Revisiting “wisteria” 3D shapes and their possible automation

Present software makes automating textured designs in these families easier to plan and execute.
This method is limited to single colors being used at any one time and does not allow for additional patterning through fair isle or end needle selection.
Slip stitch in both directions results in black cells being knit sequentially, and the limit in width for the total design is limited to the width of the knitting machine and how the program is read and implemented.
End needle selection is canceled.
All needles in work need to be cleared with each carriage pass.
My electronic km samples are now knit on a 930, which automatically mirrors any downloaded repeats, an advantage for lettering, but not for many other situations. These designs require mirroring when using any machine or software that does so if the holding is to begin with the knit carriage on the right.  The direction of movement for the knit carriage is illustrated by arrows in the charts, which serve as guides in planning sequences.
The original charts were executed using Mac Numbers, the table was converted and scaled to size using Gimp as described in other posts, downloaded using img2track, and mirrored horizontally before test knitting on the 930.
Both swatches are 40 stitches wide, planned in blocks 8 stitches in width and height, the first repeat 40X178 pixels  

The first test: the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. A wool yarn was used, retaining spring-back for more of a 3D texture. The design can be interrupted with all knit rows breaking up the shapes at varied intervals, with added colors if preferred. The second repeat, 40X 226 pixels.  A PDF for larger views of both files pdf
A quick test in a 2/18 wool produced a soft, loose, drapey knit.  The same swatch was photographed 48 hours later, in a relaxed state.  A 2/10 wool knit on the same number of stitches produced a firmer and more clearly 3D effect which remains unaltered with time.
Hems and a knit stripe were tested as a way of breaking up the shapes Possibilities with hand selection of needles: some samples from  Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets.  
“Wisteria” meets hems “Wisteria” cousin 2, also called fern leaf, hand technique “Wisteria” cousin revisited (“holding” using slip stitch), the first programmed repeat, drawn on mylar. The 910 knit the image as drawn on the purl side, with no mirroring necessary  
“Wisteria” 2  Horizontal “cable”  

To mesh or not to mesh 10: more large eyelet variations

Some of the relevant previous posts and a few of the associated test swatches for quick comparisons:
Large scale mesh, a punchcard repeat adapted for electronic 4/21 Tuck setting used in both directions, one of 3 variations   Revisiting large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not) 7/20 Large diagonal eyelet lace  6/12, electronic sample follows at the bottom of this post: Large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not) 9/13 Large scale mesh, breaking the rules, the start of the explorations  4/11Single bed slits aka horizontal “button holes” 11/16 img_4077“Buttonholes” and “make many – increase” “lace”  5/15 IMG_19072024
Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 2_hearts
36X88  introduced a combination of standard and large eyelets along the edges of the shape for a better definition of the design.
A recent FB share prompted a discussion of a different fabric combining selections by both the LC operating from the left, and the KC operating from the right, using the slip setting to secure the extra loops that result after a knit pass when side-by-side transfers are made in opposing directions.
When two carriages are selecting needles from opposite sides, each needs to clear past the respective set lines on the needle bed so as not to engage the belt while the other carriage is selecting and transferring or knitting, extension rails are a must.
Although this design repeat is 6 stitches in width, and in theory, it could be reproduced on a punchcard, it is not suitable for doing so.
On electronic machine models, each carriage pass advances the design by a single row.
When the alternate carriage is brought into action from the opposite side, punchcard models do not advance the card, repeating the last preselection, so the same stitch type is repeated for a second time. Some illustrations of the differences and contrasts can be found in the posts on doilies and edgings.
Planning the repeat in a spreadsheet helps to ensure that the direction of the lace carriage passes is kept accurate when the LC returns to selecting and transferring, as marked with the arrows on the left of the chart. The yellow cells and the arrows on the right reflect KC passes.  To knit: cancel end needle selection, KCII.
If any end needle is selected before a LC pass, manually push it back to the B position. If any end needle is not selected before a KC pass, push it out to D or E
position.
The LC, set to N,  consistently makes 4 passes starting from and returning to the left, followed by 2 passes of the KC set to slip in both directions starting from and returning to the right.
On the 4th LC pass, as it moves from right to left all needles will be preselected forward, a clear marker that the next pass will be with the KC.
The repeat is 6 stitches in width by 24 rows in height.  The empty cells on rows 12 and 22 will produce slip-stitch floats below skipped needles that secure the second loop formed by the side-to-side transfers.
This is the pixel or punched-hole configuration that produces the side-by-side transfers.
The 6X24 png

The side-by-side empty needles after the first pass with the KC to the left, with needles not selected, in B position, matching white cell placements in otherwise all black cell rows with slip-stitch floats holding down the first loop after the second KC pass as it returns to the right  The proof of concept Pamela Cruse devised and shared another similarly mixed eyelet size knit. Her repeat is 6X16, with only the LC selecting needles, the KC remains set to knit, making it suitable for punchcard machines as well. The full card,     a single repeat,  and the tiny PNG  The knit in progress: after the two side-by-side needles are emptied, the next KC passes produce two consecutive loops, the first does not stay on the needles, but rather, gets dropped, forming a float  Needles will be preselected on each side of them, followed by transfers.   As those transfers are completed to the left and then to the right, it is those moved stitches that anchor down each loop.   The first KC pass to the left forms single loops on the now empty needles,  and the second KC pass to the right completes an all-knit row.    The process is repeated in brick configuration.
Mirroring horizontally was not required on the 930. When it was tested, an all-over single eyelet was produced, seen a the bottom of the swatch.  This large eyelet variation was developed by Claudia Scarpa, who shared these repeats for Brother machines which use opposite tuck/part buttons to form stitches properly after the side-by-side empty needle transfers have been performed.
There are 2 versions, each beginning with 6 stitches X 16 rows design.
Aligning eyelets vertically and in a brick arrangement  To knit: cancel end needle selection, KCII.
If any end needle is selected before an LC pass, manually push it back to the B position. If any end needle is not selected before a KC pass, push it out to the D or E position. The LC, set to N,  consistently makes 4 passes starting from and returning to the left, followed by 4 passes of the KC set to tuck to the left, slip to the right, starting from and returning to the right of the needle bed.
After the LC transfers have formed the double eyelets, when rows for the formation of tuck loops followed by slip stitch floats have been preselected, there will be pairs of needles brought forward to the D position.
The first KC tuck pass to the left forms tuck loops on the non-selected needles the second slip pass to the right anchors the tuck loop as all needles are preselected for the pair of all knit rows that follow    The process is repeated with the eyelets forming in either orientation  As the KC makes its last pass to the right there is no needle preselection, a sign that it is time to return to the use of the LC operating from the left  The vertically aligned repeat test swatch and the brick repeat test The 24X48 repeat for the diagonal mesh The lace carriage makes 4 passes left to right followed by 2 passes of the knit carriage from right to left for the full repeat.
The first KC pass creates double loops on the side-by-side empty needles as it returns to the right, the first double loop is dropped, and a second double loop is formed the next series of transfers will double up a single stitch on one of the two loops and the process is repeated as knitting progresses. The yarn used is knit wool rayon again, and the side edges were allowed to curl. There is one stitch that got away from me on the left.

A slip stitch patterned ruffle and more

A recent Instagram share led to my being asked how the ruffle attached to the piece as partially shown on the left was created. The images on the right illustrate 2 of the color-way explorations prior to committing to a final one, all knit in rayon chenille yarns.   At that time a punchcard was used. The repeat technically is 24 stitches wide and 18 in height, repeated twice to meet minimum punchcard height requirements, while for electronic patterning the 18 row segment is used. That said, repeating and shifting the minimum pattern repeat in a paint program or spreadsheet allows for visualization of possible color change sequences,  A 24X36 electronic repeat beginning with 4 all knit rows:    Knitting does not always need to be programmed to start on the first design row.
When miles of trim ie when it is planned as an edging for items such as shawls are planned, there are other considerations.
I prefer to use the seam as you knit method. Since rows will be joined to rows, use a 1 to 1 ratio. Doubling up on stitches happens every 2 rows along the knit border’s vertical edges.
After estimating the number of rows in the final piece, any trims can be knit separately, taken off the machine on waste yarn, and joined as the piece progresses. If needed, after removing the waste yarn, more rows can be added to the trim or unraveled to shorten it before binding it off.
The other option is to finish the body of the knit item, and then join the trim as it is being knit.
The process is rendered easier if the ribber is off the machine.
Switching between punchcard and electronic models, it can get confusing as to whether the design needs to be mirrored horizontally or knot.
In this case, the png was used on my 930 in the same orientation as the punchcard design.
To reduce the roll to the purl side, it may be best to use yarns that will block flat ie rayon, or acrylic.
The knit is centered on the needle bed. My 930 has a punchcard needle tape in place, I prefer programming based on 24-stitch needle selections to avail myself of the position option available on the electronic.
The first preselection row is made toward the color changer.
End needle selection is canceled, or unwanted floats will be formed, pulling in the edge of the knit.
When the color changer is reached and the proper color is in the yarn feeder, set the machine to slip in both directions.
Continue color changes in the preplanned sequences.
In proper pattern selection, the slip stitch column/non-selected needles occur on the right (1).
The all-knit stitch column/ selected needles occur on the left (2). Rows, where every needle is preselected, will knit a solid color with the next carriage pass. As colors are changed small floats will be created between the stripes, a light edge weight may be needed, depending on the yarn used and its fiber content, to keep the edge stitches from being reduced in size or even gathered.
1. the same color is used for 4 consecutive rows when all needles are selected and are followed by color changes every 2 rows until all needles are preselected once more
2. color changes are made every 2 rows
The cyan arrows illustrate the floats on the purl side the differences in the stitch shapes on the knit when the end needle selection is on, and the lack of proper formation of color blocks, especially if the goal is a reversible knit. Added knit rows will result in less of a flounce, offer the opportunity to play with striping, and more colors may be added, accompanied inevitably by cut yarn ends  For a reduced roll on narrow edgings, add a 2-3 stitch every other row border,   the result illustrated in this close up of a different slip stitch ruffle, also joined to the shawl using the seam as you knit technique.  Ruffles may be created with other stitch types ie tuck, which shortens and gathers the knit stitches aside them in areas where they are used.  For those not familiar with slip and tuck stitch formation, it is reviewed in the post: Single bed tuck and slip stitch fabrics 1. Here hand-selected short-row techniques form the wedges, with ladders added for more surface interest on the far right.

 

 

 

Revisiting 3D scales and shells, automated and not

Other posts exploring the scale topic began in 2015 with a swatch experiment based on an Armani sweater, followed by this group of shares, listed by creation date and beginning with the most recent
More mesh dragon scales, some striped and some not
Single bed scales made with stitch transfers
More dragon scales and chevrons in ribbed, racked (4) fabrics
Hand-knit “dragon scales”

Incidental discoveries  Ribber trims 4 

Automating 3D textures across full rows of knitting:
Machine knit leaves using slip stitch with holding Revisiting automated shell shapes  Automated shapes across rows of knitting using slip stitch only  various designs
“Automated” shell shapes  When the construction of the scale and shell shapes was proposed, I did not always share the repeats for the automated version.
After the fact, a screen grab from the shell charts was cropped to its outline, opened in ArahPaint, and using the program’s tool “guess weave from grid“, the 36X98 png is obtained with a few mouse clicks,

and saved the file for further exploration.
Note that for the “shells”, the shapes are formed by all the triangles pointing in the same direction, while in the “scale” version they mirror vertically.
Tips and reminders:
I find it useful to test techniques in geometric shapes that are familiar and easy to imagine in 3D, hence the return to triangles.
The goal here is to automate needle selection to eliminate stitch counting and hand selection.
The 200 needle max on 4.5 mm machines, as well the amount of memory in the model of electronic being used, ie 2K in a 930 imposes more limitations.
Performing the selection of needles manually and using the setting for short rows may make varying shapes, their scale, row counts, and color changes possible in a way that traveling to and from the same side of the machine in 2 row sequences does not.
When using the slip stitch setting if every needle on the top bed is not in use, the end needle selection must be canceled.
The knit carriage must clear all needles in work with each carriage pass even though small stitch counts may be worked on at any one time.
Just as when working short rows, depending on the fiber content of the yarn, there may be some visible wear on the purl side from the many carriage passes required to complete full design rows.
Test on small swatches for accuracy and aesthetic personal appeal before committing to larger pieces.
A 36X166 pixel repeat:   The edge half repeats are eliminated in an attempt to yield straight vertical side edges, with the repeat reduced in height to 36X124.  The resulting scales, knit in a 2/8 wool, were resistant to getting completely poked through to the purl side.  Comparing the difference in the results when knitting the same number of stitches and rows in the pattern; the blue yarn is of a slightly different thickness than the pink.  Seeking striping at the center of the triangular shapes, I found what appears to be a one-off error in the spreadsheet numbering of cell rows vs actual design rows, which initially resulted in issues with a correct conversion to PNG.   Transitions are made after odd numbers of rows to allow starts from the right for each pattern segment ie. Yellow/ 8+1 rows at the top of the repeat for plain knit segments, orange for the 3-row contrasting color stripe at the peak of the shapes. There will be cut yarn ends at each transition.
The design, charted in black and white,  the 36X82 png One may choose on which side to display the resulting shapes, here to the knit side,   and to the purl, shown also after some pressing. A punchcard snap is inserted in one of the pockets in the last image on the lower right to hint at pocket size.  Steamed, flattened shapes may also be coaxed in different directions, stitched in place or even together with a contrasting stripe behind them, or added beads at the join  A first draft at adding a FI or slip stitch stripe at the center of the repeat still relies on some segments occurring for an odd number of rows, was rearranged in the later designs, measures 36X88 pixels.  

Analyzing the swatch:
the edges where the triangular shapes meet the striped bands jut out more when pointing down than when pointing up
the eyelet typical when knitting short rows for 2 rows is OK as part of the overall design
the 8 rows of plain knitting between the shapes are too many Altering the design 1:
the plan is to retain starting each segment of  scales from the right,
the fair isle band is now planned for an even number of rows, making it possible to operate more easily from the same side, but loosening the tension,
the 36X80 repeat: the side edges in the swatch differ from each other,   Altering the design 2: whether executed with cam button changes with the knit carriage always operating from the right, or operating a second carriage selecting needles from the left, the fair isle band in this experiment needs to occur for an odd number of rows, the repeat is 36X68. The cells highlighted in yellow on the right of the chart follow the carriage movement from the right when switched from slip to FI, and the gray cells the movements for a second carriage selecting needles from the left.
The recurring shapes are planned to produce straight side edges.
The 36X68 repeat Very often 3D knit structures can change dramatically with steaming and pressing.  They can literally be “killed” permanently if fibers such as acrylics are used, while wool has some spring back, but surface retention depends on the specific pattern. The temptation to press is in proportion to what degree the knit rolls, sometimes dramatically, to the purl side. In this instance, the depth of the shapes was lost, and the swatch grew significantly in length.

Swatches based on adapting random online published repeats

I still surf Pinterest daily and often encounter published punchcard repeats that catch my eye.
Many need some interpretation and editing for use in specific machine models.
The first inspiration: is knit using 4 colors, alternating 2 rows of a base color, then rotating color changes for 4 rows for each of 3 contrasting ones.
Counting up from the bottom of the illustration after the marks for the typical two all-punched rows, it would appear this is a Studio punchcard, but starting row 1 as visible outside the card reader can simply be changed for any other brand knitting machine.
The every other stitch configuration is for an every other needle repeat used in early machines such as the Juki.
A full reference volume   An illustration of the card use  If using thicker yarns on a standard machine that grinds at the loosest tension, this configuration can retain the full design while knitting every other needle/EON.
The adaptation began using Mac Numbers, the repeat was isolated and traced, and the 12 blank columns were then hidden producing a result scaled in indexed B/W mode to 12X36 pixels. The tiled design, checking alignments.  The proof of concept Periodically tuck stitch designs that appear to break the usual rules for the stitch are discussed.
This design is intended for a push-button machine capable of 24 stitch repeats, uses symbols in the associated chart interpreted to mean tuck loops form for 2 rows and knit along with all other stitches every third row.  The working repeat is made up of 8 pixels in width, and 36 pixels in height.    This next design is likely published for use with the Studio color changer, which is marked with letters for each color,   rather than with numbers as in Brother models.
It is intended as a slip-stitch. The bottom swatch relies on color changes every 3 rows, which would need to be performed manually.
In the elongated version, colors are changed using the color changer, every 6 rows.  The design was first tested in thin yarns using the electronic 24X84 elongated PNG  tested for alignment   and displays interesting 3D variations, the purl side is remindful of shadow pleating  Changing colors every odd number of rows is a tad fiddly.
The use of the color changer is not an option.
With the three yarns fed through the yarn masts, it became hard to keep them from twisting around each other. Ultimately, that problem was solved by hand-feeding one of the three colors with the cone on the floor, in front of the machine, as one would place yarns for weaving.
Brother knitters are familiar with yarn placements in the sinker plate.
Position A is for knitting when using only one color or for the ground color in fair isle patterning.  There is a “gate”, which is closed, and the B color/contrast motif color is placed in that front position, knitting the yarn in needles preselected to needle position D on the next carriage pass.
It is tempting to leave the gate open when switching colors by hand frequently, and that may work for a while, providing tension is placed on the yarn manually to keep the yarn back. If at any point the yarn shifts forward (green arrow), with no needles in position D, stitches will be dropped.
Textured stitches can make for more complicated correction of errors or dropped stitches.
Taking the extra seconds to close the gate (red markings) after each color change avoids what became fondly known as “dropitis” in my classes.   The proof of concept: two of the yarns used were acrylic, so steaming to reduce the curling of the swatch flattened the texture.  At one point Studio published a newsletter  with cover art composed of simple drawings, such as this, for #143, which spiked my curiosity, and led to these explorations:
the pattern and symbols refer to tuck stitch, but technically the design is executed using short rows and transfer techniques.
The programmed repeat selects needles, making tracking actions easier.
End needle selection is canceled.
No cam buttons are in use.
The knit carriage is set to hold.
Stitches on the single needles selected on rows, 2, 12, 22, etc, are transferred onto the needle on their left. The empty needle is then pushed back to A position, out of work, creating a ladder.
The groups of 3 preselected needles are pushed out to hold, the D position, before continuing.
After every 2 rows knit, a stitch on the left is pushed back into work, until lastly, the empty needle is returned to the B position.
All needles will then knit for one row filling in the empty needle with a loop and a full knit stitch on the next pass where transfers begin again. A brief summary of stitch manipulations  Images of the work in progress, a small claw weight single claw hung on edge stitch helps keep side edges equal in length:
preselected needles initially manually brought to hold position after the first carriage pass to the right
after the second carriage pass to the left, with the first needle on the left in each group pushed back into work  the second needle on the left in each group is returned to work
one needle in each group remaining in hold pushed back into work  at this point the empty needles have been brought to the B position, single preselected needles have been transferred to the left,  and a pass is made forming loops on the empty needles/ eyelets  The original 18X30 repeat, some machine models and download software may require that it be mirrored horizontally,   repeated to 44X30 with a planned distribution of plain stitches at sides, knit in 2/18 wool blends: Converting random transfer lace designs poses different challenges, and since the time at which the reference post was published, there have been several Gimp updates.
Lace designs contain few black and white pixels and, at times are brand-specific. Multiple transfer lace in Studio models begins with 2 blank rows, while Brother begins with a design row, and ends with 2 blank rows. As given, the inspiration repeat is designed for Studio/Silver Reed.
When using any program, ie Gimp, ArahPaint, or even Dak, the original scanned or screengrabbed design needs to be aligned horizontally and vertically to window borders for accurate conversions.
Gimp:
Before any scaling of images, establish stitch and row counts. In this case, they are published as being 16 stitches X 96 rows.
The process for converting the same lace design using Gimp 2.10.34 on the Mac, beginning work in RGB mode:
1. drawing a straight line to the side of the cropped image reveals a slight lean to the right
2. using Image, Transform, and Arbitrary Rotation -0.30 improves the alignment  3. using the rectangle tool, crop to the borders of the published image.
In this instance, the cropped image measuring 199X938 pixels is at first scaled to multiples of 10 for both width and height, note the broken chain link
4. 160X960 pixels. 5. Image mode is changed to B/W indexed, and the image is scaled once more to 16X96, the size of the expected repeat, note the intact chain link  6. the final repeat, when studied, matches that from the results in the previous post  1: the result using ArahPaints tools, including its guess weave from grid, compared to
2: the Gimp final image and
3. borrowed from the previous post illustrating other considerations before actual knitting,  
which include:
if using the repeat on Brother machines, the first 2 blank rows of the design are shifted to the top.
The 16-stitch design width makes it suitable only for electronic models.
The final PNG is actually downloaded as a fair isle pattern while maintaining the required needle selection for lace, and the knit carriage remains set to knit throughout while the lace carriage selects and transfers.
The machine, depending on the model, may by default mirror the result vertically, so the final PNG can be mirrored and saved as here, prior to knitting on the 930, or the mirror function in the machine may be used after programming.
I prefer to save my files in the orientation required for the actual knitting as a means to avoid confusion or errors.
Working in Arahpaint, rotating an image turns it on its center point. To rotate a layer, selection, or image, from the Image menu, choose Rotate.  Selections can be made at offered angles, or specified degrees can be entered in the degree field, or select an area, move the pointer outside the bounding border, and then drag on any one of the small boxes at each corner while pressing the left mouse button.  To align the image,
1. load the lace inspiration
2. choose Image, select Rotate Image, and draw a line that follows the orientation of the image. The color will be based automatically on the palette being used, and altering the pencil pixel size or color has no effect.
The program then rotates the image and will inform you of the rotation angle, and the drawn line becomes straight.
To confirm alignment, click the OK or Close button in the Rotate Image window.
3. use the rectangle tool to select the content for the full design repeat, and crop the aligned image to the selection. 4.-9. continue with the steps using the tool Guess Weave from Grid, producing the same final PNG. In summary, they are:
4. crop the selected image to size
5. change the color palette to 8-bit, adjust background and foreground colors
6. reduce the number of colors to B/W, adjust the threshold, and set the number of colors to 2
7. the resulting image
8
. use the guess weave from the grid tool, crop the bounded image to the selection, magnify the results to visually check the repeat, and save the PNG if satisfied
9. the final 16X96 pattern design repeat, matching the Gimp result. The associated swatch  This Pinterest find is credited to Tatiana Demina, and is intended for use on Studio punchcard machine models.  Studio machines are capable of transferring and knitting in single carriage passes. Studying the image of the card, it can be seen that there are no blank rows anywhere, and punched holes on alternate rows indicate transfers alternating first to the left, and then to the right.
The swatch was knit using the same technique described  recently in the post Unconventional uses for punchcards 2: thread lace cards for “filet” mesh
The original 24X56 design was lengthened X2 to, shown here also doubled in width to 48X112   to match the direction of the transfers, the hint offered in the inspiration source can be followed down to indicate the first row of transfers need to be made to the right,    hence the knitting begins with the knit carriage on the left, the lace carriage on the right. As the LC moves to the left it preselects needles, and as it returns to the right it transfers them to the right.
The LC is removed from the knit bed.
The KC knits a single pass to the right and remains there.
The LC is returned to the knit bed on the left, preselects needles on its pass to the right, and transfers them to the left as it returns to that side, and is removed from the bed.
The KC knits one row to the left and stays there.
The LC is returned to the bed on the right and the process is repeated.
Preselection of needles is made by the LC toward the knit carriage, transfers are made away from it.
Whether the repeat needs to be mirrored again may depend on the machine model or the software used to download the file to it.
The direction of the first row of transfers provides the necessary clue, they need to be to the right. If to the left, mirror the pattern horizontally and begin again.
The swatch was knit in a wool-rayon blend, the results point to the difference in appearance and gauge with a change in color and type of yarn used when compared to the inspiration image The context for this can be found in To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp
the 60X74 png  and the proof of concept

Long stitch Passap and Brother DBJ design using thick and thin yarns

In browsing through old photos I came across one of this swatch knit on the Passap eons ago, in a slightly textured unknown fiber, and a thin white one on a small cone with lost fiber markings.  The find led me to attempt a similar knit using my 930.
The flower image # 1228 is usable as published in variations for single bed knitting on the Passap ie using Tech 179,  or on the Japanese knitting machines using the built-in KRC separation for 2-colors DBJ.
The double bed fair-isle techniques on the Passap use a default color separation where each color in each design row knits twice.
The console performs the separation, but to achieve the same result in Brother models, the manual color separation can be performed using Gimp without any other software.
A: the chosen file, 20X20B: scaled in length X2, to 20X40
C: color inverting every other row beginning with an all-white pixel row D:  scaling the file X2 in length to 20X80choosing a black row start planned in the background color by color inverting the png  E: taking into consideration that the planned DBJ settings will elongate the design, the 20X80 file is scaled in width X2 to 40X80   Knitting the swatch:
the thin white yarn simply refused to knit on the 930 without breaking. The problem can sometimes be solved by adding a second thread, which in this case, is a 3,000-yard monofilament serger thread, both are hard to see and slippery.
The way the yarn is picked up and carried varies with the knitting machine models’ color changers.
The yarn when using the Brother double bed color changer is picked up and swapped out in the ribber arm,  while in Passap models, the colors are threaded into individual feeding eyelets which are swapped out in any sequence needed in the front lock.  Some of the yarn-feeding issues in small or large cones can be solved by “putting a sock” on the cones, no matter their size. The manufacturer sometimes supplies the latter, but DIY versions can be segments of pantyhose, foam sleeves used to protect some of the exotic fruits in supermarkets, covers for flowers until they are used in arrangements, and at times simply a plastic bag.
My arrangement, with the threads on top of the machine table, and fed through the same side of the yarn mast.  The first preselection row is from right to left
The ribber is set to knit in both directions throughout
The first and last needles are in work on the ribber
Colors are changed every two rows
The backing will be striped, with each color knitting for 2 rows, referred to as striper backing in many pubs.
Pattern knitting begins COL, set the knit carriage to slip in both directions
The proof of concept: The matching technique using the settings for knitting (N) on the back lock and slip (LX) on the front lock, for striper backing is 183: knit on 30 stitches, but less than full repeat in height.
With some understanding of the pattern selection method for the front lock, different Technique numbers may be used for the same knit result simply by changing pusher arrangements and lock settings on either or even both beds.
This test was knit on 30 stitches and for 100 rows after changing the ground yarn, adjusting the tension, and programming Tech 180, but disregarding the pusher set up for the back bed, and setting the back lock to N The fabric is stable and reversible with interesting peek-through that reminded me of drop stitch lace.

Using punchcards (3) or electronics to track small cables in pattern

Previous shares on aids to tracking cable transfers
Using punchcards to track small cables in pattern 1
Using punchcards to track cables and twists in pattern 2
Visualizing knit cables in color 2_ using Numbers and Gimp
Hand knitting patterns are usually depicted with the knit side facing.
If crossings are intended to match them exactly when working on knitting machines, they are made on the purl side, and their direction needs to be mirrored.
The blue dots illustrate hand-knit symbols, and the pink dots the machine-knit companions I was recently contacted about the possibility of reproducing the swatch on the far right. The image on the left is an actual knit, first tested with cable crossings mirroring each other along vertical columns.
The inspiration swatch was likely knit on the bulky, twisted every 4 rows, mine on a 4.5 mm machine, twisted every 5 rows.
It is possible to crop, copy, and paste initial photos, as in the center image, to visualize how the process may be altered prior to spending time creating new charts or any actual knitting.  Building charts in a spreadsheet:
begin with creating and saving custom shapes, which can be made editable, and outlined if preferred (magenta) to further define the stitch brought forward, with the other moved behind it (blue).
Symbols used:
1. black cells/ knit stitches
2. white cells/ needles out of work, creating ladder spaces and non-selected needle areas where stitches are to be moved in the direction of superimposed arrows
3. red arrows/ stitches that are lifted off the needle bed, brought to the front on the purl side. The stitch on the adjacent black cell/selected needles is removed, travels behind it, and replaces it. The held stitch is then placed on the now-empty needle. Both stitches are brought out to hold/E position so as to knit properly on the next carriage pass.
The plan is to use the slip-stitch setting in both directions.
Since there are needles not in use, the end needle selection needs to be canceled.
Proper needle placement is required for patterning accuracy.
One option for achieving it is by air knitting the first row of the design, another is to program the width of the planned knit in electronic machines, establishing pairings, and using the single motif setting with no guesswork.
A chain cast-on can be performed, followed by dropping chains in ladder locations and taking those needles out of work to A position.
Even weight is useful if crossings are to begin after only 4 rows of knitting.
Each repeat is 8 stitches wide, punchcard users repeat it X3 in width, and in the charted height X3.  Proofs of concept: 30X20 electronic repeat for vertically mirrored transfers,   and for the alternating twisted arrangement  The work on the machine    In the resulting swatches, patterning errors such as the marked one become difficult to repair after the fact as stitches grow in size and ladders nearly disappear   Both swatches measure less than 2.5 inches in width, another reason to explore the results on bulky models if they are to be used in garments.
If planned as panels combined with stocking stitch, careful planning is due to overall gauge differences and those in row counts when seaming and joining.

Blistered dbj 3

Names referring to the same knit fabric can vary between machine manuals for specific models and brands or references in books, magazines, and articles depending on the dates they were published.
My earlier share on the topic:
Blistered stitches dbj 1
Blistered DBJ 2 and technique variations on a single repeat, introduced some of the concepts involved.
Beginning with any random published repeat can offer the start of exploring a range of fabrics. This was a Pinterest punchcard share, markings indicate it was intended for Brother machines  Methods for obtaining color separations for specific knits have been discussed in other posts.
Brother models can use the cam buttons to perform a function in one direction only, ie by using only one tuck or slip button, the machine will knit when the carriage reverses movement to the opposite side.
Developing specific color separations makes the files usable on other machine brands and models, makes it easier to return to specific rows in error corrections, and is my personal preference in test swatching and complete pieces.
Drawing the initial design in repeat provides a visualization of the resulting secondary shapes and the number of needles required for tiled variations in finished pieces based on gauge.
The first design is intended for use in every needle rib, with the knit carriage knitting in one direction, and using slip or even tuck in the opposite direction.
The 24X32 design extracted from the inspiration punchcard  A: the rendering scaling the design twice in length
B: making the choice to color invert it in planning slipped stitches on the larger number of white pixels
C: superimposing black lines on every other row beginning with row 2 A quick review of the steps involved in working with Gimp:
begin with magnification for easy viewing, ie. 800X, view grid if preferred
the starting brush can be as small as this 2-pixel   select it and save it to the clipboard by choosing copy visible, making it available to bucket fill images, or export the same design as a .pat file and save it in the appropriate settings folder for future use.  A: the original design repeat rendered in black and white
B: layer, transparency, color white to alpha
C: file, new, white ground, matching size, filled with a pattern of pairs of horizontal all-white pixel rows beginning with white on row one, followed by all-black pixel rows on row 2
D: copy B and paste it on C, and export the file as png The chosen repeat may not be color reversed after programming it using the machine’s built-in electronic functions.
White pixels slip, stitches on the main bed in non-selected areas would not knit off for extended periods ie where red marks occur, and noticeable problems would develop quickly Beginning proofs of concept for this version, 24X64  knit on 60 stitches using it drawn in repeat X3, 72X64, and programmed as a single motif  The result is a very subtle contrast lacey knit The yarn thickness and color were changed. The pattern begins using the slip setting and transitions to tuck, also in only one direction. Because the ribber is knitting every stitch between stitches on the top bed holding side-by-side loops down, tucking on multiple side-by-side needles can be performed,  producing a wider, stretchy knit that also lies flat.  True blisters/pintucks generally knit rows on the top bed alone forming pockets that are eventually sealed by all knit rows.
Slip stitch settings are used.
The design is at first lengthened X5, then every 5th row is filled with black pixels or punched holes.
A begins in smaller groups of gathers, testing for any errors or problems, while B allows for deeper folds. A: the mark shows the stitches on the top bed begin to slip far too many rows
due to using the color reverse option in the 930 before continuing to knit.  With a switch to the blue yarn, all-knit spaces between the pockets now begin to appear gathered. Slip stitch results in narrower knits, noticeable in the ruffled effects on every needle rib above the cast ons B: the extra row of slipped stitches result in a far more textured knit   Developing other layouts for the same design, brick 24X128   half drop 48X64 Eliminating unwanted extra stitches from the original, modified to 24X28 pixels drawn in repeat to 144X168 brick version 24X56 half drop 48X28  adding those all knit rows  Viewing repeat alignments  The 24X112 brick repeat suitable for punchcards, not tested,   and the half drop, 48X56  tested using a 10/2 cotton and lightly steamed and pressed. Knit on 80 stitches, it measures 17 inches in width and 11 in height.
an attempt at a more detailed look  

 

More slip stitch experiments inspired by commercial designs

PRADA knitwear often becomes a source for inspiration and discussion both in hand and machine-knitting forums. A recent sample:  Developing proofs of concept can begin to be achieved by reducing repeats in size, making sampling quicker to achieve and evaluate.
Larger automated repeats by default require electronic machine programming.
Spreadsheets offer an opportunity to plan color-changing sequences ahead of time and to check their horizontal and vertical alignments.
If a color changer is in use, in the Japanese machine models it sits on the left.
Color changes are made away from and back to the changer as frequently as every 2 rows, or as needed in the specific design.
Other brand machine models have color changers on each side, allowing for single rows knit in any one color and for dividing repeat segments differently.
The assumption here, to begin with, is that each color is carried for an even number of rows.
This chart was developed using Numbers for Mac.  The repeat is 40 cells in width, and 52 cells in height, and is outlined with a red border. It is planned so as to return to the initial color selection when completed, maintaining a continuous design,  tested on 80 stitches.     Its alignment is not on a true diagonal, and shapes are offset To duplicate the swatch, cast on and knit for a preplanned number of rows with the dark color.
Needle selection serves as a visual guide to the need for color changing in addition to or instead of row counts.
End needle selection is in use, there are no empty needles in this design.
COR: make the first preselection row from right to left, toward the color changer.
COL: remember to set the knit carriage to slip in both directions, pick up the light color
change color every 2 rows until every needle is preselected when moving from the right and back to the color changer (14 rows)
COL: every needle has been pre-selected. During every needle selection, only the dark color is used until preselection changes once more as the knit carriage returns to the left (12 rows)
COL:
pick up the light color, resume with color changes every 2 rows (14 rows)
COL: a 12-row sequence with every needle preselection completes the 52-row design.
Repeat the process ending with a preplanned number of rows knit in the dark yarn, and bind off. Expanding the design repeat would change the curvature in the solid color stripes.
This knit is by LAFAYETTE 148, NY.  It is offered with coordinated pieces, which appear to use both a knit and a purl version as the exterior of the knit.  Beginning with an electronic slip stitch test emulating the larger shapes in alternating colors, adhering to the limitation of using an even number of rows in each color change, patterning shifts are explored in this 30X24 stitch repeat.  A tiling test The extra horizontal lines formed in the swatch are because the goals are
1. to make larger shapes in alternating colors with long stitches in the contrasting color in front of them on the knit side,
2. automate the process,
3. and use the color changer.
In each case, the new color needs to be knit first to and from the color changer in order for its stitches to form those elongated stitches in it on the knit side, and knit again after the contrasting color rows to complete each segment of the full repeat.
The visualization chart for the first experiment:
A 30X24 repeat: black cells form knit stitches including below and above white cells. White cells slip until a black cell occurs directly above them.
B a knit side visualization of color changes: the elongated stitches, marked by conical lines, are drawn where they would appear, with floats formed behind them by skipped stitches.  Eliminating extra striping by bringing elongated stitches to the purl side may be achieved by transferring stitches between beds, and using programmed needle preselection to track when to do that.
Taking the same repeat into consideration, the orange cells serve as markers for stitch transfers  A programmable repeat:  Cast on for every other needle rib, then transfer all stitches to the top bed. This allows for even weight distribution on all stitches.
When a closed cast-on does not matter, the “broken toe” cast-on is an alternative to having all stitches on either bed  Using the ribber comb to cast on the single bed is documented in the post  Both the knit and ribber carriages are in use.  The knit carriage remains set to knit throughout, end needle selection is engaged.
The ribber carriage is set to slip throughout, with needles point to point, its stitches are never knit, they are held until a transfer is made once again.
They stay in the B position after transfers so as not to be knit, are held, and will form the elongated stitches on the purl side, knitting off when the same color is returned to the opposite bed every 8 rows.
After transfers, empty needles are taken completely out of work.
In this visualization, the conical shapes mark areas where the elongated stitches will form on the purl side, R marks stitches transferred down to the ribber, and M, the stitches transferred to the top bed:  To duplicate my swatch, cast on and knit at least one base row with the dark color, ending COR
COR: program the first row, knit 1 row to the left
COL: transfer stitches on preselected needles down to the ribber, and push empty top bed needles out of work, OOW.
Change to a light color. As the knit carriage moves to and from the color changer, floats will form in the location of the out-of-work needles on the top bed.  COR: knit 8 rows, there will be a new preselection as the knit carriage moves to the left COL: transfer needles previously on the ribber onto the empty needles on the top bed, placing them in work position so they will knit on the next pass, and transfer new needle preselections down to the ribber.  Knit 8 more rows, change to the dark color, repeat transfers of ribber stitches up, preselected stitches down, and continue knitting, following needle prompts. Printing custom needle tapes is an option that relies on printing the generated images to scale.
Marking the needle tape or metal bed with water-soluble pens or pencils is the old low-tech go-to.
However, custom markings can be made on strips of paper slipped under needles on either bed and marked for any chosen spacing as well as in multiple colors.
An illustration for a test on a repeat different from the programmed one began with marking a strip of paper on the top bed for alternating transfers to and from each bed using two colors:   The resulting tape may be used on either bed, seen here placed on the ribber. The markings on the metal bed are left over from a previous project.   The reversed carriage settings The repeat is not programmed, setting the knit bed to slip allows the knit carriage to make free passes from one side to the other, and the stitches moved to it never knit.
All knitting happens on the ribber.
In Japanese machines, the ribber often produces tighter stitches. Since most needles will be knitting, the tension normally used for the chosen yarn on the top bed for stocking stitch may have to be loosened by one or two numbers for smooth knitting. In Brother machines, the higher the number, the looser the stitch.
The ribber needle presser bar for Brother machines is made of plastic alone and does not exert as much pressure on the needles as the ones used on the single bed, requiring care in watching for needles that slide into other than the proper position during knitting.
Emptied needles need to be placed completely out of work.
Floats will form on the ribber as the carriages move across the beds in the location of the empty needles, and the skipped stitches on the opposite bed will grow in length.  Though the knit side of the fabric is facing the knitter, the long loops appear behind it on the purl side, with the results in the same family as the automated single bed result but with more fiddly execution.  Seeking a closer match for the inspiration companion pieces:
in multicolor slip-stitch patterning, the initial preselection row is generally made toward the color changer, with changes happening from the left and spaced at predetermined even numbers of rows.
Shifting that convention allows for elongated stitches on alternating color shapes without extra horizontal stripes in each color.
The repeat was first visualized and planned in a spreadsheet, repeated twice the necessary width, and outlined with a red border.
A few rows were added at the top of the table, checking for proper alignment of both the design and the color changes.  The single repeat measures 14 pixels in width by 16 in height and was tested on 44 stitches, with a planned knit stitch vertical border on each side.  To duplicate the swatch, cast on using a dark color.
COL: the first design row in the adjusted repeat is programmed from left to right, away from the color changer with no yarn in the feeder. Setting the machine to slip in both directions allows the free pass when all needles are in the B position.
COR: thread the light color through the changer’s sinker plate, A position, and knit to the left
COL: make certain the light color yarn is properly threaded in its place in the color changer. Continue knitting until new needle preselections are made as the carriage returns to the left
COL: change to the dark color, subsequent color changes happen every 8 rows.  

Reviewing a post from 2015 on a slip stitch experiment, the second source image now found attributed to Max Mara, inspired me to try a version using software presently available.  lyst comboThe speed in developing DIY designs and knitting them has grown exponentially with the use of new software and the capacity to move away from mylar sheets or punchcards.
The first 24X56 diamond shape

rendered in half drop, to a 48X112 repeat, with a test in the alignment of multiples  The proof of concept was knit at first with color changes every 2 rows, then converted to double length using the machine built-in function, followed by color changes every 4 rows.
The light color yarn is a wool rayon, the dark is a shetland wool.  The all-knit rows on the side edges create ruffles.
An attempt to show the changes in texture on both surfaces:   The limit on Japanese model machines for tuck stitch unless using very thin yarns is often 4 rows.
The inspiration image appears to have far taller color stripes, slip stitch is far more tolerant than tuck, what about trying color changes every 8 rows?
Keeping in mind that the light color consistently forms the elongated stitches on the purl side with no immediately visible long stitches on the dark color, the repeat first doubled to 48X224, if doubled in length again would require 448 rows of knitting!   A quick partial test revealed the diamond shape is far too elongated and that dark stripe needs to be gathered as well, Back to the drawing board: after taking a break, the inspiration image is magnified and reexamined, revealing the fact that there are knit and purl stitch combinations across the same rows, not practical to execute on home knitting machines (excluding G carriages from the conversation).   A compromise, still seeking to elongate only the stitches in the dark color on the knit side of a richly textured knit, planned for color changes every 6 rows,  with color reversal necessary for slip stitch knitting, adjusted in width, the tested 40X162 repeat produces a gathered dark color as well. The knit stitches on either side of the shape form ruffles. There were tension adjustments at the bottom of the swatch, increasing the length of the held stitches, the shape is still too elongated for my eye An adjusted repeat, the last in the series, 29X168tiled to check alignments  and knit on 80 sitch width using this 86 X168 programmed repeat  

Blistered DBJ 2 and technique variations on a single repeat

Blistered stitches DBJ began to explore some variations for the production of easy knits which resulted in pockets separated by areas of joined stitches, and depending on the design and whether one bed knits more stitches and rows than the other, can make the surface appear 3D to varying degrees.
There are several things to consider in DIY designs.
In my recent browsing and being inspired by “The curse of truchet tiles”, this png was one of the resulting repeats, developed using ArahPaint.  It is larger than any previously tested with this technique.
Beginning with a 36X36 file drawn in test alignment to 108X108,    expanding the design through a diagonal choice into a 72X36 repeat  Large repeats require large swatches if gauge matters, but smaller tests serve well to evaluate tension and cam settings. It is a good idea to be consistent in yarn choice.
Thinking things through:
the white pixel areas will produce the pockets, separating from the ground, and the black pixel areas will compose the joined portions of knit.
To increase the effect, the height of those black pixel areas is reduced by changing their configuration in order to use the slip stitch setting to shorten them.
The first pattern fill requires doubling the height of the whole repeat in order to use the file in a tubular setting.  Rather than doubling the file in height, this brush is used to fill the same black pixel areas. After a few pixel cleanups, this is the final repeat, The png was tiled to the number of stitches planned, with the addition of a knit stitch border along each vertical side and knit on 88 stitches for proof of concept.
End needle selection is on.
The carriages are set to slip in opposite directions, in either arrangement A or B. In one-color knitting starting preselection side does not matter.
The tension used, since so many stitches will be knitting on alternate beds, needs to approach that used for the same yarn when knitting stocking stitches.
The red yarn stitches mark the knit side of the fabric.
The cotton ball illustrates the formation of pockets.
The color change happened when the first cone of yarn ran out.
The yarns are 2/28 Italian imports of nonspecified fiber content.
The piece measures 10.5 inches in width.
When the settings are changed from tubular to every needle rib, the fabric is considerably wider and ruffles as seen at the top and bottom of the swatch, which could become a planned design feature. A segment was cropped from the 72X36 drawn once more in repeat to 84X72, repeating the same steps for processing the file alignment check If the plan is to evaluate the effect of tuck stitch on the design, to begin with, the file needs to be color reversed, whether in the drawn png or using machine settings Exploring results with the ribber set to knit in on every row, the swatch below the red line was produced with the knit carriage set to knit in one direction, tuck in the other, while in the remainder the knit carriage set to tuck in both directions. The areas that in slip stitch would form pockets knit in every needle rib, while tuck stitch segments produce a lacy effect.  The same design, using the png created prior to color reverse, set for tubular slip stitch the transition between the changes in knit carriage cam settings results in changes in textures and added width The full tuck section (bottom) measures 16 inches in width, and the slip-stitch one (top) measures 11.5 inches.
Trying for a half-cardigan repeat with the same yarn produced an extremely wide knit with no discernible design.
Tired of double-bed knitting and swatches in a single color and large enough to cover pillows? the starting image reduced in size X4 to 21X18 pixels opens a new series of opportunities for knitting including on the single bed.  The design, knit here as DBJ, uses the built-in KRC color separation. At the bottom, the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. The ribber uses the birdseye setting in both directions with the addition of lili buttons.
At the top, the knit carriage setting remains unchanged, and the ribber is set to knit in both directions, for a striper backing. The tension remained unchanged. The image illustrates the difference in the aspect ratio of the design and the height and width produced by the respective settings. The same design knit as single bed fair isle produces problematic floats on the reverse which would need to be anchored down in a wearable. When knitting fair isle end needle selection is used to keep the yarn in the B feeder anchored so as to prevent any separations along the vertical edges of the design.
Here the light color is 2/8 wool. The yarn in the B feeder is switched to a 2/24 random contrasting color, and the knit carriage is set for thread lace. The white pixels knit both yarns together. Programming a blank row and knitting 2 yarns in this manner is considered by some an alternative to using the plaiting feeder.
End needle selection is canceled. If needles are brought forward, push at least one back to B so the combined yarns knit. In a long piece, a repeat in the width of the planned number of stitches could be planned with one or two blank pixel borders on vertical sides.
Due to the contrast in yarn thickness, the thin yarn creates large stitches that bulge in areas where it knits with the thicker yarn floating behind it, and the areas with combined yarns recede.
The areas in double thickness secure the yarn that produces floats, so that the latter may be trimmed on the purl side, leaving cut ends in any length. When cutting floats, consider sliding something under them and the thin knit so as to avoid cutting it as well, the fabric will release and flatten. Using elastic, the background yarn used needs to be thinner, here a 2/20. The repeat program is left unchanged, but the position of the yarns is swapped so the elastic/ “thin” is placed in feeder A and the white/ “thick” in feeder B. There is a considerable change in size, observable at the top of the previous images.   Aiming for float control, the repeat is edited.  A test of the 18X9 repeat using the fair isle setting measures 6.5 inches in width,   while the same stitch repeat knit using elastic and the thread lace setting adjustments once more, measures just under 2.5 inches in width