to secure it is shared by all types related to the image on the left. It is possible to make your own in similar configurations out of any material that will hold its shape.
The clamshell version became my preferred version of the tool. The small ones come in handy for holding ravel cords or even wire.   When knitting more than a swatch it is likely far easier to work without a ribber in place. I like to do all my knitting with the main bed anchored and angled with ribber clamps rather than flat. If the threader is missing from the supply of sinkers, floss threaders can help, and are also handy when beading on the machine. The used yarn here is 2/18 To knit: begin with a familiar yarn. This carriage may actually produce a different stitch size and resulting gauge than the result when using the same tension number on the knit carriage, a factor if the plan is to combine intarsia segments with the main carriage for any stocking stitch across all needles in use.
Brother knitters are familiar with the preselection of needles when patterning. When using the intarsia carriage all the needles in work, B, are aligned in the D position. They are seen below just behind the latches.
Knitting may begin on either side. Start on waste yarn and ravel cord if working on a large piece, cast on, and knit one row unless casting on in different colors matters.
Remove the knit carriage and continue using the intarsia carriage, beginning with it opposite the side on which the knit carriage had been removed, leaving a yarn end.  If any latches are closed, the stitches will drop on the next intarsia carriage pass. They will drop as well if the yarn skips being laid over any of the needles in the D position. There will be an eyelet at the very start of the process which is eliminated when the yarn ends are woven in. A reminder for Studio knitters: Brother needle positions are A, B, D, and E, C was present in very early models but was then eliminated permanently, while Studio kept the alphabet in proper order.
Laying on the yarn  An illustration of the crossings to eliminate holes.  I had initially begun on an uneven number of stitches, then decided it was more practical to be able to use 7 prong tools for my planned cable crossing, so I decreased on each side accordingly.
Eliminating the crossings will deliberately cause separations between the colors.
If the intent is to cross the resulting strips, then the side of each where transfers stop matters.  Using the appropriate tools remove the stitches onto them.    The yarn ends need to be kept free for the next intarsia carriage pass, the needles are aligned in the B position after the cable crossing is created. Remove the carriage by sliding it off the bed or using the release knob Return it to the opposite side to make a free pass and return to the side of the needle bed where the necessary yarn ends will be available to proceed.  Resume wrapping to join the strips once more Knit to the desired length, and bind off in one or more colors.
When off the machine the stocking stitch strips will curl. Here the knit is exposed to steam and some light pressing This gigantic swatch, for me, is the end of my intarsia knitting, though it is best to never say never.
Tips and techniques for the Studio AG 50 Intarsia Carriage
Brother Intarsia without an intarsia carriage
If cable crossings are the goal for this and following slit techniques, planning the crossings in color can help track the process. This is one of my earliest illustrations for doing so, from my Excel days, followed by a series of later blog posts on the topic. screenshot_33

Building more textures in needles out of work spaces


WORK IN PROGRESS

A collection of previous posts exploring some variations on the topic:
Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 1 3/15

Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 2 3/15
Ladder lace 8/13 Instructions reviewed in 2022, one of the accompanying swatches: Ladders and Lace 8/13. MK ladders, and a bit of crochet 12/16
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 1) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 2) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims or fabrics 312/17
Automating tuck stitches combined with “lace” 2 6/17
Combining tuck stitches with “lace” 1 3/15
Many fabrics other than the traditional ones familiar to hand knitters and machine knitters that create eyelet patterns by transferring and combining stitches with yarnovers often include the term lace in their name, one such is ladder lace.
No matter what machine is in use, charts may be developed and followed that include row-by-row directions for needles out of work and any movement of stitches to alter the look of the floats created in the resulting spaces.
Knitology offers endless video inspiration for lovers of hand techniques including ones relying on patterns including ladders.
There are several aids in maintaining the desired repeat in NOOW (needles out of work). When establishing the initial needle configuration, punchcard knitters can punch a single row to match the required needle selection if the repeat works within the 24-stitch constraint, and use locked preselection to make transfers in base knitting.
Electronic knitters may use the same concept, I prefer if doing so to plan for programming the width of the stitches in use on the needle bed, adding pixels for knit borders on either side. Punchcard users may need to disregard some needle selections to form them.
Another option for hand technique tracking in addition to marking the needle tape or even the needle bed is to print custom needle tapes created in a spreadsheet.   They can be marked as needed to guide hand technique selections, with colors added if preferred, and are easily swapped out if corrected or additional tapes are needed for different segments of the same technique.
A variety of printable tapes for multiple gauge knitting machines is offered by Claudia Scarpa in her blog post.
A series of printable sheets for tracking row counts at even intervals may be found at the bottom of this post.
In laddered fabrics, the edge stitch on either side of the float may widen and grow in size over time.
The 8/13 swatch uses lace transfers that produce doubled-up stitches to help with stitch stability.
Adding hand techniques serves a similar purpose in wide or varying ladder space designs created on the knit bed.
The length of the item produced combined with the added weight in the finished piece as it is hung or worn may quicken any lengthening and narrowing of the piece, requiring blocking again or at the very least pressing and steaming.
The fiber used makes a difference in the retention of the blocked shapes, in this case, man-made fibers may serve better than wool with its spring back.
If a needle is emptied, if left forward or brought back to the B position, it will pick up a loop on the next pass, and when followed by a second knit row, an eyelet is formed in the loop location.
If a loop on a previously empty needle is dropped after it is formed, the resulting ladder grows in width.
Latching ladders while on the machine creates knit stitches on the purl ground.
Stitches may be removed and returned to the needle bed, cable crossings may be involved.
Picking up the heels of specific stitches on designated rows below and placing them on the knit stitches to the right or left of the ladder space is a way of adding non-vertical shaping.
If experimenting with the number of rows knit before adding hand techniques, keep good notes in order to be able to reproduce segments in an all-over pattern. Beginning patterning with simple transfers in stocking stitch ground, here the needle configuration shifts but remains constant throughout. My proof of concept swatch is knit in 2/8 wool.  Visualizing the necessary actions:  The proof of concept: 
Adding 2X2 cable crossings: this repeat is 12 stitches wide.
A chain cast-on allows for dropping the 2 chains in the location of the starting ladders, with some weight applied to the starting rows one may proceed to the first cable crossing.
On row 6, and then again at 10-row intervals from there, the designated pairs of stitches are crossed consistently in the same direction. The needles aside from the crossing are pushed back to the A position.
Knit 4 rows.
On row 10, and then again at 10-row intervals from there move the left stitch of the pair of the center needles to its left, and the right stitch to its right, restoring the empty column at the center of the chart. Return the remaining empty needles to the B or E position
Knit 6 rows.
Repeat the process, ending with 6 knit rows. This variation uses transfer lace stitch crossings to produce larger eyelets than seen in the above swatch. Row counts for specific hand techniques can be tracked in a written or printed document if preferred. The knitting in progress: the initial needle spacing:  Emptied needles are in the process of being returned to work after the transfers to restore the initial setup, the first knit row will create loops on those needles, and the stitch is completed with the next knit pass from the opposite side     The growing pattern becoming apparent After updating the 8/13 post, these experiments continue exploring the above concept. The yarn now used is a wool rayon, which appeared not to split, and retains blocking if it is used.
The samples use an 8-row repeat with different transfer methods. The first uses two-stitch transfers. The 24-stitch version is suitable for a punchcard, 48 rows in height. the smallest electronic repeat  tiled to a 28-stitch repeat for the electronic, in the width of my planned swatch, only for the required 8-row height The now familiar double loops Beginning ladders A partial row view of stitches moved 2 at a time toward the higher end stitch count, treating the loops as one would stitches e-wrapping one of the two loops consistently in the same direction at the top of the piece will form equal eyelets on the next pass  Working with multiple loops held in hooks of specific needles: the following swatches were actually the beginning for what became the above thread
I tend to web surf in the early morning hours. Sometimes that includes coming across YouTube videos where contributors show fantastic dexterity at handling tools while developing complex fabrics using only hand techniques.
This is one example:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoJbbInlxck.
As usual, I attempted to automate as much as I could and failed to be able to execute a truly similar fabric.
In my first modified version, I introduced knit rows as seen below to make tracking of hand techniques easier and to facilitate knitting stitches/ loops groups.
The result is of course quite different from the swatch in the video.
To knit: begin with a permanent cast on over the planned number of needles. In this case, 2 needles are included to form vertical all-knit borders on both sides.
I knit most of my proof of concept swatches on an electronic machine and download a plain design repeat with a stitch count equal to the entire width of the number of needles in use on the bed.
On a punchcard model, the all-knit border needles would have to be brought out to E on every row for them to knit with each carriage pass.
Using provided repeat pngs as shared may require mirroring the repeat horizontally depending on the download program and the knitting machine model used, as well as changing the image mode back to indexed BW since downloaded designs from the posts may be converted to RGB mode as they are copied.
If working on a finished piece, knit several rows of waste yarn, followed by a row of ravel cord and a permanent cast-on, otherwise simply knit enough to hang a comb and some weights, required for most tuck knitting.
I happen to have a 2/20 wool as my go-to for most experiments that result in 4 or more loops building up in the needle hooks.
The beginning concept: hand transfers and automated tuck patterning 
The programmed repeat is planned for two rows of knit stitches between sets of loops  After the cast-on and base knit rows, program the machine and preselect the first pattern row. The starting side does not matter unless the use of the color changer is planned, in which case, the first preselection row would need to move toward it.
Because some needles are taken out of work, end needle selection is canceled.
After the first preselection row, the machine is set to tuck in both directions.
My test repeat was programmed as a single motif on the 930, with the image mirrored horizontally.
Each pattern segment is 6 rows high, the full repeat is 12 rows tall. Color changes could be introduced every 6 rows.
Following the chart for the first segment, transfer the A marked nonselected location needles to the adjacent preselected ones on their left, push the emptied needles out to A position, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches/loops out to E position.
After 4 tuck stitch rows, push any needles previously placed out of work to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass as part of an all-knit row.
As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the second all-knit row will preselect. As the carriage again moves once again to the previous side, it will knit the whole row, while preselecting for the first hand-technique row once more.
Prior to the next carriage pass, transfer each of the marked B location nonselected needles to the adjacent preselected ones on its right, push the emptied needles out to A, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches out to E.
Form loops for 4 more rows, and push any needles previously placed back to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass, forming an all-knit row. As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the next all-knit row will preselect, followed by preselection for loops and transfers again as the carriage moves again to the previous side knitting every stitch.
Repeat the process for the desired length.
End the piece with at least 2 all-knit rows after a full or half design repeat. Cast off loosely to compensate for the widening due to the type of stitch formation. This fabric is executed as a hand technique/ short rows with no automated tuck patterning assistance.  I have found when using the tuck automated setting in Brother models there is often a limit for accumulating no more than 4 strands in the hooks of the needles, while in using holding, manually pushing needles out to hold and back to work can be far more forgiving.
In this instance, loops are formed for 6 consecutive rows.
There are no all-knit rows. The color changes were made every 6 rows prior to knitting across the newly adjusted needle positions.


 

 

Pretend/ mock cables 4

The blog post Pretend/ mock cables 3  presented the concept of using tuck stitch patterning and needle preselection, a Brother feature, as a guide to creating a version of mock cable crossings.
These designs are from an ancient Japanese publication.  Technically the results are not very cable-like for these three concepts, but they share the principles behind the technique. I am offering this information as a way of interpreting and adapting the suggestions in the publication. There has been some editing of the originally shared repeat suggestions after testing them in proof of concept swatches.
The scanned inspiration source:    The punchcard repeats: symbols are used in the above chart. The elongated short inverted U shapes, with some in bold type, represent the tuck stitch locations and needles that will hold loops in a pattern. The longer, thinner inverted Us suggest which tuck loop(s) will be raised and hooked up on new locations to create the desired textured effects.
Punchcards mirror the design horizontally when in use, so the texture will appear as shown in the swatch photos on the knit side when the design is worked based on the illustrated charts on the right.
When using the tuck setting, unpunched holes will create loops on nonselected needles, punched holes will create knit stitches. Electronic patterns will use black and white pixels to result in the same selections.
Deliberately not punching holes or adding white pixels may be used to provide a marker on all knit unpunched or black pixel rows for hand techniques to take place, ie in the repeat planned for 194.
With the charts as guides, partial punchcard repeats for the three designs: Punchcards ideally require a minimum of 36 punched pattern rows to roll accurately, the single, smallest repeat segment is adequate for knitting on electronic machines.
I knit primarily on a 930 and prefer to tile the repeats in width to the number of needles in my samples. The single motif button, default on the 930, need not then be reset and the design will be automatically centered. It is not a necessary step. Centering any single repeat across the needles in use or otherwise placing it may be achieved by programming its position. In punchcard machines, the selection is fixed across the 24 stitch markings on the needle tape, other positioning may be achieved by shifting the knitting in its position on the needle bed.

My illustrations are achieved by using both Mac Numbers and Gimp.
Adding color to help visualize hand techniques, and tiling to check alignments:
192 is 8 rows in height, more than that is needed to indicate the locations for hooking loops up. It appears this happens on white squares in the published original chart, which translate to knit stitch locations, the punched holes in the card.
For some transfer locations, no needle selection clues are provided, and they are made based on visual identification.
If the transfer is to be made onto a preselected needle, push the appropriate needle back to the B position.
Visually follow the rows down to locate the appropriate tuck loop(s),
lift them onto the needle just put it back to B,
and push that same needle out to the E position after the hook up in order to form a knit stitch with the next carriage pass.
The repeat with the most frequent hand technique is 192, with hookups every 8 rows    Using light color yarn makes it easier to identify the closely packed stitch structures.
The tool used to pick up and rehang stitches can vary depending on personal preference.
Programming the design as an 8-row pattern allows for easier tracking in a design that requires actions to be taken at that specific interval.
Another view: I had a hard time finding the proper spot for picking up loops and needed extra magnification in addition to my bifocals to sort that out.
The wool used for the test swatches is a 2/8 weight.
Because transfers in the scanned publication are made on a tuck stitch row, these designs may be easier to execute on a Studio machine.
As Brother knits that last tuck row, it preselects every needle for the knit row that will happen with the next carriage pass from the opposite side. I found the location easier to track for the hand technique a row early, before the every-needle preselection.
The effect is subtle and time-consuming, a consideration if planning larger pieces of knitting. 193 is 20 rows high, with hookups every 10. In the concept swatch, some of the tuck stitches were eliminated, seen here in a 48 stitch wide repeat, allowing for a released edge on either side. The tiled X2 in height repeat checks its vertical alignment.  This time as many of the compounded knit and tuck loops as possible were moved, producing more detailed surface textures on the knit side 194 is 48 rows high, with hookups also every 8 rows.  The single 24X 48 png is followed by the tiled 48 stitches wide version and the tiled Gimp alignment check   The visualization of stitch/loop movements The hand technique occurs after an all-knit row, which in cards would be all punched, in electronics all black pixels.
In Brother kms, while the first all-knit row is made, the next with isolated pairs of preselected needles will occur.
Prior to moving the carriage to the opposite side, hook up from highlighted locations, and bring needles out to E after doing so. As the carriage travels across the bed again, all knit stitches will form while preselecting for the subsequent tuck stitch row. A rhythm will develop eventually.
Notes to self:
some days it is not good to be near a knitting machine
cables and intensive hand techniques are still on my avoid if at all possible list
keep an eye on broken ends of yarn in old cones at least periodically before knitting across whole rows
if knitting lengths of this technique, or even a large swatch, removing the ribber if it is in use will facilitate the process. Remember to check its balance when it is recoupled with the main bed
while you are busy keeping an eye out on what to pick up and which stitches did not form properly or are jumping off the main bed, remember to look up at the yarn mast periodically, especially if the tension appears to change suddenly An improvement, however, over this masterpiece a decade ago when working in my attic supplementary studio space 😉 Although all hooking up aka ruching is in the same direction, there is no apparent biasing. This fabric is quite compressed, not for someone without a lot of focus, patience, and good eyesight. This pattern emulates the wishbone trim familiar to many knitters. It is the easiest in the series to execute, with the most textured result. The knit repeat used in the swatch is 26 stitches wide and can be trimmed easily to 24 stitches wide for use with punchcard machines.
The heels above the designated tucked stitches at the bottom of each repeat are lifted up and onto the single unselected needle of an all-knit row.
End needle selection is on, and the tuck setting in both directions is used after the initial preselection row.
Though initially an all-knit border was planned on each side, several knit stitches were eliminated on one side of the swatch. The difference is seen in the edges of the work, where all-knit stitches are allowed to roll, creating a very different “trim” than where tuck patterning was left uninterrupted. Such rolls can make satisfactory added details along accessories such as scarves, where a few rows of all knit stitches may also be allowed to roll to the purl side at the top and bottom of the piece as a finishing alternative.
The 26X16 single repeat.  Tiled repeat, checking alignment  Charted information   The proof of concept swatch A mock cable trim may be knit separately, in any color or even multiple colors, and applied as you knit on a large piece or stitched on after the fact.
One variation as a hand technique: after a closed cast-on on 10 stitches, knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side of the original cast-on row, and hook up on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center. Knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side 10 rows below, hang on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center, and repeat to the desired length.
Color changes may be added every 10 rows when all knit selection is made.
The slip stitch setting in this case is used to track and facilitate the process.
End needle selection is on, with the knit carriage set to slip in both directions, with the first preselection row made after at least one base knit row.
Weight may not be necessary depending on how comfortable one is with managing the knit without them and the yarn being used.
The repeat, in turn, is tiled twice in height in the shared png A short slip stitch float will form in the location of the white pixels at the bottom of the chart and when the selection is made to match the top row of the repeat, the single float is picked up and hung on the unselected needles, Those needles are brought out to E position after the transfers.
At that point, prior to the next carriage pass, the color may be changed. The short single skipped stitch floats are shown more clearly in this image. When changing colors it is best to use yarns of the same thickness that will knit easily at the same tension, not done in the first shape in this sample.
If using 2 carriages operating from opposite sides to carry different color(s) remember that extension rails will need to be used, as both will be selecting needles and will anchor onto the belt to do so.
Floats will happen at the side(s) as colors are carried up, but they and cut yarn ends can be hidden when the trim is applied. Here a fixed number of stitches +1=11 is knit for a fixed number of rows
an eyelet is created every 10 rows A
A single eyelet was sufficient to allow for feeding the trim through on the same side and from the bottom up, B and C, upon completion of the planned strip length. The red sample on the left is knit with 2/18 silk/wool, the blue is 2/wool. It is best to avoid any fiber that will pill easily.
The blue samples were knit for 65 rows each. In DIY, begin a test by casting on an odd number of needles (11, chart row 0)
if all needles are not properly formed after a permanent cast-on, bring all needles out to E for the first 2 or 3 rows
insert a claw weight
knit the same number of rows as cast on -1 (10)
transfer a needle to the left or right so as to maintain an even number of needles on each side after the transfer, making certain the empty needle is in the work position before the next carriage pass (chart row 10)
as you knit to the opposite side a loop will form on the empty needle, the eyelet location (chart row 11)
a carriage pass to the opposite side will form the full stitch in the loop location (chart row 12)
The charted working repeat for the trims below is outlined in red 

Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets

WORK IN PROGRESS

In Brother knitting one of the issues encountered when combining fair isle patterning with short rows is that if the fair isle pattern is to be maintained, one must hand-select needles to the proper position prior to knitting across needles newly returned to work.
The short row method here is a modified version of that used in the “wisteria” post, with the addition of needles regularly left out of work.
Analyzing what is happening in fabrics in this group: the working repeats need not be symmetrical, but for the purposes of beginning to understand the moves required and developing an awareness of how the stitches on the needle bed behave, it is easier to begin by using hand selection that is rhythmic and consistent.
Avoiding dark colors is helpful in recognizing dropped stitches in time to pick them up.
With some exceptions, most machine knitting short row patterns are worked in two-row sequences with stitches brought out to hold opposite the carriage and into work on the carriage side.
Typically the first row of eyelets will be approximately half size, and the knitting may be stopped at the top of the piece to match that.
This chart begins to visualize a pattern composed of vertical columns with colors knit on every other needle, produced using the repeat. The arrows indicate carriage movements.
The grey cells represent needles out of work.
The blocks of black and white columns represent the colors in the FI pattern selected and relate to the A and B yarn feeders. In this exercise, preselection is kept constant to facilitate maintaining proper patterning as needles are pushed back into work. Often, after an initial number of rows, all but the first group of stitches in the pattern are brought out to hold. In my swatch, the fair isle pattern had already been established across the needle bed for several rows.
Here one would begin with the knit carriage on the right, COR.
COR: the first group is knit for an even number of rows, ending COR.
COR: a number of needles are pushed back into work on the left, FI needle position is restored with needles placed in proper positions, knit on one row on the combined groups to the left
COL: bring the first group’s needles out to hold, knit an odd number of rows, ending COR.
Repeat moves and selections until the last group of stitches is reached, knit an even number of rows, and end COL.
COL: reverse the process, moving from left to right.
This method results in threads appearing between the short rowed shapes. The first preselection row is made from left to right. End needle selection is canceled. Cast on is over a multiple of 6 stitches ie 36, with every 6th needle out of work. I began the sequence COR with 10 rows knit, returning COR, followed by 9 as the odd number of rows once the next group of needles is brought into work, and the last group worked is pushed out to hold, then reduced the even number to 8, the odd to 7 in the top half of the swatch.
Here the work is seen on the machine, on the left, COR, the needle selection for the pattern in the next group to its left is restored. On the right: after knitting to the left, the initial group of needles worked is brought out to hold before continuing to knit.
A mini version in a single color Changing the holding sequence to eliminate the long threads between held shapes, beginning once more to sort out the how-to before adding fair isle patterning: cast on 36 stitches, with every sixth out of work moving from left to right, knit several rows. To knit: each group of 5 stitches in work has a reference number, 1-6
first pattern row:
COR: Set the machine for hold, leaving only group 1 in work
COR: knit 8 rows on the first group of stitches on the right (1)
push second group (2) into work and knit 8 rows, returning to COR
COR: push third group (3) into work and knit one row to the left
COL: push group (1) on its right out to hold, knit 7 rows across the remaining  10 stitches, returning to COR
COR: bring a new group on left into work, knit one row to the left
COL: bring the group to its far right out of work, repeat the process across the row
when the second to last 2 groups on left (6 and 7) are reached, knit  8 rows on both, returning to COL
COL: push the second to the last group out to hold (6)
COL knit 8 rows on the last group on left (7)
COL, reverse the process repeating all selections moving from left to right for the second pattern row. Begin the process by knitting 8 rows first on the first group of five stitches on the left, which will now have been knit for 16 rows in order for the stitches to create the large eyelets that will now form.
In my swatch, I occasionally varied the odd number of rows knit between seven and 9. Even a couple of rows can make a noticeable difference depending on the color of the yarn, the tension used, and other usual suspects. Test out the idea in the swatch to help make the decision as to whether unraveling is required to keep a constant quality to the holes as the project grows, and to practice unraveling rows back to the proper location. If fair isle patterning is added, corrections become a bit more complicated.
The resulting proof of concept swatch:  With the addition of the fair isle patterning: note that here, when the last set of needles was reached, they were not worked twice before reversing direction, so the edge eyelets are of a different size than those in the remainder of the row, forming smaller waves on each side.   Any openwork fabric will likely be wider than that knit in stocking stitch or fair isle on the same number of needles, making it necessary to consider providing stretch in any rows knit at the bottom or the top of the planned project or using the contrast as part of the final design.
Adding hems to the above technique is also possible

The short row repeat used here is a modified version of the “fern leaf” one in the post. The sequences are different, every needle is in work.
I began by casting on 36 stitches, knitting 12 rows for the even number, and 11 for the odd, with random variations.
Results need not be symmetrical either in the length of the shapes or in the direction of the knit, but rhythmic repetition can help one understand stitch formation, other changes that follow can then be deliberately planned rather than accidents or errors, keeping notes while the work is in progress, will help reproduce effects.   The knitting method, and tips: the fair isle repeat is 2 stitches wide by one row high, and the respective cells are bordered in red, it may be programmed to suit.  When using a punchcard model, the card could simply be locked on any row with every other cell punched. The result will be vertical lines on every other needle, slanting in the direction in which short rowed shapes are knit.
I chose to begin my design with the first needle on the right selected to pick up the color in the B feeder and used that as the basis for adjusting selections in subsequent groups of stitches.
Electronic machines have the option of mirroring the pattern to change that, punchcard knitters can move the knitting one needle to the right or to the left to get the selection they prefer.
As additional needles are brought into work, the A and B yarn feeders selections need to be restored so as to maintain proper FI patterning.
If you have not worked with this type of technique before, it is good to start using a light color and to work in small stitch groups, not adding added patterning until later.
Attempting to visualize the movement of the stitches across the needles in work: the colored cells illustrate the movement of stitches across the needle bed as they are brought in and out of work, and the number of held rows is altered to reduce the chart’s height, does not match the directions for the test swatch that follow it exactly. The black cells represent all knit rows. 1. Cast on the desired number of stitches, in this case, 27, a multiple of 3, and knit several rows at tension appropriate for stocking stitch when using the same yarn
2. COR. Set the machine to not knit stitches brought out to the hold position.
3. Leave 6 needles (3X2, double the number in each working group) on the right in the work position, and push all the remaining stitches out to hold.
4. Knit 10 rows (an even number), ending COR.
5. Push back the first 3 needles on the left back into the work position
6. Knit one row from right to left (9 needles), end COL, and push the 3 needles on the right out to the holding position (6 needles will now be in work again).
7. Knit 9 rows (odd number) ending COR
8. Repeat steps 5-7 until you reach the last 6 stitches, knit 10 rows (even number) over these last 6 (3X2, double the number in each working group) needles, ending COL.
9. Set the machine to knit all needles out in the hold by pushing needles back or releasing the hold lever, knit 4 rows over all the needles. It is possible to vary the number depending on one’s preference, but for me, only two rows simply were not aesthetically enough.
10. Holding lever on H, reverse shaping from left to right, beginning again on 3X2=6 needles, (double the number in each working group).
Reverse the process, moving in the opposite direction, beginning with knitting an even number of rows on the first chosen group of stitches on the left.
The difference in the edging of the swatch, marked by arrows, is due to a variation in the sequence for working on the specific group of stitches. If performed as an error, it will appear as an obvious deviation if not corrected while the work is in progress. The same action may also be performed deliberately as part of the overall design.
Color changes may be made easily where the 4 rows are knit in between segments on every needle used. End with 2 rows in the first color, knit with two rows with the second color before returning to the holding sequences. 
Worked on a significantly smaller scale in one color.
This far more symmetrical result than the first effort worked in the vertical stripe fair isle pattern on 40 stitches: begin with some FI patterning, end COR
COR: bring all but the first 8 needles closest to the carriage out to hold,
Proceed as described for the single color design, but this time 4 stitches are pushed into work and returned out of work rather than 3. Knit 12 rows when even numbers are required, 11 for the odd number.
Four rows of fair isle patterning are knit at the end of each repeating segment.
It is possible to work with far larger groups as well, thus providing an opportunity for adding larger fair isle patterns into the mix. Cast on 48 stitches.
In this sample various size eyelets were produced, using 12 rows, A, which did not seem to yield the degree of 3D texture I wanted. More rows were tried where larger holes appear, B. Four rows of fair isle patterning separated each row of held shapes.
To produce a more symmetrical knit, begin working short rows COR with a group of 16 (8X2) stitches on the right, knit for 20 rows as the even number (in the range of 8X2X1.5), 19 for the odd, returning groups of 8 stitches into work knitting moves across the needle bed, ending the pattern with working 20 rows on the last 16 stitches in work on the left. Knit 4 rows restoring fair isle needle selection across the needle bed, returning COL. COL reverse shaping.   Knitting all the holding sequences in the same direction for multiple rows as in any eyelet fabric will result in a knit that biases to a degree proportionate to the number of stitches and rows in each unit. The start of yet another idea:

 

Machine knit fringes 4, long loop patterning

Related posts on creating loops:
long-loops-a-bit-on-method.
long-stitches-on-km/
some-long-stitch-swatches/
for double bed long loops in various designs in single or multiple colors see drop stitch lace

I became curious about creating long loop shapes on a knit ground using continuous strands of yarn, forming loops in the same direction, and allowing for knit rows between them resulting in returning the yarn to the starting loop formation side. My own preference is to make the loops with the knit carriage on the right, anchoring them with the following carriage pass to the left. To continue doing that, the yarn would either need to be cut leaving a yarn end, or it needs to travel back to the left, where it can form the next row of loops from left to right.
In these tests, the movement of the yarn back to the left was achieved by having it weave on every other needle from right to left.
Triangular shapes are easily recognized, and I began with a moderately large one, at first planning for loops on every other needle. Black cells on the right represent loop locations, and green the weaving pattern formed as the carriage knits right to left.  The length of the loops determines end-use, long loops can become fringe, and short ones the macro version of pile knitting.
Tools to aid loop formation that are fixed in height across the needle bed are needed if the pattern is not used as a single motif, but rather as a recurring one. Separate strands of yarn on bobbins or balls or cones would need to be used for each shape. The loops in this swatch are large, so there are extra knit rows between each set.
I use colors and yarns that are randomly on hand for swatches unless I am planning a specific finished item.
The first swatch is worked with loops on every other needle, the second with loops on every, as shown in the photos
Worked as a single motif:
KC II: preselection is made from left to right
COL: make loops moving from left to right using ribber gate pegs, I like to bring needles to be wrapped out to hold as I move across each row, wrapping frequency may be varied apart from needle preselection, knit a row to left, anchoring them  COL: knit to right, the needles for the weaving pattern to the left will preselect COR: check that weaving brushes are down, place yarn over preselected needles, knit a row to the left, securing the weaving pattern, the yarn end will be on the left again COL: knit a row to the right, needles for the next row of loops will be preselected
COR: use the yarn now on the left again to form loops from left to right, knit a row to the left to secure loops. Repeat the process. The resulting shape brings holiday knitting to mind.
The loops worked on every other needle and on every needle. The original preselection repeat may be used. The only yarn ends that need to be dealt with are at the beginning and end of the shape, the reverse of the knit has the appearance typically seen in knit weaving, where the thicker yarn forces the stitches in the background one apart. What of recurring shapes with reversing directions? It occurred to me plastic straws may prove to be handy tools for creating the loops and easier to manage than rulers. The maximum length of the straw is a limitation. Exploring the technique in a single motif gives one the opportunity to explore issues and limitations.
My straw is 10.25 inches wide, made of plastic, is not rigid, and can be squeezed flat easily. When using it as a loop guide, it was held low enough below the knitting on the top bed on the carriage side to allow some ease in the loops so the straw can have an easier time dropping below the sinker plate when the knit carriage passes over it, it can even partially collapse if needed.
I found managing the straw soon became rhythmic and easy.
The lengths of the straw on both sides of the loops serve as a handle on the left, and on the carriage, right side, the extra length can be guided down a bit to keep it from angling up and getting caught in the sinker plate.
Once the carriage begins to knit across I encountered no problems. The straw may get pushed slightly to the left with the carriage pass. Planning possible actions and a starting repeat with single rows knit between loops. In this instance, loop formation happens when the carriage is on the right, and weaving when the carriage is on the left. The latter means the weaving yarn is laid over selected needles in the wrong direction, with the long end of the yarn away from the knit carriage. That said because weaving happens only on every other needle X3 and on a max of 7 on every other needle, the first selections were no problem, and the second was manageable with some caution. The arrows indicate the direction of the carriage movement after the loops are formed, and after the yarn is laid over the preselected needles for weaving.
The image on the right is the repeat tiled in Gimp to evaluate its vertical alignment. It is 14 pixels wide and 20 high, could be used in a punchcard and placed on the center of the card making it recur centered in each 24 stitch location on the needle bed.
If an attempt is to be made knitting several repeats, vertical columns of plain knit between the pile knit columns are desirable.
The needle preselection will begin on 14 stitches, so only for the first 2 rows, the needles preselected for the first 7 stitches of the 14, shown as grey cells, push the needles involved back to B.   Depending on the machine model and software used for the download, the repeat may need to be mirrored to achieve the result planned in the drawing, which is true in my 930. The starting png may be placed on a wider canvas in Gimp, here is a 30 stitch mirrored version for use on my 930. The resulting design is quite dense but successful. Planning moves on for weaving to happen with the yarn in the proper direction, particularly if more than one design is to be attempted horizontally, and to make the loops less dense.  Extra rows of plain knitting are added between loop formation.
Here the design is placed once again on a 30 stitch ground but is now 40 rows high, drawn in the direction desired, not yet mirrored. It is expected the aspect ratio for the shapes will change, becoming elongated. Again, preselection for the first seven stitches on the right for the first two times selection occurs on those needles is canceled with needles pushed back to B. Clothespins, as seen in the lower right, can come in handy to put slight weight on yarn ends to help hold them in place at the start of the piece or as it progresses. The proof of concept swatch shows a very different appearance in the distribution of the loops from the first sample. It is possible to knit more than multiple series of shapes. Enough spacing between the forms is required to allow for using of more than one straw.
I had the easiest result by leaving the straws uncut.
Each straw end on the carriage side again needs to be kept down until the sinker plate begins to pass above it.
It is a good idea to try the method first and practice some hand selections.    The rows where all 14 stitches in each group were worked required a bit of extra care, but knitting was quite manageable Long loops may also be created with i-cords, strips of knitting, or fabric, strung beads, and imagination is the limit depending on preference, available materials, and the specific design. Even tiny beads may be used to create loops as seen in this swatch. Dental floss may be used as the very strong “thread”, secured with e-wraps on the knit background where needed.
For threading the beads onto lengths of the chosen thread, a tool I have used (which also comes in handy for threading a serger) is an “EEZ-THRU” floss threader, recently available in this brand  Here strips of knitting are used along the edge and knotted, strips are also applied to the body of the swatch during knitting for contrasting color interest I cords may be applied to the edges of a  knit ie scarves, but there are a lot of ends to weave in. There are trade-offs if techniques are explored to use continuous strands with limited or no cutting.
There is a hand knitting pattern called foxpaw, for which some illustrations may be found in the photos related to the advertisement for this class https://stitches.events/shop/classes/west-2022/intro-to-stacked-stitches-6/.
A while ago I was interested in trying out a simplified version using the knitting machine, the project has remained a UFO (unfinished object) since then.
The graduated size cording here were created by knitting lengths of i-cord on 4 stitches, knitting X number of rows, folding the cord upon itself, and joining the second half to the first using seam as you knit, continuing with the next shape immediately after completing the join. When applied to a cast on edge, if the goal is to use the technique for a substitute fringe, the double cords are a bit dense compared to the body of this particular knit and too close together. Perhaps creating a trim by applying the double cord to a side edge of a vertical strip and then in turn to where needed would produce a better result, or limited numbers of graduated cord lengths might provide interest in the body of a knit.

 

“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with short rows 2

Some previous posts exploring hand techniques that might be considered to fall in this family of stitches:
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: tuck lace trims and fabrics 1
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: tuck lace trims or fabrics 2
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with “chains”
Search for “wisteria”
“Crochet” meets machine knitting techniques: working with short rows 1, June 2017 began to explore some of the fabrics presented in this category in a Portuguese language publication I do not speak or read the language, so my swatches are best guess efforts at producing similar knits.
2022: In the latest Mac OS 12, an interesting feature is available now, but not at the time of the original writing of this post.
A: choose the design, in this case, #2, screen grab the image, import it into photos
B: open the image, position the pointer over the text, left click and drag to select the desired text
C: control-click on the selection, choose translate text, and then choose a language. If a specific language selection is not made, the mac translates automatically into the preferred language for your region
D: click and choose copy translation to copy it to clipboard for saving into a document ie Text Edit so that it may be saved for later use or printed if desired
The result offers a starting point but is in need of added editing
1% Career: You weave from right to left.
A)Side of the Car, leave 4A at work and rest at rest. Tecer 6C.
B) On the opposite side car, put 2A to work (the 2A next to those that are
So at work). Weave 1C.
C) On the opposite side of the car, put 2A on rest. Weave 5C. Car is saying-
Ta.
D) Continuously repeat items B and C until the carrera is finished. Do you want to di-
Zer: until the last 2 points are left at work and, with these 2A weaving
6C, instead of 5 (car will be left).
28 Career: weaves from left to right,
C) Continuously repeat items A to D, or soybeans, after the career or
The car will be on the right, fI
Continuously repeat the 19th and 28th career, 

Guidelines at the beginning of the pub for #1, translated more slowly with added editing:
CLARIFICATION FOR THE EXECUTION OF THESE POINTS
A: in crochet stitches, the scheme is repeated across the entire width of the machine
B: in the “crochet ends”, braids and flowers, thread only the needles. Islands as indicated by the symbols in the scheme. Alternative: in crochet stitches of gallons and flowers thread the thread only on the needles as indicated in the diagram symbols
C: when starting to weave the car must always be on the right side unless the symbols in the scheme indicate otherwise, for example, crochet stitch #9
D: in crochet stitches count a career whenever the tip of the wire stays at the other end of the machine
E: the tension must be adjusted according to the stitch and thickness of the thread to be used, in general voltages 1-3 are used.”
Some familiarity with larger-scale patterns in this family can help visually with duplicating them independent of the written original language directions.
These fabrics share common hand technique movements across rows, singly, or in pairs. Similar structures are not presented in numerical order in the pub but will be here.
The yarn choice makes a critical difference both in managing the knitting and in how blocking, or not, affects the finished fabric. The knit carriage travels many times across each stitch as the technique is worked, with possibly pilling, so softly spun yarns should be avoided.
Clean the machine of any leftover fibers, while avoiding over-oiling which may leave dark streaks in the finished product.
Cast-ons and bind-offs need to be very loose to compensate for the fact that the completed knit will have considerable sideways stretch. Chain cast on 2 in work, 2 out of work, end with 2 needles in work
bring all stitches out to hold except for the first 2 stitches on the right
COR knit 8 rows
push adjacent pair of needles away from the carriage into work position, knit a row to left
COL bring the previously knit pair of needles out to hold
knit 7 rows, end COR
bring adjacent pair of needles opposite carriage into work, knit a row to left, end COL
COL when the last pair of needles is returned to work knit 8 rows
reverse shaping: bring the second pair of needles on left into work, knit a row, push the first pair of needles out to hold, and continue the process for the desired length
The yarn used is a 6X18 rayon, a “no memory” yarn that changes considerably with pressing. The arrows mark an operator error in tracking the sequence, the top and bottom edges are obviously narrower than the resulting mesh.  Number 11 is a close relative but worked on every other needle The rayon used in the previous sample, and a 2/8 wool, were less successful than a 2/11 acrylic in knitting the swatch. The stitches need to be as tight as possible while also needing to be able to knit off properly
make a very loose chain cast-on on an even number of needles, then drop every other chain, taking every other needle completely out of work, and ending with a needle in work
bring all stitches out to hold except for the first stitch on the right
I believe the directions are given for knitting only 2 passes, I preferred the look with the count doubled to 4, so, COR knit 4 rows
push adjacent needle away from the carriage into work position, knit a row to left
COL bring the previously knit pair of needles out to hold
knit 3 rows, end COR
bring adjacent pair of needles opposite carriage into work, knit a row to left, end COL, knit 3 rows
COL when the last pair of needles is returned to work knit 4 rows, continue with
reverse shaping: bring the second pair of needles on left into work, knit a row, push the first needles out to hold, and continue the process for the desired length
In the top part of the swatch I knit 8 rows at starting and ending sequences, feeling the sides were tight, 6 may be the best answer
bing off very loosely after the last stitch is worked for 4 rows
The same directions apply in this instance, the first sample worked with no needles out of work I added 3 chains between cast-on and bound-off stitches, making for a better top and bottom edge. The difference in width is highlighted on the bottom right, where I missed doing so between two stitches. At the end of each row, prior to reversing direction, I knit 6 rows rather than 4, ending with 4 rows only on the last needle prior to binding off. The swatch was not steamed or pressed.
This knit begins on every needle I cast on chaining over 2 needles, followed by two extra chains where the ladder is expected, cast-off also with two extra chains in ladder spaces. The knit sequence is similar to the previous swatch, but needles are now moved in pairs
COR work first 2 stitches for 2 rows
push two needles on left into work, knit one row to left
COL *push the first 2 stitches to hold, knit one row to the right
COR bring the next two stitches on the left into work, knit one row to left
COL push previous 2 stitches to hold, knit one row to the right**
bring 2 stitches on left into work knit one row to left,
repeat across the row
when the last pair of stitches are left, COL knit two rows on them, and reverse shaping. Ending each sequence with two knit rows will produce fairly straight sides, knitting four rows on end stitches, except prior to binding off,  may echo the movement of the in-between spaces and make the ladders at the sides more visible Eliminating those ladders or floats, here eyelets are created where stitches are held for two rows. Care needs to be taken if stitches are dropped or other patterning errors are made in order to retain the correct pattern. Cast on and bind in this instance were executed with single chains added in between those on needles in work.
Version 1:
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
repeat until there are 2 needles left in work, knit 2 rows
reverse shaping
end with 2 rows knit on the last pair of stitches before binding off
Version 2 adds 2 rows knit on every needle between holding pattern reversals, the fabric grows in length far more quickly
Cast on from left to right on every needle
COR knit 2 rows, bring all needles except for the first 2 on the carriage side out to hold
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
COR bring one needle on left into work, knit 1 row
COL bring one needle out to hold opposite carriage, knit one row
repeat until there are 2 needles left in work, knit 2 rows, end COL
COL push remaining needles into work, knit 2 rows on all needles
COL bring all needles except the first 2 on the left into work, knit 2 rows
reverse shaping, ending with 2 knit rows on the far right
COR push all needles into work, knit 2 rows on all needles
COR bring all needles out to hold except for the first 2 on the right
repeat all
end with 2 rows knit on the last pair of stitches before binding off

chain cast on 2 in work, 2 out of work, end with 2 needles in work
worked in 2 pairs, 4 needles at a time
COR knit 6 rows on the first two pairs of stitches on the right push pair of needles on the left into work knit one row push first 2 of needles out to hold knit 5 rows CORpush next pair on left into work, knit one row  push the third group  on  its right into hold position, knit 5 rows across remaining  4stitches bring a new group on left into work, knit one row
bring the pair to the far right out of work
repeat  process across row
when  the last pair of needles on the left is pushed back into work, knit one row
COL knit 10 rows, bring the third pair of needles into work, knit one rowPush the first pair of needles out to work, knit 5 rows, continue with reverse shaping.
If the pattern is to end on the right (or left), knit 6 rows on the last 4 stitches and stop, otherwise when the opposite side position is reached, knit 10 more rows before reversing and continuing in the pattern.
Tracking rows worked: 7 ladders are created in each space, 12 on each end. Depending on yarn and stitch size watch to see that even tension is maintained particularly on the first 2 stitches worked on each side.
The swatch is shown before and after some light pressing, the arrow marks some looser stitches on the side edge.

Latch tool cast on from left to right, chaining 4  in no needle, future ladder spaces
COR with the first 2 needles in work, knit 2 rows
COR bring the first needle on left into work, knit 1 row to the left on three stitches
COL bring the first needle of the previous pair on the right out to hold, knit one row to the right on two stitches
COR bring the closest needle on the left into work, knit 1 row on three stitches
COL bring the second needle of the previous pair on the right out to hold, knit one row on two stitches
repeat working on 3, then 2 stitch sequences until there are only 2 needles left in work, end COL
COL knit two rows, begin  reverse shaping by putting one needle into work on the right, knit one row on three needles
COR bring the first stitch on the far left out to work, knit one row on 2 needles
continue reverse shaping, ending with 2 needles in work on the far right
COR knit two rows on 2 stitches, repeat and continue the process until 2 stitches are left in work on the left, and reverse again
end fabric with 2 rows knit on last 2 stitches in work
latch tool bind off with chaining X 4 in ladder spaces
keep an eye on sequences, the floats are created in series of three, with experience knitting similar patterns, errors become easy to spot during is knitting Shell shapes: #4 and # 20 directions are given in the 2017 blog post Some of the trims in this pub may be far more easily and quickly executed using tuck stitches.