Developing 24 stitch optical illusion patterns for use on punchcard machines and more.

I have recently become obsessed with designs that fool the eye in any number of ways, and although knitting them in more than 2 colors is possible, I prefer the ease of only using 2.
Floats are likely to be too long in these knitting patterns for knitting them as single bed fair isle.
Software facilitates but is not necessary to develop repeats, the process may even be performed on graph pater with colored pencils if one so chooses.
Punchcard machine users are not always included in conversations, this post  addresses some ways of developing full 24 stitch designs and performing the necessary color separations for knitting them as DBJ where each color in each design row knits only once.
Brother KMs: punchcards and their use  reviews the basics including DIY development of simple motifs repeated in symmetrical tiled patterns.
The Manual for the Brother KR 830 offers this advice on DBJ knitting: Using lili buttons along with the slip stitch setting in both directions on the ribber carriage reduces motif elongation and keeps the aspect ratio of the planned designs closer to that in the originals than when choosing other DBJ techniques.
Ribber needle tapes are marked with lines followed by spaces. If the start under the first ribber needle on the left is on a blank space on the needle tape, simply end on the right with a needle over a line marking, or the reverse.
I am often asked why in my own illustrations the slide lever on the ribber carriage, a Brother “thing”, is always in the center position.
Reducing variables exponentially reduces errors.
If the lever position is not changed after those first rows or accidentally changed during knitting, the knit gauge will change. An example: working on final projects, more than one student in my knit studio design classes realized only after completing front and back or the second sleeve that the rib with the alternate lever setting not changed resulted in a visibly different rib height in the second piece.
Necessary adjustments can be made in yarn mast and respective carriage tensions, along with yarn choices appropriate for the technique.

ArahPaint and/with/or Gimp with a sprinkle of Mac Numbers have become my preferred go-tos for developing knit designs.
Designing can begin with simple drawings which do not require complex software knowledge and help to build confidence, using the electronic equivalent of graph paper and colored pencils.
Beginning with ArahPaint, with the goal of developing a 24 stitch pattern: load a new square picture, with an odd number of cells, in this case 13X13
Choose from the default palette, or set the number of colors to 3 and adjust the the results to include white, black, and one other clearly contrasting color Draw some starting lines/shapes that can be outlined with single pixels pencils Using the single pixel pencil tool, fill outlines in with color 3 To eliminate double pixels, mirror the image using the 25X13 pngrepeat mirroring using the 25X25 png Using the rectangle select tool, again to avoid double pixel lines, trim a row from the top and the right side of the design the 24X24 cropped result tiled as is with with the palette reduced to black and white The question remains as to how best to knit similar designs on any machine.
The floats are too long for FI, the repeat is best suited for DBJ.
The easiest color separation for DBJ is the one where each color in each design row knits twice.
To have each color in each design row knit only once, electronic machines offer the KRC button. The same result can be obtained in punchcard knitting by custom color separating the design.
When knitting DBJ with these separations, the 2 most common causes of stripes on both sides of the fabric are beginning the preselection row on the right, rather than the left, or as in my swatch, forgetting to push in both slip buttons.
This separation process for me is a very quick one using Gimp, I have not yet sorted a similar one in ArahPaint.
Using color to alpha as described in previous posts, the required files:
24X24 BW
24X48
24X48 color invert
24X4 with the top rows in a color picked from the program’s built in palette. Use Colors, white to alpha, to render the white see through. Copy the file to the clipboard, and use it to bucket fill with pattern  a new 24X49 (col inv png 48+1 blank row at top) bucket filled with the clipboard patternthe pink color to alpha, renders it see through, th last row is cropped, to 24X48, and is copied and pasted on the original 24X48 imageThe proof of concept swatchIf you enjoy designing with pencils in paint programs, the same approach can be used to produce a larger repeat, which makes the illusion more noticeable, ie in this 36X36 design.
Open a new window with an odd number of cells,  ie. 19. Copy and paste the upper left of the design on the new upper left corner, keep filling in linesRepeating the steps described previously, the 19X19 png is mirrored -1 in both directions, and trimmed to a final 36X36 design Modifications resulting in added shapes beginning to appear can be small in developing variations while continuing with the 24 stitch constraint.      Repeating the process, the files in sequence   The proof of concept was knit using the color white for the first preselection row to the right and as the first knit color row to the left, the color inverted version of the original repeat.  The KRC electronic separations are intended to begin with the white pixels in the designs, but the knitter can change that sequence based on their preferred placement of dark vs light colors.
Visualizing the reverse color placement in a knit swatch using Gimp  ArahPaint in knit design 4 illustrates a way where following guidelines in Easily generate random weaves it is possible to quickly generate more random DIY designs for use in multiple techniques and stitch counts.

Lace edgings on Brother machines- automated with slip stitch 3

WORK IN PROGRESS
This website offers inspiration for hand-knitting 100 lace collars, edgings and insertions. 
The charts may be used by machine knitters who enjoy portable hand-knit projects to complement their machine knitting ones, or machine knitters whose only option is hand manipulation, can follow the charts provided taking into account whether they are presented with knit side or purl side facing.
The images alone can be a springboard to variations of edgings that have already been worked out and tested.
Previous related posts:
Lace edgings on Brother machines- automated with slip stitch 2
Lace edgings on Brother machines- automated with slip stitch .
In a recent FB discussion it was suggested my edging repeats were “missing rows.”
The edgings shared up to this point were often shaped with transfers along the left edge, with the straight edge of the pieces on the right, and began with transfers to the right rather than to the left, with a fixed number of passes for both the LC and KC carriages throughout.
They were intentionally designed to minimize the number of LC passes.
As with many other knitting techniques there are multiple ways to achieve similar goals.
The number of LC passes and whether the starting selections result in a start with transfers to the right or to the left vary depending on the project and the designer’s published source inspiration, if any, their preference and end use.
There are no fixed rules.
The trims may be executed on any brand and gauge knitting machine, using hand needle selection and transfer techniques guided by specific charts.
They are not a new find or invention, were popular in the late 80s and in 90s on punchcard models, shaped with hand transfers, frequently taught at MK seminars.
If the edging is used as a border, the latter can be created horizontally rather than vertically, even using the ribber in some cases.
Automated versions make production are practical in forming lengths to be joined onto projects ie shawls and blankets.
Lace can be temperamental to knit, and when experimenting one can begin with what has already been worked out.
In this first design the shaped edge of the trim occurs on the right during knitting, the straight edge on the left.
Assigning color values to the direction of the transfers facilitates decisions in determining starting points.
Beginning at the widest part of the design, the cyan cells represent transfers to the left, the magenta transfers to the right, the black the all knit rows that will be formed with slip stitch.
End needle selection is turned on in both directions in the LC, canceled with the KC set on KCII.
The first preselection row is from the left with the KC set to knit.
When it reaches the right, the carriage is set to slip in both directions, makes 2 more passes, returning to rest on the right.
In the bottom of the design, at the decreasing angle, the LC starting from the left preselects but does not transfer any stitches on its way to the right, transfers to the left and preselects for all knit stitches as it returns to the left making only 2 passes to complete required transfers.
As the top of the design and the increasing angle is reached, four lace passes/rows in the design are required to make the necessary transfers to the right and to then allow the LC to return to its place on the left.
The charts are oriented this way to visualize how the direction of the transfers relates to the shaping.The 20X70 png, may be in need of mirroring depending on the KM model  being used and/or the download program. When in doubt, the needle selections are easy to recognize and some air knitting helps ensure that the pngs are oriented properly on your needle bed.  The proof of concept swatch For a narrow end start with the LC making the first preselection row from the left, the repeat, provided here in a larger view, can be shifted as indicated by red markings, and used after several rows of of base knit This 22X60 png, is charted with a start at the narrow for use with the LC preselecting the first row from the left for the increasing angle, then divided in for a start with the decreasing angle and the KC preselecting the first row, also from the left. The chart on the right shows the BW pixels actually programmed.
The LC makes 4 passes followed by 2 passes of the KC throughout the piece.
The shared version of the png did not require added mirroring on the 930, that was done automatically by the machine.
Shaping occurs on the right, with the straight edge on left. When charting in spreadsheets, in addition to assigning a color to the direction of transfers made by the LC, arrows may be added to indicate the direction of the respective carriage movements.
This design was published for use with a Brother Mylar sheet when the 910 was new to market. It is wider than most such borders, intended for use in a blanket or afghan edge. The transfers were intended to be made by hand to attain the curved edge.

Working in Numbers the image was mirrored and duplicated, planned for a shaped edge on the left. Arrows mark the direction of movements for each of the carriages The repeat adjusted for automated shaping The 40X40 png required mirroring on my 930  There is a non selected needle on the left near the center of the design, it is not a selection error The proof of concept swatch If the chosen design inspiration is from a punchcard pattern and the goal is to match the transfer sequences intended by the pub beginning with the fist row of transfers to the left, the approach is different.
Using randomly chosen Brother 636 from Punchcard volume #5,  pairs of rows are added after each transfer segment and in this case, a 42 row repeat becomes a 54 row one. In addition, pixels are shifted to form double eyelets along the straight edge on the right, and added and subtracted for shaping with increases and decreases that form matching eyelets on the left.   The png 32X54 png, used mirrored on the 930
and its proof of concept swatch

DBJ, more than 2 colors per row 4

Revisiting older posts often brings to mind new or slightly different ways of looking at and achieving the same tasks.
Links to some related previous posts:
DAK DBJ color separations, templates, and other software
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 2
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 1
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   img2track
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1

Color separations for knit designs in only 2 colors are more straightforward than those for 3-4 colors.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese models will yield results automatically where each color knits in each design row only once, reducing the elongation in the designs often seen when employing other techniques.
Japanese machine models for home use (not the semi-industrial ones) have a color changer that resides on the left, and aside from whether each color in each row knits once or twice, the combined carriages need to move to and from the color changer on the left for each color selection.
The color-changers for brands differ slightly and matter in cross-brand use if one relies on published separated designs and pictured swatches.
Yarn changers for:
Brother Studio Sometimes the placement of the colors within palettes will result in the colors not being read and downloaded properly.
As described in the Ayab post: when using each color, it is coded in a range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color A; 64-127 color B; 128-195 color C; 196-255 color D.
When only 2 colors are in use, in manual color separations, the ultimate goal is to produce BW-indexed PNGs. They are then downloaded and programmed as one would FI patterns, palette placement is not a concern.
Working in default or limited palettes produces familiar visual clues in DIY, to save custom palettes see ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3 
If the goal is to imagine the results in colorways based on yarns planned for use in the finished piece, that can be easily achieved after the fact.
This design has been used in past posts and is 6 stitches wide; hence, repeated X4 in width will also be suitable for punchcard machines. Looking at it again:
checking alignment when tiled
Stitches on needles not worked on the top bed are held while stitches in the other color(s) knit, and get longer. Some degree of alteration in the aspect ratio in the appearance of the design on the knit side in the final result is to be expected, also influenced by the addition of varied knitting techniques and carriage settings.  Methods I have explored in DIY repeat the same color sequence throughout even when any one of the colors is not represented in that design row: one way to decrease the visual lengthening of designs in dbj is to eliminate a row of knit stitches from each pair of passes by pushing Brother’s preselected needles back to the B position on the top bed before knitting from the right back to the left, thus skipping all needles in work on the top bed.
The HOP separation in Ayab performs this function automatically in addition to shuffling around repeat segments while keeping a fixed color rotation, making repeats that fail with other separation methods knittable.
In images where not all colors are represented on every row, there are more knit rows on the ribber than on the main bed, even with birdseye backing, another added cause of stitch elongation observable on the knit side.
When using birdseye backing, the ribber will knit every other stitch, alternating needles on each pass. An even number of needles is required. Patterning is akin to using a 1X1 card on the knit bed.
By the time the carriages have returned to the left only one row of knitting on every needle will be completed on the ribber.
The setting is not available in every model machine, including very early Brother ones.
When knitting in tuck or slip stitch, stitches grow in length until they are knit off again. This remains true when working in DBJ fabrics as well.
Yarn and tension choices can affect the final appearance.
There will be some degree of bleed-through behind the elongated stitches.
Blocking also influences the final appearance of the completed knit.
Exploring possibilities:
The initial 6X6 file is converted to stp and opened in DAK resulted in the following messages and pattern error corrections A second design was also tested in DAK and yielded the same error messages:  The 6X6 stp doubled in length to 6X12 cells allow for the option of selecting the type of dbj color separations, creating files that can, in turn, become PNGs for working outside the program, and for printing traceable templates for punchcards. That work is achieved through hacks since DAK does not allow direct import or export of file formats other than its proprietary ones ie stps or txt for use with Kniterate.    A closer look at the diagram of the color sequence options in each
The characteristics of the more commonly used methods in review:
Method A
works on pairs of rows, Method B creates the same separation as the default built-in KRC one in Japanese electronics with each color in each design row knitting only once, Method C separates each color row into separate rows of knitting, rows do not have to be repeated in pairs in DIY, and the double-length switch will need to be used in Japanese knitting machines It is possible to generate an output of the separation and to process it to generate files usable in img2track or for printing traceable punchcard templates.
The program does have an option to save a bmp but the save is of the separation on a grid with added data, not as a file immediately usable in other programs. Click on the floppy disk icon outlined in red to save as bmp as an alternative to screengrabs.   Using the same 6X12 file, the generated printable templates and associated converted PNGs:
A B  the repeat here is also for the original lengthened X2, and 36 pixels high with no segments repeated. The essential difference is that the first preselection row is made from left to right, with the pair of rows for color 1, design row 1 split between the top and bottom of the separation.  C

elongated X2=24X72, handy for other knit structures, but not for reducing elongation in DBJ Using img2track set at knitting in 3 colors, there is no error message, but the 6X6 file will not produce the planned design.
A proof of concept is provided in the post DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2. Starting with the double-length 6X12 file, each color in each design row will be knit twice:  and the machine will offer prompts for its pre-determined color change sequences.
Most recently, my separation experiments using Gimp use transparency methods and are are shared in the reverse order of their development 
#3
The briefest and last method: working in RGB mode, begin by multiplying the pattern in height X3, to 6X18 Isolating the red color on a white ground:  isolating the yellow on a transparent ground:  isolating the blue on a transparent ground: copying and pasting the isolated yellow and blue with transparent grounds in  turn onto the red design isolated on the white ground
changing all 3 colors to black
doubling the image in length to 6X36
remove every second row using the pencil tool or bucket fill it with the 6X2 pattern, and change the cyan to white. Any other color can be used instead of the magenta at that point
change Mode to BW indexed, and save the final file for knitting.   Comparing the results for the full repeat from other methods on the left, with the one using this method on the right

Returning to that 6X6 repeat that was prone to error in both DAK and img2track, with each color represented once in each row, exploring the possible separation to knit each color only once, and using a final 6X18 PNG led to patterning failure.
The Image menu progression of its process in Gimp: the number of thumbnails grows and one can travel through the images using simple clicks until any image is discarded or the program is quit, the X appears aside the file viewed in the work window.  Each color was isolated on a white background, with guides placed horizontally across every pair of pixel rows.  Pairs of rows of each color were copied and pasted in alternating sequences on an all-white file longer than 18 pixels rows and the results were trimmed to a 6X18 file for a knitting test.  Though the built-in KRC separation takes that first design row and moves it to the top of the repeat, thus knitting a single row with color 1 and completing it in a pair on the last row of the program, the first knitting test began with preselection from the right, and color 1 knitting for 2 rows.  A second try at an 18-row repeat, also a design fail, with odd breaks in the lili action on the ribber, seen in Passaps when pusher selections on the back bed are disrupted.  When the motif was doubled in length, and the same method was used, the results matched the 24X36 file.
The 6X6 design, however, expanded and separated to a 6X18 file may be used in machines with color changers on each side, with a different color sequence, see DAK Method E notes toward bottom of post.
#2 Working with the 6X6 design lengthened X6 to 6X36

with every other row rendered in all white cells The proof of concept swatch

DAK
owners see the 36-row file and similar knit sample for the Half Milano separation F toward the bottom of the post.
In my #1, first separation draft, the 6X10 file is elongated X6, to 6X60, considering that each color in each design row will be carried for two passes.  The latest Gimp version for Mac is 2.10.36
Sometimes there are differences in commands in the Windows version.
Begin the work in RGB Mode.
The color-to-alpha command in Gimp makes all pixels in a selected color transparent.
The option can be activated through the Layers Menu by choosing Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or the filter via Colors> Color to Alpha from the pull-down menus at the top of the work window.
No threshold or blending adjustments are needed in the small 8-bit files used in designing knits.
Some previous repeats using  colors to alpha in 2-color separations can be found in the posts
Color separations for larger scale mosaics and mazes 
and on Using Layers in Gimp for Color separations
Magnify the image to a comfortable viewing size, ie 800% or more.
When the color to alpha dialog window opens, there will be a small preview of the image you are working on on the upper right that relates to how many images are available for processing in the work window at the time.  When the color white is in the mix using the 8-bit files, the preset color selection for transparency in the color bar is white.
To change the color selection, click on the white color, the palette window will appear, select the new color, and click OK.

To Bucket Fill with pattern: create a custom brush size, matching the starting design width in pixels. The number of rows varies with intent. White is used as one of the colors, and the second color can be any other.
Click on the rectangle tool and then on the pattern thumbnail, an icon for it will appear on the upper right of the work window. The brush will be copied to the clipboard and will be available to use to pattern fill until the program is quit. It can also be saved for future use as explained in other posts.  To fill specific groups of pixels with FG or BG colors, click on the select by color tool,  and then on the color you wish to change, use bucket fill, selecting foreground or background color.
The fuzzy select/magic wand tool mentioned in previous posts is designed to select areas of the current layer or image based on color similarity. It appears to the left of the select-by-color tool. It can be used when pixels in that color need to be changed in contained single areas rather than throughout the whole image.
If using the bucket fill with foreground or background color alternating with fill with pattern, remember to switch between the two as needed.
If an error is made, use Image> Edit> Undo to move back to any previous steps.
If at any point the image in the work window is surrounded by dotted lines, click on the rectangle tool and then again in the work window to essentially fix the layer.
The Image menu provides access to nearly any operation you can perform on an image.   Clicking on any one of those images will produce a dotted outline around it making it identifiable and usable in work such as for copy and paste followed by bucket fill with pattern,   or for navigating between series of open files.
#1  the longhand first practice run began with the 6X10 file multiplied in height X6 to 6X60. Good practice for sorting out a technique, but guessing the aspect ratio in the final knit would be bothersome.  1. has the first 2 of the 6 design rows rendered transparent, so when used to fill the original, only rows planned for color 1 are left exposed
2. will leave design rows 3 and 4 exposed for color 2
3. will leave design rows 5 and 6 exposed for color 3
Repeat these steps on the original design 3 times, and save each completed step until comfortable with working on several files open at once.
A. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for the color red
B. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for yellow, if the color seems too hard to identify, change it to another
C. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for blue. The red and white in the last step in A are left undisturbed, while the white background in the last steps in both B and C is rendered transparent, as seen in 2 and 3. Both 2 and 3 are copied and pasted onto A, rendering the final tricolor image, 4.
Using select by color and bucket fill, the three colors are replaced with black, 5.
A last brush bucket fill, 6, leaves only the first row of black cells exposed, changing the cyan to white and converting the final result to BW-indexed mode, 7, is saved for knitting with each color in each row knitting only once.  When all 3 colors are not represented on every row,
The 11X10 image was used in previous posts,   tiled,   the tiled elongation:  The separation uses method#3:  the process with the image lengthed X3 to 11X30 representing each color in each design row once:  working with Gimp transparency, isolate the red, retain the white ground isolate the green, render it on a transparent ground isolate the blue, render it on a transparent ground,  copy and paste the green and blue rendered on transparent grounds onto the red on the white ground initial image, obtaining a 3 color separation.
Replace colors with black. For knitting each color in each design row for 2 passes double the file in height to 11X60 pixels. To knit each color only once in an attempt to further reduce changes in aspect ratio, erase every second row. Images for knitting are saved in BW-indexed mode.  The DAK template (set for 950i) and img2track screen image compared to my result:  the 11X60 PNG, all pixels, 
and with black pixels on every second row changed to white The proof of concept swatch: the vertical lines between pairs of stitches result from the drag on the ribber stitches to the right and then the left as the birdseye pattern is formed, they are frequently also seen in ladderback dbj.
The yarns used are not of equal thickness.
Balanced yarn weight and tighter tensions would diminish both those lines and any bleed-through behind the stitches on the knit side.
The dropped stitches on the purl side indicate the need for troubleshooting the condition of ribber needles and their latches.Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once used the same 11X10 repeat, explored the results using HOP, pushing needles back to B manually EOR, and a color separation with the same 11X60 final file. 
An additional way to decrease changes in the aspect ratio of the original design
relies on eliminating as many passes as possible, by eliminating design rows with “no color” out of the color change rotations.
The color changes in continuing identical sequences vs skipping any one of the colors from the rotation when not in use:  The 11X60 repeat is now to 11X48  its companion with every other second row of black cells erased.  Both create the need to track what color to use and when. If the machine or software cannot provide prompts and reminders, a spreadsheet is easy and quick to create, listing colors and corresponding row counts:  Tracking those shifting color changes is more than my bandwidth and patience allow.

As I was working on this post, a friend asked about the separations for 3 color designs in the StitchWorld Pattern Book #3.
I randomly chose # 484, with the swatch pictured on p 57 and the design separation repeat found on pp 96-98. The shortest segment can be quickly converted to a knittable 140X50 PNG. Other factors to be considered and examined:
the color-changing sequences are provided on each side.
Each design row appears different from the row below it, raising the question as to whether each color is knitted only once.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese electronic machines automates that option when only 2 colors are used.
Passap E6000 users have a programmable reader technique that accomplishes the same for 3 and 4 colors.  This SW III segment is for rows 521-570, p98, with two more full pages in the pub beginning on p 96 with rows 1-260, and p 97 with rows 261-520.
Gimp Guides were placed on a screengrab of the file and it appeared each number was associated with 2 design rows.  The color numbers are not in fixed sequences and differ on each side, as seen in this magnified view.  Found when browsing through the SW III pub for added clues: the fair isle section symbols are suggestive of the CK35 Brother semi-industrial machine, produced in small numbers decades ago. The CK 35 has a color changer on each side.  From the manual regarding their use:  If the files are intended for the CK 35, additional information is needed for emulating or adapting them for use on home knitting models, not always possible.
The same is often true when traveling between machine brands manufactured in different countries.
DAK owners can use Method E jacquard separation for machines with a color changer on each side, like the Brother CK 35. According to the manual, the process works on pairs of rows and separates each row into a pass with each color.  A sample separation with no error messages when the 6X6 file is opened.   Untested DIY for the same separation:
The 6X18 repeat opened in Gimp, using a single-pixel pencil to fill in all except the color for that row with white.  Using the custom brushes and bucket-fill with the pattern, begin with isolating the red color, retaining the white background,  repeat to leave the isolated green exposed, and convert the magenta color from the brush to alpha repeat with the isolated blue,   in two steps, copy and paste the green and white on alpha and the blue and white on alpha on the red-on-white ground image, the tricolor final result, which matches the result from the pencil color replacements, is then rendered in BW for knitting. The last DAK Method F is referred to as suitable for Half Milano. It is directly translatable for use in the Japanese models.  The corresponding separations for both the 6X6 and its elongated sibling, 6X12 The 36-row repeat was quite different from mine, but a knitting test resulted in a matching result while trying out the 11X10 design in DAK resulted in obvious patterning fails, likely because the repeat is not an even number of pixels in width.
A repeated knit test of my 11X60 repeat, the arrow points to operator error when I failed to notice the color changer was carrying 2 colors at once. It is possible to superimpose final repeats on each other to look for errors and differences. The DBJ separation in DAK was 60 rows high as well, but it appears to be inaccurate, pointing to possible unidentified errors when working with a stp that is an uneven number of pixels in width.

Revisiting “wisteria” 3D shapes and their possible automation

Present software makes automating textured designs in these families easier to plan and execute.
This method is limited to single colors being used at any one time and does not allow for additional patterning through fair isle or end needle selection.
Slip stitch in both directions results in black cells being knit sequentially, and the limit in width for the total design is limited to the width of the knitting machine and how the program is read and implemented.
End needle selection is canceled.
All needles in work need to be cleared with each carriage pass.
My electronic km samples are now knit on a 930, which automatically mirrors any downloaded repeats, an advantage for lettering, but not for many other situations. These designs require mirroring when using any machine or software that does so if the holding is to begin with the knit carriage on the right.  The direction of movement for the knit carriage is illustrated by arrows in the charts, which serve as guides in planning sequences.
The original charts were executed using Mac Numbers, the table was converted and scaled to size using Gimp as described in other posts, downloaded using img2track, and mirrored horizontally before test knitting on the 930.
Both swatches are 40 stitches wide, planned in blocks 8 stitches in width and height, the first repeat 40X178 pixels  

The first test: the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. A wool yarn was used, retaining spring-back for more of a 3D texture. The design can be interrupted with all knit rows breaking up the shapes at varied intervals, with added colors if preferred. The second repeat, 40X 226 pixels.  A PDF for larger views of both files pdf
A quick test in a 2/18 wool produced a soft, loose, drapey knit.  The same swatch was photographed 48 hours later, in a relaxed state.  A 2/10 wool knit on the same number of stitches produced a firmer and more clearly 3D effect which remains unaltered with time.
Hems and a knit stripe were tested as a way of breaking up the shapes Possibilities with hand selection of needles: some samples from  Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets.  
“Wisteria” meets hems “Wisteria” cousin 2, also called fern leaf, hand technique “Wisteria” cousin revisited (“holding” using slip stitch), the first programmed repeat, drawn on mylar. The 910 knit the image as drawn on the purl side, with no mirroring necessary  
“Wisteria” 2  Horizontal “cable”  

To mesh or not to mesh 10: more large eyelet variations

Some of the relevant previous posts and a few of the associated test swatches for quick comparisons:
Large scale mesh, a punchcard repeat adapted for electronic 4/21 Tuck setting used in both directions, one of 3 variations   Revisiting large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not) 7/20 Large diagonal eyelet lace  6/12, electronic sample follows at the bottom of this post: Large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not) 9/13 Large scale mesh, breaking the rules, the start of the explorations  4/11Single bed slits aka horizontal “button holes” 11/16 img_4077“Buttonholes” and “make many – increase” “lace”  5/15 IMG_19072024
Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 2_hearts
36X88  introduced a combination of standard and large eyelets along the edges of the shape for a better definition of the design.
A recent FB share prompted a discussion of a different fabric combining selections by both the LC operating from the left, and the KC operating from the right, using the slip setting to secure the extra loops that result after a knit pass when side-by-side transfers are made in opposing directions.
When two carriages are selecting needles from opposite sides, each needs to clear past the respective set lines on the needle bed so as not to engage the belt while the other carriage is selecting and transferring or knitting, extension rails are a must.
Although this design repeat is 6 stitches in width, and in theory, it could be reproduced on a punchcard, it is not suitable for doing so.
On electronic machine models, each carriage pass advances the design by a single row.
When the alternate carriage is brought into action from the opposite side, punchcard models do not advance the card, repeating the last preselection, so the same stitch type is repeated for a second time. Some illustrations of the differences and contrasts can be found in the posts on doilies and edgings.
Planning the repeat in a spreadsheet helps to ensure that the direction of the lace carriage passes is kept accurate when the LC returns to selecting and transferring, as marked with the arrows on the left of the chart. The yellow cells and the arrows on the right reflect KC passes.  To knit: cancel end needle selection, KCII.
If any end needle is selected before a LC pass, manually push it back to the B position. If any end needle is not selected before a KC pass, push it out to D or E
position.
The LC, set to N,  consistently makes 4 passes starting from and returning to the left, followed by 2 passes of the KC set to slip in both directions starting from and returning to the right.
On the 4th LC pass, as it moves from right to left all needles will be preselected forward, a clear marker that the next pass will be with the KC.
The repeat is 6 stitches in width by 24 rows in height.  The empty cells on rows 12 and 22 will produce slip-stitch floats below skipped needles that secure the second loop formed by the side-to-side transfers.
This is the pixel or punched-hole configuration that produces the side-by-side transfers.
The 6X24 png

The side-by-side empty needles after the first pass with the KC to the left, with needles not selected, in B position, matching white cell placements in otherwise all black cell rows with slip-stitch floats holding down the first loop after the second KC pass as it returns to the right  The proof of concept Pamela Cruse devised and shared another similarly mixed eyelet size knit. Her repeat is 6X16, with only the LC selecting needles, the KC remains set to knit, making it suitable for punchcard machines as well. The full card,     a single repeat,  and the tiny PNG  The knit in progress: after the two side-by-side needles are emptied, the next KC passes produce two consecutive loops, the first does not stay on the needles, but rather, gets dropped, forming a float  Needles will be preselected on each side of them, followed by transfers.   As those transfers are completed to the left and then to the right, it is those moved stitches that anchor down each loop.   The first KC pass to the left forms single loops on the now empty needles,  and the second KC pass to the right completes an all-knit row.    The process is repeated in brick configuration.
Mirroring horizontally was not required on the 930. When it was tested, an all-over single eyelet was produced, seen a the bottom of the swatch.  This large eyelet variation was developed by Claudia Scarpa, who shared these repeats for Brother machines which use opposite tuck/part buttons to form stitches properly after the side-by-side empty needle transfers have been performed.
There are 2 versions, each beginning with 6 stitches X 16 rows design.
Aligning eyelets vertically and in a brick arrangement  To knit: cancel end needle selection, KCII.
If any end needle is selected before an LC pass, manually push it back to the B position. If any end needle is not selected before a KC pass, push it out to the D or E position. The LC, set to N,  consistently makes 4 passes starting from and returning to the left, followed by 4 passes of the KC set to tuck to the left, slip to the right, starting from and returning to the right of the needle bed.
After the LC transfers have formed the double eyelets, when rows for the formation of tuck loops followed by slip stitch floats have been preselected, there will be pairs of needles brought forward to the D position.
The first KC tuck pass to the left forms tuck loops on the non-selected needles the second slip pass to the right anchors the tuck loop as all needles are preselected for the pair of all knit rows that follow    The process is repeated with the eyelets forming in either orientation  As the KC makes its last pass to the right there is no needle preselection, a sign that it is time to return to the use of the LC operating from the left  The vertically aligned repeat test swatch and the brick repeat test The 24X48 repeat for the diagonal mesh The lace carriage makes 4 passes left to right followed by 2 passes of the knit carriage from right to left for the full repeat.
The first KC pass creates double loops on the side-by-side empty needles as it returns to the right, the first double loop is dropped, and a second double loop is formed the next series of transfers will double up a single stitch on one of the two loops and the process is repeated as knitting progresses. The yarn used is knit wool rayon again, and the side edges were allowed to curl. There is one stitch that got away from me on the left.

A slip stitch patterned ruffle and more

A recent Instagram share led to my being asked how the ruffle attached to the piece as partially shown on the left was created. The images on the right illustrate 2 of the color-way explorations prior to committing to a final one, all knit in rayon chenille yarns.   At that time a punchcard was used. The repeat technically is 24 stitches wide and 18 in height, repeated twice to meet minimum punchcard height requirements, while for electronic patterning the 18 row segment is used. That said, repeating and shifting the minimum pattern repeat in a paint program or spreadsheet allows for visualization of possible color change sequences,  A 24X36 electronic repeat beginning with 4 all knit rows:    Knitting does not always need to be programmed to start on the first design row.
When miles of trim ie when it is planned as an edging for items such as shawls are planned, there are other considerations.
I prefer to use the seam as you knit method. Since rows will be joined to rows, use a 1 to 1 ratio. Doubling up on stitches happens every 2 rows along the knit border’s vertical edges.
After estimating the number of rows in the final piece, any trims can be knit separately, taken off the machine on waste yarn, and joined as the piece progresses. If needed, after removing the waste yarn, more rows can be added to the trim or unraveled to shorten it before binding it off.
The other option is to finish the body of the knit item, and then join the trim as it is being knit.
The process is rendered easier if the ribber is off the machine.
Switching between punchcard and electronic models, it can get confusing as to whether the design needs to be mirrored horizontally or knot.
In this case, the png was used on my 930 in the same orientation as the punchcard design.
To reduce the roll to the purl side, it may be best to use yarns that will block flat ie rayon, or acrylic.
The knit is centered on the needle bed. My 930 has a punchcard needle tape in place, I prefer programming based on 24-stitch needle selections to avail myself of the position option available on the electronic.
The first preselection row is made toward the color changer.
End needle selection is canceled, or unwanted floats will be formed, pulling in the edge of the knit.
When the color changer is reached and the proper color is in the yarn feeder, set the machine to slip in both directions.
Continue color changes in the preplanned sequences.
In proper pattern selection, the slip stitch column/non-selected needles occur on the right (1).
The all-knit stitch column/ selected needles occur on the left (2). Rows, where every needle is preselected, will knit a solid color with the next carriage pass. As colors are changed small floats will be created between the stripes, a light edge weight may be needed, depending on the yarn used and its fiber content, to keep the edge stitches from being reduced in size or even gathered.
1. the same color is used for 4 consecutive rows when all needles are selected and are followed by color changes every 2 rows until all needles are preselected once more
2. color changes are made every 2 rows
The cyan arrows illustrate the floats on the purl side the differences in the stitch shapes on the knit when the end needle selection is on, and the lack of proper formation of color blocks, especially if the goal is a reversible knit. Added knit rows will result in less of a flounce, offer the opportunity to play with striping, and more colors may be added, accompanied inevitably by cut yarn ends  For a reduced roll on narrow edgings, add a 2-3 stitch every other row border,   the result illustrated in this close up of a different slip stitch ruffle, also joined to the shawl using the seam as you knit technique.  Ruffles may be created with other stitch types ie tuck, which shortens and gathers the knit stitches aside them in areas where they are used.  For those not familiar with slip and tuck stitch formation, it is reviewed in the post: Single bed tuck and slip stitch fabrics 1. Here hand-selected short-row techniques form the wedges, with ladders added for more surface interest on the far right.

 

 

 

Revisiting 3D scales and shells, automated and not

Other posts exploring the scale topic began in 2015 with a swatch experiment based on an Armani sweater, followed by this group of shares, listed by creation date and beginning with the most recent
More mesh dragon scales, some striped and some not
Single bed scales made with stitch transfers
More dragon scales and chevrons in ribbed, racked (4) fabrics
Hand-knit “dragon scales”

Incidental discoveries  Ribber trims 4 

Automating 3D textures across full rows of knitting:
Machine knit leaves using slip stitch with holding Revisiting automated shell shapes  Automated shapes across rows of knitting using slip stitch only  various designs
“Automated” shell shapes  When the construction of the scale and shell shapes was proposed, I did not always share the repeats for the automated version.
After the fact, a screen grab from the shell charts was cropped to its outline, opened in ArahPaint, and using the program’s tool “guess weave from grid“, the 36X98 png is obtained with a few mouse clicks,

and saved the file for further exploration.
Note that for the “shells”, the shapes are formed by all the triangles pointing in the same direction, while in the “scale” version they mirror vertically.
Tips and reminders:
I find it useful to test techniques in geometric shapes that are familiar and easy to imagine in 3D, hence the return to triangles.
The goal here is to automate needle selection to eliminate stitch counting and hand selection.
The 200 needle max on 4.5 mm machines, as well the amount of memory in the model of electronic being used, ie 2K in a 930 imposes more limitations.
Performing the selection of needles manually and using the setting for short rows may make varying shapes, their scale, row counts, and color changes possible in a way that traveling to and from the same side of the machine in 2 row sequences does not.
When using the slip stitch setting if every needle on the top bed is not in use, the end needle selection must be canceled.
The knit carriage must clear all needles in work with each carriage pass even though small stitch counts may be worked on at any one time.
Just as when working short rows, depending on the fiber content of the yarn, there may be some visible wear on the purl side from the many carriage passes required to complete full design rows.
Test on small swatches for accuracy and aesthetic personal appeal before committing to larger pieces.
A 36X166 pixel repeat:   The edge half repeats are eliminated in an attempt to yield straight vertical side edges, with the repeat reduced in height to 36X124.  The resulting scales, knit in a 2/8 wool, were resistant to getting completely poked through to the purl side.  Comparing the difference in the results when knitting the same number of stitches and rows in the pattern; the blue yarn is of a slightly different thickness than the pink.  Seeking striping at the center of the triangular shapes, I found what appears to be a one-off error in the spreadsheet numbering of cell rows vs actual design rows, which initially resulted in issues with a correct conversion to PNG.   Transitions are made after odd numbers of rows to allow starts from the right for each pattern segment ie. Yellow/ 8+1 rows at the top of the repeat for plain knit segments, orange for the 3-row contrasting color stripe at the peak of the shapes. There will be cut yarn ends at each transition.
The design, charted in black and white,  the 36X82 png One may choose on which side to display the resulting shapes, here to the knit side,   and to the purl, shown also after some pressing. A punchcard snap is inserted in one of the pockets in the last image on the lower right to hint at pocket size.  Steamed, flattened shapes may also be coaxed in different directions, stitched in place or even together with a contrasting stripe behind them, or added beads at the join  A first draft at adding a FI or slip stitch stripe at the center of the repeat still relies on some segments occurring for an odd number of rows, was rearranged in the later designs, measures 36X88 pixels.  

Analyzing the swatch:
the edges where the triangular shapes meet the striped bands jut out more when pointing down than when pointing up
the eyelet typical when knitting short rows for 2 rows is OK as part of the overall design
the 8 rows of plain knitting between the shapes are too many Altering the design 1:
the plan is to retain starting each segment of  scales from the right,
the fair isle band is now planned for an even number of rows, making it possible to operate more easily from the same side, but loosening the tension,
the 36X80 repeat: the side edges in the swatch differ from each other,   Altering the design 2: whether executed with cam button changes with the knit carriage always operating from the right, or operating a second carriage selecting needles from the left, the fair isle band in this experiment needs to occur for an odd number of rows, the repeat is 36X68. The cells highlighted in yellow on the right of the chart follow the carriage movement from the right when switched from slip to FI, and the gray cells the movements for a second carriage selecting needles from the left.
The recurring shapes are planned to produce straight side edges.
The 36X68 repeat Very often 3D knit structures can change dramatically with steaming and pressing.  They can literally be “killed” permanently if fibers such as acrylics are used, while wool has some spring back, but surface retention depends on the specific pattern. The temptation to press is in proportion to what degree the knit rolls, sometimes dramatically, to the purl side. In this instance, the depth of the shapes was lost, and the swatch grew significantly in length.

Swatches based on adapting random online published repeats

I still surf Pinterest daily and often encounter published punchcard repeats that catch my eye.
Many need some interpretation and editing for use in specific machine models.
The first inspiration: is knit using 4 colors, alternating 2 rows of a base color, then rotating color changes for 4 rows for each of 3 contrasting ones.
Counting up from the bottom of the illustration after the marks for the typical two all-punched rows, it would appear this is a Studio punchcard, but starting row 1 as visible outside the card reader can simply be changed for any other brand knitting machine.
The every other stitch configuration is for an every other needle repeat used in early machines such as the Juki.
A full reference volume   An illustration of the card use  If using thicker yarns on a standard machine that grinds at the loosest tension, this configuration can retain the full design while knitting every other needle/EON.
The adaptation began using Mac Numbers, the repeat was isolated and traced, and the 12 blank columns were then hidden producing a result scaled in indexed B/W mode to 12X36 pixels. The tiled design, checking alignments.  The proof of concept Periodically tuck stitch designs that appear to break the usual rules for the stitch are discussed.
This design is intended for a push-button machine capable of 24 stitch repeats, uses symbols in the associated chart interpreted to mean tuck loops form for 2 rows and knit along with all other stitches every third row.  The working repeat is made up of 8 pixels in width, and 36 pixels in height.    This next design is likely published for use with the Studio color changer, which is marked with letters for each color,   rather than with numbers as in Brother models.
It is intended as a slip-stitch. The bottom swatch relies on color changes every 3 rows, which would need to be performed manually.
In the elongated version, colors are changed using the color changer, every 6 rows.  The design was first tested in thin yarns using the electronic 24X84 elongated PNG  tested for alignment   and displays interesting 3D variations, the purl side is remindful of shadow pleating  Changing colors every odd number of rows is a tad fiddly.
The use of the color changer is not an option.
With the three yarns fed through the yarn masts, it became hard to keep them from twisting around each other. Ultimately, that problem was solved by hand-feeding one of the three colors with the cone on the floor, in front of the machine, as one would place yarns for weaving.
Brother knitters are familiar with yarn placements in the sinker plate.
Position A is for knitting when using only one color or for the ground color in fair isle patterning.  There is a “gate”, which is closed, and the B color/contrast motif color is placed in that front position, knitting the yarn in needles preselected to needle position D on the next carriage pass.
It is tempting to leave the gate open when switching colors by hand frequently, and that may work for a while, providing tension is placed on the yarn manually to keep the yarn back. If at any point the yarn shifts forward (green arrow), with no needles in position D, stitches will be dropped.
Textured stitches can make for more complicated correction of errors or dropped stitches.
Taking the extra seconds to close the gate (red markings) after each color change avoids what became fondly known as “dropitis” in my classes.   The proof of concept: two of the yarns used were acrylic, so steaming to reduce the curling of the swatch flattened the texture.  At one point Studio published a newsletter  with cover art composed of simple drawings, such as this, for #143, which spiked my curiosity, and led to these explorations:
the pattern and symbols refer to tuck stitch, but technically the design is executed using short rows and transfer techniques.
The programmed repeat selects needles, making tracking actions easier.
End needle selection is canceled.
No cam buttons are in use.
The knit carriage is set to hold.
Stitches on the single needles selected on rows, 2, 12, 22, etc, are transferred onto the needle on their left. The empty needle is then pushed back to A position, out of work, creating a ladder.
The groups of 3 preselected needles are pushed out to hold, the D position, before continuing.
After every 2 rows knit, a stitch on the left is pushed back into work, until lastly, the empty needle is returned to the B position.
All needles will then knit for one row filling in the empty needle with a loop and a full knit stitch on the next pass where transfers begin again. A brief summary of stitch manipulations  Images of the work in progress, a small claw weight single claw hung on edge stitch helps keep side edges equal in length:
preselected needles initially manually brought to hold position after the first carriage pass to the right
after the second carriage pass to the left, with the first needle on the left in each group pushed back into work  the second needle on the left in each group is returned to work
one needle in each group remaining in hold pushed back into work  at this point the empty needles have been brought to the B position, single preselected needles have been transferred to the left,  and a pass is made forming loops on the empty needles/ eyelets  The original 18X30 repeat, some machine models and download software may require that it be mirrored horizontally,   repeated to 44X30 with a planned distribution of plain stitches at sides, knit in 2/18 wool blends: Converting random transfer lace designs poses different challenges, and since the time at which the reference post was published, there have been several Gimp updates.
Lace designs contain few black and white pixels and, at times are brand-specific. Multiple transfer lace in Studio models begins with 2 blank rows, while Brother begins with a design row, and ends with 2 blank rows. As given, the inspiration repeat is designed for Studio/Silver Reed.
When using any program, ie Gimp, ArahPaint, or even Dak, the original scanned or screengrabbed design needs to be aligned horizontally and vertically to window borders for accurate conversions.
Gimp:
Before any scaling of images, establish stitch and row counts. In this case, they are published as being 16 stitches X 96 rows.
The process for converting the same lace design using Gimp 2.10.34 on the Mac, beginning work in RGB mode:
1. drawing a straight line to the side of the cropped image reveals a slight lean to the right
2. using Image, Transform, and Arbitrary Rotation -0.30 improves the alignment  3. using the rectangle tool, crop to the borders of the published image.
In this instance, the cropped image measuring 199X938 pixels is at first scaled to multiples of 10 for both width and height, note the broken chain link
4. 160X960 pixels. 5. Image mode is changed to B/W indexed, and the image is scaled once more to 16X96, the size of the expected repeat, note the intact chain link  6. the final repeat, when studied, matches that from the results in the previous post  1: the result using ArahPaints tools, including its guess weave from grid, compared to
2: the Gimp final image and
3. borrowed from the previous post illustrating other considerations before actual knitting,  
which include:
if using the repeat on Brother machines, the first 2 blank rows of the design are shifted to the top.
The 16-stitch design width makes it suitable only for electronic models.
The final PNG is actually downloaded as a fair isle pattern while maintaining the required needle selection for lace, and the knit carriage remains set to knit throughout while the lace carriage selects and transfers.
The machine, depending on the model, may by default mirror the result vertically, so the final PNG can be mirrored and saved as here, prior to knitting on the 930, or the mirror function in the machine may be used after programming.
I prefer to save my files in the orientation required for the actual knitting as a means to avoid confusion or errors.
Working in Arahpaint, rotating an image turns it on its center point. To rotate a layer, selection, or image, from the Image menu, choose Rotate.  Selections can be made at offered angles, or specified degrees can be entered in the degree field, or select an area, move the pointer outside the bounding border, and then drag on any one of the small boxes at each corner while pressing the left mouse button.  To align the image,
1. load the lace inspiration
2. choose Image, select Rotate Image, and draw a line that follows the orientation of the image. The color will be based automatically on the palette being used, and altering the pencil pixel size or color has no effect.
The program then rotates the image and will inform you of the rotation angle, and the drawn line becomes straight.
To confirm alignment, click the OK or Close button in the Rotate Image window.
3. use the rectangle tool to select the content for the full design repeat, and crop the aligned image to the selection. 4.-9. continue with the steps using the tool Guess Weave from Grid, producing the same final PNG. In summary, they are:
4. crop the selected image to size
5. change the color palette to 8-bit, adjust background and foreground colors
6. reduce the number of colors to B/W, adjust the threshold, and set the number of colors to 2
7. the resulting image
8
. use the guess weave from the grid tool, crop the bounded image to the selection, magnify the results to visually check the repeat, and save the PNG if satisfied
9. the final 16X96 pattern design repeat, matching the Gimp result. The associated swatch  This Pinterest find is credited to Tatiana Demina, and is intended for use on Studio punchcard machine models.  Studio machines are capable of transferring and knitting in single carriage passes. Studying the image of the card, it can be seen that there are no blank rows anywhere, and punched holes on alternate rows indicate transfers alternating first to the left, and then to the right.
The swatch was knit using the same technique described  recently in the post Unconventional uses for punchcards 2: thread lace cards for “filet” mesh
The original 24X56 design was lengthened X2 to, shown here also doubled in width to 48X112   to match the direction of the transfers, the hint offered in the inspiration source can be followed down to indicate the first row of transfers need to be made to the right,    hence the knitting begins with the knit carriage on the left, the lace carriage on the right. As the LC moves to the left it preselects needles, and as it returns to the right it transfers them to the right.
The LC is removed from the knit bed.
The KC knits a single pass to the right and remains there.
The LC is returned to the knit bed on the left, preselects needles on its pass to the right, and transfers them to the left as it returns to that side, and is removed from the bed.
The KC knits one row to the left and stays there.
The LC is returned to the bed on the right and the process is repeated.
Preselection of needles is made by the LC toward the knit carriage, transfers are made away from it.
Whether the repeat needs to be mirrored again may depend on the machine model or the software used to download the file to it.
The direction of the first row of transfers provides the necessary clue, they need to be to the right. If to the left, mirror the pattern horizontally and begin again.
The swatch was knit in a wool-rayon blend, the results point to the difference in appearance and gauge with a change in color and type of yarn used when compared to the inspiration image The context for this can be found in To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp
the 60X74 png  and the proof of concept

Long stitch Passap and Brother DBJ design using thick and thin yarns

In browsing through old photos I came across one of this swatch knit on the Passap eons ago, in a slightly textured unknown fiber, and a thin white one on a small cone with lost fiber markings.  The find led me to attempt a similar knit using my 930.
The flower image # 1228 is usable as published in variations for single bed knitting on the Passap ie using Tech 179,  or on the Japanese knitting machines using the built-in KRC separation for 2-colors DBJ.
The double bed fair-isle techniques on the Passap use a default color separation where each color in each design row knits twice.
The console performs the separation, but to achieve the same result in Brother models, the manual color separation can be performed using Gimp without any other software.
A: the chosen file, 20X20B: scaled in length X2, to 20X40
C: color inverting every other row beginning with an all-white pixel row D:  scaling the file X2 in length to 20X80choosing a black row start planned in the background color by color inverting the png  E: taking into consideration that the planned DBJ settings will elongate the design, the 20X80 file is scaled in width X2 to 40X80   Knitting the swatch:
the thin white yarn simply refused to knit on the 930 without breaking. The problem can sometimes be solved by adding a second thread, which in this case, is a 3,000-yard monofilament serger thread, both are hard to see and slippery.
The way the yarn is picked up and carried varies with the knitting machine models’ color changers.
The yarn when using the Brother double bed color changer is picked up and swapped out in the ribber arm,  while in Passap models, the colors are threaded into individual feeding eyelets which are swapped out in any sequence needed in the front lock.  Some of the yarn-feeding issues in small or large cones can be solved by “putting a sock” on the cones, no matter their size. The manufacturer sometimes supplies the latter, but DIY versions can be segments of pantyhose, foam sleeves used to protect some of the exotic fruits in supermarkets, covers for flowers until they are used in arrangements, and at times simply a plastic bag.
My arrangement, with the threads on top of the machine table, and fed through the same side of the yarn mast.  The first preselection row is from right to left
The ribber is set to knit in both directions throughout
The first and last needles are in work on the ribber
Colors are changed every two rows
The backing will be striped, with each color knitting for 2 rows, referred to as striper backing in many pubs.
Pattern knitting begins COL, set the knit carriage to slip in both directions
The proof of concept: The matching technique using the settings for knitting (N) on the back lock and slip (LX) on the front lock, for striper backing is 183: knit on 30 stitches, but less than full repeat in height.
With some understanding of the pattern selection method for the front lock, different Technique numbers may be used for the same knit result simply by changing pusher arrangements and lock settings on either or even both beds.
This test was knit on 30 stitches and for 100 rows after changing the ground yarn, adjusting the tension, and programming Tech 180, but disregarding the pusher set up for the back bed, and setting the back lock to N The fabric is stable and reversible with interesting peek-through that reminded me of drop stitch lace.

Using punchcards (3) or electronics to track small cables in pattern

Previous shares on aids to tracking cable transfers
Using punchcards to track small cables in pattern 1
Using punchcards to track cables and twists in pattern 2
Visualizing knit cables in color 2_ using Numbers and Gimp
Hand knitting patterns are usually depicted with the knit side facing.
If crossings are intended to match them exactly when working on knitting machines, they are made on the purl side, and their direction needs to be mirrored.
The blue dots illustrate hand-knit symbols, and the pink dots the machine-knit companions I was recently contacted about the possibility of reproducing the swatch on the far right. The image on the left is an actual knit, first tested with cable crossings mirroring each other along vertical columns.
The inspiration swatch was likely knit on the bulky, twisted every 4 rows, mine on a 4.5 mm machine, twisted every 5 rows.
It is possible to crop, copy, and paste initial photos, as in the center image, to visualize how the process may be altered prior to spending time creating new charts or any actual knitting.  Building charts in a spreadsheet:
begin with creating and saving custom shapes, which can be made editable, and outlined if preferred (magenta) to further define the stitch brought forward, with the other moved behind it (blue).
Symbols used:
1. black cells/ knit stitches
2. white cells/ needles out of work, creating ladder spaces and non-selected needle areas where stitches are to be moved in the direction of superimposed arrows
3. red arrows/ stitches that are lifted off the needle bed, brought to the front on the purl side. The stitch on the adjacent black cell/selected needles is removed, travels behind it, and replaces it. The held stitch is then placed on the now-empty needle. Both stitches are brought out to hold/E position to knit properly on the next carriage pass.
The plan is to use the slip-stitch setting in both directions.
Since there are needles not in use, the end needle selection needs to be canceled.
Proper needle placement is required for patterning accuracy.
One option for achieving it is by air knitting the first row of the design, another is to program the width of the planned knit in electronic machines, establishing pairings, and using the single motif setting with no guesswork.
A chain cast-on can be performed, followed by dropping chains in ladder locations and taking those needles out of work to A position.
Even weight is useful if crossings are to begin after only 4 rows of knitting.
Each repeat is 8 stitches wide, punchcard users repeat it X3 in width, and in the charted height X3.  Proofs of concept: 30X20 electronic repeat for vertically mirrored transfers,   and the alternating twisted arrangement  The work on the machine    In the resulting swatches, patterning errors such as the marked one become difficult to repair after the fact as stitches grow in size and ladders nearly disappear   Both swatches measure less than 2.5 inches in width, another reason to explore the results on bulky models if they are to be used in garments.
If planned as panels combined with stocking stitch, careful planning is due to overall gauge differences and those in row counts when seaming and joining.