“Lace” patterning terms

This post was actually begun in 12/2020, but never published.
A list of blog posts on lace knits may be found by searching for specific topics, or using the lists of related links provided in the “start of an index”.

The term lace is often used in machine knitting publications referring to fabrics created with techniques other than the familiar hand or automated transfers.
In turn, the ribber may be added to working with many of the same patterns, adding varying degrees of complexity.
Some variations are possible only with specific machine brands or model year carriages, but at times may be rendered possible on alternate brands or models with adaptations, hacks, or the addition of other techniques.

This post for the moment is a quick reference guide of associated terms
Hand transfers  used to create eyelets, possibly in combination with stitches out of work,  and moving stitches singly or in groups
Simple lace:  executed with carriages that transfer and knit, seen in Studio brand
Multiple transfers/ fashion/ fancy/ lace: executed with lace carriages that transfer only, Japanese machine models
Fine lace: stitches are shared between needles rather than completely transferred, brand-specific changes need to be made to carriage settings
Lace and fine lace: may be created combined with either simple or multiple transfers lace, stitches are episodically shared between needles rather than completely transferred, brand-specific changes need to be made to carriage settings and will require changing to shift from one type to the other
Variations using L point cams: punchcard machines method for isolating and/or spacing lace motifs or columns
Tuck and lace: transfers combined with tuck stitch patterning
Woven lace: transfer lace combined with the weaving technique
Lace and fair isle: reference in Toyota punchcard pubs
“Lace like patterns”: possible in machines such as Brother and Passap, which allow for the same stitches tucking in one direction, slipping on the return of the knit carriage to its starting side. It matters which function leads in the pattern
Punch/ thread lace: thick and thin yarns used together in machines that have the option of a setting that allows for knitting both yarns together in unpunched areas or blank pixel rows, with traditionally, the thin yarn knitting in the front of the fabric, the thicker floating behind it
Tuck lace: tuck setting in both directions with specific needles out of work
Ladder Lace: worked with columns created by needles left out of work
Punch tuck rib: every needle rib combined with tucking pattern on the knit bed Drive/ drop stitch lace: stitches start on either of the 2 beds, loops are picked up and dropped on the opposite bed
Shadow lace: stitches are moved between beds in pattern to create knit stitches on purl ground or vice versa

Knit weaving 3

WORK IN PROGRESS 

The first single-bed machines to produce what is now referred to as knitweving were the Japanese model ones from the early to mid-1960s.
The Knitmaster 302 had a separate brush unit operated manually to guide the yarn above and below stitches.
On the Brother 585 and 588 models the weaving brushes were built-in and were pressed into place.
Early patterns used aran-weight yarns as weft on 12-stitch machines.
From 1971 onward as 24 stitch machines came on the market, the wider repeat allowed for the use of thinner yarns in the technique.
Later manuals including those for some electronic models describe this achingly slow method when using a single-color weaving yarn fed through the yarn mast
The advice shift is made for using an intarsia-like method when for more colors. The method is so much faster than when using the mast and knit carriage it makes little sense to use the former.
The technique begins with the carriage on your preferred side,  from the right or left, the yarn is generally laid in starting on the carriage side, with the long end to cone or ball away from it.
The wraps are needed in each direction: For work on the machine, swatches, punchcards, tools, and more information on types of weaves, ie laying in the yarn with vertical wrappings
see Knit Weaving 1.
The resulting knit often loses stretch and drape widthwise, a consideration when making garments. As an alternative, one may knit pieces with the intent of using them sideways.

Some ways to push limits, new swatches:
Knitweaving encompasses an extensive range of fabrics. At times the type of machine available places constraints on materials.
One way to use chunky and bulky yarns on standard machines when they do not work with the ground knit on every needle, an option is to use every other needle patterning.
A visual comparison of yarn thicknesses for beginning experiments Here a commercial twine is used, programming a 4X4 repeat,  and laying the weaving yarn over the preselected needles when the long end of the yarn is away from the knit carriage, thus adding extra all-knit rows between woven ones.  This yarn has been in my stash for decades unused, it is 92% wool, and 8% polyamide. It was e-wrapped in alternate directions on every row, with care to maintain the thrumbs below sinker plate levels during carriage passes.  An option for electronic models: open a PNG suitable for knit weaving, as this 24X24 one, double the PNG in width before downloading it, or use the double-wide button after the fact, cast on every other needle, and continue in the technique. Planning the repeat on the needle bed would render better edges than in my swatch, if there are multiple non-selected needles on either side, bring the last needle on that side out to E before laying the yarn for the next row of pattern.

 

A return to loopy knits
Machine knit fringes 4, long loop patterning 
Long loops: a bit on method
Knit weaving 2: swatches, experiments
Knit weaving 1
Tuck stitch meets knit-weaving
Lace meets weaving on Brother Machines 2 
Lace meets weaving on Brother Machines 

 

More separations for various knits using Gimp, color to alpha

WORK IN PROGRESS

a caution: 4/26 Gimp crashed repeatedly at the step when I tried to copy the brush from the clipboard to bucket fill any images with the pattern. The same reoccurred after an iMac restart and after a Gimp reinstall.
The problems appear to have been eliminated by uninstalling 2.10.36 and downloading and installing the previous, stable version 2.10.34.

Other posts have used the Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or Colors> Color to Alpha as part of other menu options, but in the last post and here the selection is the primary tool in developing transparencies.
This design was originally shared in the post: Gimp Update for Mac 3_more on color separations, where the goal had been to reproduce a published 12X18 chart. 

The PNG matching the chart on the right may be used in several ways. On electronic machines, it would be ready for knitting using both the color reverse and the double length buttons if planning to use tuck or slip settings with color changes every 2 rows.
Punch card machine users must punch the color-reversed file and set their models for double length,  but punching out the lengthened version 36 rows in length provides enough for the card to advance properly in the drum and makes correcting errors easier.
Revisiting the photograph of a swatch using the design using wire and chenille in half, and wool rayons in the other, I was bothered by the breaks at the midline of each repeat. Tiling the first design provides evidence of the area at issue, led to adding/subtracting a few pixels at a time, seeking slight changes, and ending with two final variations:  
Variation 1
Variation 2  The Gimp color to alpha process in RGB Mode for mosaic knitting: file 1 is opened. Several new files may be opened in sequence for altering, copying and pasting onto each other, with steps performed as a continuous process or with saving results and returning to them in separate steps    file 2: its color reverse
file 3: a 2-row brush with white color to alpha file 4: file 3 used to bucket fill 2 with pattern file 5: magenta color in 4 to alpha

file 6: file 5 copied and pasted onto file 1.
Change Mode to BW Indexed
file 7: file 6 color-reversed for knitting with the tuck or slip setting,   will need to be doubled in height for color changes every 2 rows using the double height button or use the file rendered double height to 18X36 pixels using Image> Scale in Gimp The proof of concept:  1: The StitchWorld #548, 24X40 pattern was also used in that post, it is suitable for punchcard machines as well  Using bucket fill with pattern makes the process faster than using the pencil tool to fill in color manually before converting colors to alpha in separating it.
While mosaics are processed in their original length, DBJ files are doubled in height.
2: the file is scaled to 24X80 3: and color reversed 4: a 2-row brush with white color to alpha 5: is copied to the clipboard and is used to bucket fill with pattern the color reversed image   6: the cyan is rendered transparent by using color to alpha again,  7: and 6 is copied and pasted on #2, the first 40X80 image,  8: and doubled in length to 40X160, it is exported as a BW PNG for knitting as DBJ. The results with both methods match.   Each color in each design row will be knit twice.
The method for emulating the separation that is built-in in Japanese electronic models, where each color knits once reducing elongation is a bit more fiddly to perform.
Charts from left to right:
1: the scaled 24X80
2: is color reversed
3: a new file, 1 row longer, 24X81 is opened, 2 is pasted onto it, leaving an all white pixel row at the top of the design
open a 24X4 row file, with two top white rows to alpha, use it as brush to bucket fill 3 with pattern
4: magenta color to alpha
5: crop that last blank row from the file, now 24X80 once more, copy and paste it onto 1.
The green grid is to differentiate this result from the one obtained in the other post, shown at its right
Change image mode to BW Indexed, export as png for knitting.
The proof of concept Returning to the repeat used to produce this punchcard the very low tech wayWorking in RGB Mode the repeat was lengthened X2, with colors exchanged to black and white, using color invert in RGB mode introduces a different palette confusing the process.
The design drawn in repeat for the 36 row minimum card length is processed repeating the steps used for the last design the final png
color inverted matches the punchcard separation

DBJ, more than 2 colors per row 4

Revisiting older posts often brings to mind new or slightly different ways of looking at and achieving the same tasks.
Links to some related previous posts:
DAK DBJ color separations, templates, and other software
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 2
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 1
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   img2track
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1

Color separations for knit designs in only 2 colors are more straightforward than those for 3-4 colors.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese models will yield results automatically where each color knits in each design row only once, reducing the elongation in the designs often seen when employing other techniques.
Japanese machine models for home use (not the semi-industrial ones) have a color changer that resides on the left, and aside from whether each color in each row knits once or twice, the combined carriages need to move to and from the color changer on the left for each color selection.
The color-changers for brands differ slightly and matter in cross-brand use if one relies on published separated designs and pictured swatches.
Yarn changers for:
Brother Studio Sometimes the placement of the colors within palettes will result in the colors not being read and downloaded properly.
As described in the Ayab post: when using each color, it is coded in a range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color A; 64-127 color B; 128-195 color C; 196-255 color D.
When only 2 colors are in use, in manual color separations, the ultimate goal is to produce BW-indexed PNGs. They are then downloaded and programmed as one would FI patterns, palette placement is not a concern.
Working in default or limited palettes produces familiar visual clues in DIY, to save custom palettes see ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3 
If the goal is to imagine the results in colorways based on yarns planned for use in the finished piece, that can be easily achieved after the fact.
This design has been used in past posts and is 6 stitches wide; hence, repeated X4 in width will also be suitable for punchcard machines. Looking at it again:
checking alignment when tiled
Stitches on needles not worked on the top bed are held while stitches in the other color(s) knit, and get longer. Some degree of alteration in the aspect ratio in the appearance of the design on the knit side in the final result is to be expected, also influenced by the addition of varied knitting techniques and carriage settings.  Methods I have explored in DIY repeat the same color sequence throughout even when any one of the colors is not represented in that design row: one way to decrease the visual lengthening of designs in dbj is to eliminate a row of knit stitches from each pair of passes by pushing Brother’s preselected needles back to the B position on the top bed before knitting from the right back to the left, thus skipping all needles in work on the top bed.
The HOP separation in Ayab performs this function automatically in addition to shuffling around repeat segments while keeping a fixed color rotation, making repeats that fail with other separation methods knittable.
In images where not all colors are represented on every row, there are more knit rows on the ribber than on the main bed, even with birdseye backing, another added cause of stitch elongation observable on the knit side.
When using birdseye backing, the ribber will knit every other stitch, alternating needles on each pass. An even number of needles is required. Patterning is akin to using a 1X1 card on the knit bed.
By the time the carriages have returned to the left only one row of knitting on every needle will be completed on the ribber.
The setting is not available in every model machine, including very early Brother ones.
When knitting in tuck or slip stitch, stitches grow in length until they are knit off again. This remains true when working in DBJ fabrics as well.
Yarn and tension choices can affect the final appearance.
There will be some degree of bleed-through behind the elongated stitches.
Blocking also influences the final appearance of the completed knit.
Exploring possibilities:
The initial 6X6 file is converted to stp and opened in DAK resulted in the following messages and pattern error corrections A second design was also tested in DAK and yielded the same error messages:  The 6X6 stp doubled in length to 6X12 cells allow for the option of selecting the type of dbj color separations, creating files that can, in turn, become PNGs for working outside the program, and for printing traceable templates for punchcards. That work is achieved through hacks since DAK does not allow direct import or export of file formats other than its proprietary ones ie stps or txt for use with Kniterate.    A closer look at the diagram of the color sequence options in each
The characteristics of the more commonly used methods in review:
Method A
works on pairs of rows, Method B creates the same separation as the default built-in KRC one in Japanese electronics with each color in each design row knitting only once, Method C separates each color row into separate rows of knitting, rows do not have to be repeated in pairs in DIY, and the double-length switch will need to be used in Japanese knitting machines It is possible to generate an output of the separation and to process it to generate files usable in img2track or for printing traceable punchcard templates.
The program does have an option to save a bmp but the save is of the separation on a grid with added data, not as a file immediately usable in other programs. Click on the floppy disk icon outlined in red to save as bmp as an alternative to screengrabs.   Using the same 6X12 file, the generated printable templates and associated converted PNGs:
A B  the repeat here is also for the original lengthened X2, and 36 pixels high with no segments repeated. The essential difference is that the first preselection row is made from left to right, with the pair of rows for color 1, design row 1 split between the top and bottom of the separation.  C

elongated X2=24X72, handy for other knit structures, but not for reducing elongation in DBJ Using img2track set at knitting in 3 colors, there is no error message, but the 6X6 file will not produce the planned design.
A proof of concept is provided in the post DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2. Starting with the double-length 6X12 file, each color in each design row will be knit twice:  and the machine will offer prompts for its pre-determined color change sequences.
Most recently, my separation experiments using Gimp use transparency methods and are are shared in the reverse order of their development 
#3
The briefest and last method: working in RGB mode, begin by multiplying the pattern in height X3, to 6X18 Isolating the red color on a white ground:  isolating the yellow on a transparent ground:  isolating the blue on a transparent ground: copying and pasting the isolated yellow and blue with transparent grounds in  turn onto the red design isolated on the white ground
changing all 3 colors to black
doubling the image in length to 6X36
remove every second row using the pencil tool or bucket fill it with the 6X2 pattern, and change the cyan to white. Any other color can be used instead of the magenta at that point
change Mode to BW indexed, and save the final file for knitting.   Comparing the results for the full repeat from other methods on the left, with the one using this method on the right

Returning to that 6X6 repeat that was prone to error in both DAK and img2track, with each color represented once in each row, exploring the possible separation to knit each color only once, and using a final 6X18 PNG led to patterning failure.
The Image menu progression of its process in Gimp: the number of thumbnails grows and one can travel through the images using simple clicks until any image is discarded or the program is quit, the X appears aside the file viewed in the work window.  Each color was isolated on a white background, with guides placed horizontally across every pair of pixel rows.  Pairs of rows of each color were copied and pasted in alternating sequences on an all-white file longer than 18 pixels rows and the results were trimmed to a 6X18 file for a knitting test.  Though the built-in KRC separation takes that first design row and moves it to the top of the repeat, thus knitting a single row with color 1 and completing it in a pair on the last row of the program, the first knitting test began with preselection from the right, and color 1 knitting for 2 rows.  A second try at an 18-row repeat, also a design fail, with odd breaks in the lili action on the ribber, seen in Passaps when pusher selections on the back bed are disrupted.  When the motif was doubled in length, and the same method was used, the results matched the 24X36 file.
The 6X6 design, however, expanded and separated to a 6X18 file may be used in machines with color changers on each side, with a different color sequence, see DAK Method E notes toward bottom of post.
#2 Working with the 6X6 design lengthened X6 to 6X36

with every other row rendered in all white cells The proof of concept swatch

DAK
owners see the 36-row file and similar knit sample for the Half Milano separation F toward the bottom of the post.
In my #1, first separation draft, the 6X10 file is elongated X6, to 6X60, considering that each color in each design row will be carried for two passes.  The latest Gimp version for Mac is 2.10.36
Sometimes there are differences in commands in the Windows version.
Begin the work in RGB Mode.
The color-to-alpha command in Gimp makes all pixels in a selected color transparent.
The option can be activated through the Layers Menu by choosing Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or the filter via Colors> Color to Alpha from the pull-down menus at the top of the work window.
No threshold or blending adjustments are needed in the small 8-bit files used in designing knits.
Some previous repeats using  colors to alpha in 2-color separations can be found in the posts
Color separations for larger scale mosaics and mazes 
and on Using Layers in Gimp for Color separations
Magnify the image to a comfortable viewing size, ie 800% or more.
When the color to alpha dialog window opens, there will be a small preview of the image you are working on on the upper right that relates to how many images are available for processing in the work window at the time.  When the color white is in the mix using the 8-bit files, the preset color selection for transparency in the color bar is white.
To change the color selection, click on the white color, the palette window will appear, select the new color, and click OK.

To Bucket Fill with pattern: create a custom brush size, matching the starting design width in pixels. The number of rows varies with intent. White is used as one of the colors, and the second color can be any other.
Click on the rectangle tool and then on the pattern thumbnail, an icon for it will appear on the upper right of the work window. The brush will be copied to the clipboard and will be available to use to pattern fill until the program is quit. It can also be saved for future use as explained in other posts.  To fill specific groups of pixels with FG or BG colors, click on the select by color tool,  and then on the color you wish to change, use bucket fill, selecting foreground or background color.
The fuzzy select/magic wand tool mentioned in previous posts is designed to select areas of the current layer or image based on color similarity. It appears to the left of the select-by-color tool. It can be used when pixels in that color need to be changed in contained single areas rather than throughout the whole image.
If using the bucket fill with foreground or background color alternating with fill with pattern, remember to switch between the two as needed.
If an error is made, use Image> Edit> Undo to move back to any previous steps.
If at any point the image in the work window is surrounded by dotted lines, click on the rectangle tool and then again in the work window to essentially fix the layer.
The Image menu provides access to nearly any operation you can perform on an image.   Clicking on any one of those images will produce a dotted outline around it making it identifiable and usable in work such as for copy and paste followed by bucket fill with pattern,   or for navigating between series of open files.
#1  the longhand first practice run began with the 6X10 file multiplied in height X6 to 6X60. Good practice for sorting out a technique, but guessing the aspect ratio in the final knit would be bothersome.  1. has the first 2 of the 6 design rows rendered transparent, so when used to fill the original, only rows planned for color 1 are left exposed
2. will leave design rows 3 and 4 exposed for color 2
3. will leave design rows 5 and 6 exposed for color 3
Repeat these steps on the original design 3 times, and save each completed step until comfortable with working on several files open at once.
A. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for the color red
B. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for yellow, if the color seems too hard to identify, change it to another
C. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for blue. The red and white in the last step in A are left undisturbed, while the white background in the last steps in both B and C is rendered transparent, as seen in 2 and 3. Both 2 and 3 are copied and pasted onto A, rendering the final tricolor image, 4.
Using select by color and bucket fill, the three colors are replaced with black, 5.
A last brush bucket fill, 6, leaves only the first row of black cells exposed, changing the cyan to white and converting the final result to BW-indexed mode, 7, is saved for knitting with each color in each row knitting only once.  When all 3 colors are not represented on every row,
The 11X10 image was used in previous posts,   tiled,   the tiled elongation:  The separation uses method#3:  the process with the image lengthed X3 to 11X30 representing each color in each design row once:  working with Gimp transparency, isolate the red, retain the white ground isolate the green, render it on a transparent ground isolate the blue, render it on a transparent ground,  copy and paste the green and blue rendered on transparent grounds onto the red on the white ground initial image, obtaining a 3 color separation.
Replace colors with black. For knitting each color in each design row for 2 passes double the file in height to 11X60 pixels. To knit each color only once in an attempt to further reduce changes in aspect ratio, erase every second row. Images for knitting are saved in BW-indexed mode.  The DAK template (set for 950i) and img2track screen image compared to my result:  the 11X60 PNG, all pixels, 
and with black pixels on every second row changed to white The proof of concept swatch: the vertical lines between pairs of stitches result from the drag on the ribber stitches to the right and then the left as the birdseye pattern is formed, they are frequently also seen in ladderback dbj.
The yarns used are not of equal thickness.
Balanced yarn weight and tighter tensions would diminish both those lines and any bleed-through behind the stitches on the knit side.
The dropped stitches on the purl side indicate the need for troubleshooting the condition of ribber needles and their latches.Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once used the same 11X10 repeat, explored the results using HOP, pushing needles back to B manually EOR, and a color separation with the same 11X60 final file. 
An additional way to decrease changes in the aspect ratio of the original design
relies on eliminating as many passes as possible, by eliminating design rows with “no color” out of the color change rotations.
The color changes in continuing identical sequences vs skipping any one of the colors from the rotation when not in use:  The 11X60 repeat is now to 11X48  its companion with every other second row of black cells erased.  Both create the need to track what color to use and when. If the machine or software cannot provide prompts and reminders, a spreadsheet is easy and quick to create, listing colors and corresponding row counts:  Tracking those shifting color changes is more than my bandwidth and patience allow.

As I was working on this post, a friend asked about the separations for 3 color designs in the StitchWorld Pattern Book #3.
I randomly chose # 484, with the swatch pictured on p 57 and the design separation repeat found on pp 96-98. The shortest segment can be quickly converted to a knittable 140X50 PNG. Other factors to be considered and examined:
the color-changing sequences are provided on each side.
Each design row appears different from the row below it, raising the question as to whether each color is knitted only once.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese electronic machines automates that option when only 2 colors are used.
Passap E6000 users have a programmable reader technique that accomplishes the same for 3 and 4 colors.  This SW III segment is for rows 521-570, p98, with two more full pages in the pub beginning on p 96 with rows 1-260, and p 97 with rows 261-520.
Gimp Guides were placed on a screengrab of the file and it appeared each number was associated with 2 design rows.  The color numbers are not in fixed sequences and differ on each side, as seen in this magnified view.  Found when browsing through the SW III pub for added clues: the fair isle section symbols are suggestive of the CK35 Brother semi-industrial machine, produced in small numbers decades ago. The CK 35 has a color changer on each side.  From the manual regarding their use:  If the files are intended for the CK 35, additional information is needed for emulating or adapting them for use on home knitting models, not always possible.
The same is often true when traveling between machine brands manufactured in different countries.
DAK owners can use Method E jacquard separation for machines with a color changer on each side, like the Brother CK 35. According to the manual, the process works on pairs of rows and separates each row into a pass with each color.  A sample separation with no error messages when the 6X6 file is opened.   Untested DIY for the same separation:
The 6X18 repeat opened in Gimp, using a single-pixel pencil to fill in all except the color for that row with white.  Using the custom brushes and bucket-fill with the pattern, begin with isolating the red color, retaining the white background,  repeat to leave the isolated green exposed, and convert the magenta color from the brush to alpha repeat with the isolated blue,   in two steps, copy and paste the green and white on alpha and the blue and white on alpha on the red-on-white ground image, the tricolor final result, which matches the result from the pencil color replacements, is then rendered in BW for knitting. The last DAK Method F is referred to as suitable for Half Milano. It is directly translatable for use in the Japanese models.  The corresponding separations for both the 6X6 and its elongated sibling, 6X12 The 36-row repeat was quite different from mine, but a knitting test resulted in a matching result while trying out the 11X10 design in DAK resulted in obvious patterning fails, likely because the repeat is not an even number of pixels in width.
A repeated knit test of my 11X60 repeat, the arrow points to operator error when I failed to notice the color changer was carrying 2 colors at once. It is possible to superimpose final repeats on each other to look for errors and differences. The DBJ separation in DAK was 60 rows high as well, but it appears to be inaccurate, pointing to possible unidentified errors when working with a stp that is an uneven number of pixels in width.

A return to loopy knits

Fringes, loops, and pile/carpet knits are populating Fall knitwear runways.
Pile knitting is best executed on Studio knitting machines. Love the knit structure? find a Studio KM to borrow for the project.
Fringes are essentially long loops, and share principles with knitweaving.
Previous posts
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 4
Pile_carpet stitch knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 3
 
Pile knitting on Passap and Brother KMs 2
 
Pile knitting on Passap, Brother, and Studio KMs 1
With Studio KMs outside the range of possible use, there are loop techniques that can be executed manually on any gauge machine
The first sample is knit on a 4.5 mm 930.
A downloadable punchcard volume for Studio aka Silver Reed machines offers punchcards for the double bed technique referred to as punch pile In analyzing the repeats, the black cell rows represent loops picked up on the main bed, the blank rows the carriage passes knitting every stitch on the ribber alone holding the loops down.
Applying permanent loops to the surface of a knit using Brother knitting machines falls into the knit weaving family.
The knitter can choose color placement and changes, as one might in intarsia.
Previous related posts:
Machine knit fringes 4, long loop patterning , my first use of straws, bulky loop yarn, the main bed programmed repeat:  Long loops: a bit on method includes instructions on the use of single bed cast on comb, rulers, ribber gate pegs.
As usual, my swatches begin with random yarn choices from my stash, using colors that will help identify proper stitch formation, and just as a random return to designs intended for other fabrics in previous shares.
Developing a repeat: since the loops are created by hand, the goal is to work with larger loops than those in automated punch pile designs.
In the past, I was drawn to and explored truchet tilings
Truchet tiling design inspiration 1
Truchet/Smith inspired designs 2 meet ArahPaint
More Truchet inspired tiles, a brief look at gradient filter use included this 3-color knit sample resulting from an img2track color-separated DBJ repeat Aiming to form large loops and a larger scale motif with more than one knit row between rows of them, the original 24X48 repeat,  evolved into a very different 48X48 repeat.   The full design in gridded view: The process used to attain it: the original repeat was scaled x3 in height, and then again in width X2 for visual balance  Working in RGB mode the 48X144 image was opened in Gimp, and a new image file in the same size was added with a white ground, and then a third 48X3 image with rows 2 and 3 colored in red. The latter saved to the clipboard, may be used to bucket-fill the all-white second image.
The white is rendered clear using layer, transparency, and color to alpha.
The result is copied and pasted on the original.
The red is selected by color, filled with white, and fixed by clicking on the rectangle tool.
The mode is changed to BW indexed, and the image is saved for knitting. I grabbed yarns for color visibility and thickness, not fiber content, and in the resulting knit the loops flattened permanently in the red acrylic and the blue acrylic blend. The technique might be better served using a 3/8 wool for the loops.
The work in progress:  The full repeat in the final swatch measures 6X11.5 inches The same repeat was used again, and the red acrylic yarn was switched to the background for a result that would steam flatter permanently, while the loops were formed with triple yarn strands.
It took testing adjustments in tension and loop length, noticeable at the bottom of the swatch images, to achieve consistent coverage and a new tool to form them.   When searching through published sources and adapting them, results can be random or outright failures. Pondering patterning on every other needle, with end needle selection off, this design from:   for 12 stitch punchcard models came to mind, including this chunky machine design The what if repeat, expanding it to a 22 stitch version with every other column blank and checking for proper tiling was not useful as a knit woven pattern, but when used to form loops on preselected needles and graduating the height of the loops the result proved interesting.
Rulers of different widths and thicknesses were used as tools used to form the loops including but not shown, the metric ruler supplied with Brother knit leaders. Diagonal designs, in particular, can be hard to force into 12 or 24-stitch conventions. With further editing, the published repeat is adjusted to larger 23X18 pixel dimensions, appears to align correctly, and will be returned to in a post containing more knitwoven samples.   This test begins with caution, then produces a dense pile testing the limits on yarn thickness using the repeat:   Pony beads were threaded on a double strand of cotton from an unmarked cone, and loops were formed with beads advanced and placed between and below preselected needles.
Spacing was tested before committing to the final choice, the same repeat as in the above swatch.
The bead-carrying yarn was pulled to tighten it across the previous woven row just before laying it in place for the next patterned row.
Bead addition was also tested between chains in bind-off.

Mac experiments on printing needle tapes and punchcard templates to scale and other tips

Periodically the question of printing blank templates for DIY drawings or images from published sources to scale to produce traceable images used to mark cards for punching is asked in forums and very recently in Ravelry.
I primarily use Apple and open-source free software in my work.
Creating knit graph paper on Mac, using Excel and Numbers began with Working in Excel 2008 and Mac Numbers 3.2.
The topic was revisited by me here.
A far more recent variety of printable tapes for multiple gauge knitting machines is offered by Claudia Scarpa in her 2022  blog post.
With some exploration, trial, effort, and good note keeping goals can often be achieved with tools on hand.
The concepts for retaining aspect ratio can be applied to other platforms, programs, and printers.
Suggestions exclude using banner paper or legal size sheets.
The assumption is made that only 8.5 X 11 inches stock is available for use.
Acrobat Reader free downloads provide limited functions.
Factory punchcards are marked in what appears visually to be a square grid.
Using a ruler measuring in mm, the blank 24X60 punching content measures 108 mm in width and 300 mm in length.
The 300 mm content length will be adjusted depending on the height of the design repeat and whether the 4 rows of all-punched squares need to be considered in the printout.
The individual squares on the factory blanks measure 4.5 mm in width and 5 mm in height.
Cards can be joined together with snaps for longer repeats, and the additional pieces ought to be a minimum of 20 rows in height for the card to feed smoothly and accurately. Some added taping will further ensure it continues to do so if the card will be used often or in very long projects.
Two editable spreadsheets to download:
Traceable punchcard templates for DIY designs 
1. Numbers 13, the greyed-out rows represent the first two all-squares-punched rows
Depending on the program used to process the file, there may be some juggling between the use of cm and mm values, a matter of a decimal point.
The shared table without numbers measures 10.8X22 cm.
The shared numbered table includes an extra column border marked needed to match the full blank card width markings, 14.2 cm in width, and the same length as the first table, 22cm.
2. A test PDF for a template including row numbers: punchcard-blank 35.
To print to scale using Acrobat Reader, select Matching results for both templates with a superimposed factory card segment.  Custom needle tapes
Working in cm, considering that needles are 4.5 mm, 0.45cm apart, eliminates the need for conversion to points, the format used when planning to use the resulting charts for conversion to pixels per stitch PNGs.
Both Gimp and Numbers alter some of the values by default very slightly, as seen here in Numbers for 1-10 cm needle spacings for designing blocks for needle tapes.   To maximize the available printing space, under print, setup, change all margin values from any preset default, seen on the left, to 0.54 Although the print setup shows page numbers in cm, the page orientation measures are given in mm  The 2.26 mm, 5 stitch cell unit tape in place on the machine  To change rulers in Numbers 13.2 to the Centimeter setting, and thus avoid the need for any conversions of the values to points, from the Numbers Menu at the top of the screen Choose Numbers >Settings, click and scroll on Ruler Units from the pop-up menu, then choose an increment, in this case, centimeters.
When returning to drafting for pixel charts, repeat the process for changing rulers back to points.  The math in calculating table cell size is simple.
This export is a revised copy for use in Numbers 09 using cm rulers: needle-tapes-only.
If working in a later OS, this prompt may appear  The matching document created in Numbers 13.2:
needle tapes only_numbers 2
Tapes printed in single blank units may be colored in or scribbled on easily, depending on end use The same concept could be used to generate printed blank graph paper for intarsia and/or to obtain a sense of changes in aspect ratio resulting from knit stitches forming a rectangular grid while designing using pixels per stitch is commonly on a square one.
The mm ruler settings allow entering the values from the swatch gauge measured in mm and calculated to include decimal points.
The chart grid on the left is shown in 6/4 proportion, a common width-to-height knit stitch ratio, while on the right it is in equal units.  The elongation in most knitting is often reduced by the choice of technique or if working in DBJ, by choosing ribber settings such as slip stitch with lili buttons.
Online published repeats converted to traceable printouts for punching cards 
It is possible to produce print-to-size copies of punchcards to trace in a variety of ways.
One alternative is to use Mac Numbers to ready the image for doing so.
Two jacquard tests began with images from a source for massive punchcard repeat collections regularly mentioned in forums (translated to English link ), and at times in my previous posts.
The first is for a border design, #4245 shown here with the holes made larger.  The second design is a far longer one, number 4937 In the help menu on the right, select the first option, make the holes larger 
Save the image or simply drag and drop it into a new sheet in an existing Numbers document or create a new blank doc removing the default table.
Click on the image, and in the top menu right, choose image arrange.  With Constrain Proportions left checked, change the image width to 14.2 cm punchcard full standard width. The height will be adjusted automatically.
The first printout test. Some of the dots were also marked with a pen, not necessary if tracing over a light source.  Numbers will split far longer images into segments/sheets, in this case, 3.
The top of the image is displayed on the first sheet, moving down rows to the start of the design in the following “sheets”.
Page margins are all set at .54 cm. Adjusting header and footer values changes and shifts the position of the segments to obtain full dots on each printout.
Scale contents to 100%, choose to print all sheets or any single one.  The printout is shown with a card laid over it, placed over a lightbox of sorts.  If a spreadsheet is not your preference, the same can be achieved with published cards using Gimp and Mac Preview. Printing from Gimp, even if the display is set to 100% appears not to appear to offer an option for dividing the file in scale automatically on more than one page.
A recent Ravelry query asked about printing individual cards from downloaded PDF sets for Brother machines, including this card for Brother Lace 18, from the set S  Open the full downloaded document, display the thumbnails by selecting the view button in the toolbar, and pick Thumbnails.
Select the thumbnail to print, it will be highlighted, and drag and drop the thumbnail for the punchcard to the desktop, it will be in PDF format as well.
Click on the chosen file, select open with Gimp, and an import PDF window will appear, as seen for this Fair Isle Design Because transfer lace cards have so few holes to punch and the placement is critical, the lace card 18s was chosen for testing.
Select Import and an image composed of 2550X3300 pixels will open, surrounded by white space.
Using Crop to Content will reduce it to 1485X3052.
Scale it by choosing mm values, and type in the 142 mm card desired width, reduced automatically to 141.99 mm. The value for the full, scaled image will still be displayed in pixels at the top of the work window, now 1677X3447 pixels.
Since the repeat is longer than 40 rows, it can be divided into two segments using the mm value. These are the cm and pixel values for my cropped top segment, exported as a PNG. The saved PNG was opened in Preview and with the option for scaling to 100% produced a good traceable result despite the printer needing a new ink cartridge.  Letting Preview split the image into large enough segments can be achieved by altering page margins.   The bottom of the above split printed is good enough considering the starting image was a tad rotated to the left and incomplete. A fail, a screengrab from the PDF full page, working with a PNG and printing from Gimp: the grab, 910X1522, cropped to content 694X1526, scaled to the same mm values,     yields an image with a very different pixel count from the PDF converted values,  and cropped to a segment 694X642 pixels and printed from Gimp was not to scale,  In the downloadable PDF for that fair isle design #4 from the R series, the punchcard is presented in the two segments required to meet the full punched height for knitting.
The bottom segment opened and scaled in Gimp first as a PDF Import and then as a screengrab PNG, resulted in the same failure in maintaining equal pixel aspect values with scaling for printing as seen with 18S The process was followed on the tulip file PNG: a segment was cropped from the bottom of the saved “larger hole” image, scaled to cm value, and printed in proper aspect ratio,   What of images from Brother Punchcard Volume 5, especially for those lace cards with so few dots?
Choose an image, open it in Gimp, crop it to the edges of the punchcard design
scale the image by multiplying both the number of stitches and the number of rows by 5 The result printing from Preview (and more ink)Dak is a Windows-only program. There are multiple volumes of stp files usable only in DAK, downloadable for free, including those for Brother Punchcard Volume 5.
The stp format is only read by the program, and stitch designs cannot be exported in other formats ie. PNGs.
Other posts have suggested hacks for converting screengrabs from DAK to PNGs for use in electronic machines.
I use InSync to move files between my Mac and PC and download to the 930 from there, using img2track.
There are many related ways to achieve the same task using only the PC.
If the goal is to use punchcard templates generated in DAK for traceable printouts to mark cards for punching, both Mac Preview and Numbers may once again be used.
The fixed full width for 24 stitches on a blank card is 108 mm.
Dak loads the files from the punchcard book in the smallest repeat for correct tiling when available, so lace #771 stp opens as a 12X34 stitch repeat.
A screengrab segment of the DAK window.  With the repeat isolated and cropped in Gimp, the entered values of 54X170 were adjusted to these by the program, the PNG was saved.  If Numbers is used for printing, under Image/Arrange, adjust the image size Or if opened in Preview, set the print scale to 100% The results for both matched Analyzing the repeat, note the blank first row, not usually seen in a Brother transfer lace design.
Checking the Volume 5 source after the fact identifies the repeat as intended for lace combined with knit weaving, a different knit structure.
DBJ color separations other than the KRC built-in function in Japanese electronic machines require other software or manual color separations.
DAK performs a variety of separations easily and quickly.
In Volume 5, pattern #53 is shown as punched for fair on the left, and separated for DBJ on the right.  If the # stp is opened in DAK as the 2-color jacquard design.
To knit a traceable punchcard template for the DBJ, the print option generates usable images.
This screen grab of the DAK window shows the jacquard design in the background.
The Page Dimensions window icon outlined in red when selected offers 3 ways to mark the black cells including as dots.
Choosing other (mm) and entering 600 for both values will produce results in a size that allows their being grabbed and saved in full.
The program will conveniently split the design into pages if needed.
The center image shows the generated template for the specific stp, the right one, the image opened in Gimp on the Mac with the content cropped to the dotted chart,  and scaled,  saved, and, in this case, printed using Preview. The punchcard is superimposed beginning with #1 only for an added visual check, punching always begins immediately above the first two all-punched rows

Inspiration for varied stitches from a single chart

Nearly 9 years ago, I began exploring scale designs. At the time, my charts were generated using Excel and a program called Intwined Pattern Studio, which soon became inoperative  armani hkThe above repeat, visualized tiled.    At present, using custom-printed needle tapes has proven useful in tracking actions required in hand-manipulated stitches.
The attached PDFs have been printed in the proper aspect ratio with the following changes from default settings using Mac Preview,  and Acrobat Reader 7 needles
single 4.5
Whether the knit tests are worth pursuing in large pieces with or without modifications is subject to end-use and personal preferences.
To begin with, stitches were transferred, the empty needles were pushed back to the A position, Out Of Work, and returned to the work, B position, for reversing or shifting the shapes.
Forming ladders: the chevron shapes are created by single stitch transfers, and bringing needles in and out of work.
A starting chart:  Keeping the same palette as in previous charts, yellow cells represent needle positions where stitches are not disturbed, and the white cells where needles are taken OOW. The up-arrow needles mobed to A/OOW, and the down-arrow needles returned to B.
The work in progress:
1: to reduce the line length formed by the single stitches, the point at which needles are returned to work can be varied
2: in this instance, as 5 empty needles side by side are reached, bring needles into work for the next shape on each side of the single stitch decreasing the number of empty needles to four. As the knit carriage returns to the opposite side, loops are formed on each of the needles returned to work
3: continue to bring an empty needle into work aside each pre-existing loop
4: after the last 2 empty needles are returned to work and are followed by a knit row the last two loops are formed
5: knit one last row across all the needles, and begin transfers for the alternate shape.  This yarn is a 2/8 wool, which worked nicely for holding ladder edge stitches in the leaf swatches but yielded a stiff knit in this case, and the elongated single stitches fold over at the top, creating extra nubs on the surface of the knit.  Continuing designs with similarly shaped outlines but leaving the emptied needles in work, B position, produces different shapes. All needles remain in B throughout.
The yellow columns in the chart indicate the locations on the needle bed where stitches are never moved.
Visualizing the tiled repeat and the direction of the transfers: the initial experiment is also a 12-row repeat. The magenta cells indicate spots where extra all-knit rows may be added in DIY.
The work in progress:
A 7-prong tool is handy in making the 5 and 4-stitch transfers.
After each transfer, loops will form on the empty needles with the next carriage pass
3: the loop becomes part of the subsequent transfer, and the newly emptied needle remains in work
The first swatch began with a 12-row repeat and an all-knit row before transfers began for the alternate shape.  Visualized in larger BW tiling The transfers are made away from the circles in the chart using multiple transfer tools.
After each transfer, the empty needles are left in B or pushed out to E.
As the knit carriage moves to the opposite side, loops are formed on the empty needles.
Each loop becomes part of the next transfer.
Setting up the first design row using a 7-prong tool with 5 prongs selected:  the numbers in the lower image indicate the number of stitches on each of those needles as the setup row is completed.  The second group moves 4 stitches at a time. Loops are treated as stitches.
After the transfers, there will be groups of 2 stitches adjacent to those holding 3 in the previous row.
The outline in the lower image points to one pair of transfers in the process of being completed.
1: When this configuration is reached, knit one more row to the opposite side,
2: begin transfers away from the midpoint between the shapes to form the brick repeat. The result forms a bump once more due to the length of the single knit stitch columns. The above yarn is a 2/8 wool, the swatch was quite stiff. A second swatch was knit using a softer, thinner, alpaca-silk blend.
The relaxed knit after removal from the machine was very textured and narrow,   this result followed some light pressing and steaming.
Traditional wet blocking would be required to maintain the shapes in a final piece. Eliminating the all-knit row to reduce the extra lengths of those single-stitch columns did not produce what to my eye was an improved knit.
In a last what-if test, the chart was turned 180 degrees, with transfers beginning with a single stitch, and ending with moving five.  The results, knit in 2/15 wool and lightly steamed and pressed, appeared more successful to my eye.  relaxed overnight, the surface is a bit more 3D Using a similar technique for multiple transfer lace designs:  a 14-row repeat, magenta cells mark all knit rows, and all transfers are made toward stitches aside every 7 stitches except for on rows 6 and 13, circles in the chart now indicate eyelets, transfers are made every row.  1: the setup row.
Empty needles are left in work, B.  Cyan dots mark needles holding 2 stitches after the beginning transfers
2: the next knit carriage pass forms loops on the empty needles
3: with the next transfer, an empty needle results adjacent to each loop, the start of the next eyelet On Row 6 the last transfer results in 3 stitches on the normally undisturbed vertical stitch columns, 6A as the next carriage pass is made, 6B, loops are formed on the empty needles. A second row is knit on every needle, 7, and transfers begin to be reversed for the top half of the shape, 8.  The result shares some similarities with another hand technique .

Cables meet fair isle

This sweater by Namesake, in the Fall 2024 collection, led to a FB query as to how to produce a cable version inspired by its color movement on home knitting machines. The discussion leads back to how to produce cables in 2 colors on home knitting machines best and accurately.
One way to achieve color movement is to begin with using and modifying vertical lines.
Due to the fixed width between machine needles, it is best to use a fiber with a bit of stretch such as wool, and often 2X2 crossings appear to be the limit for designs containing them in frequent, all-over patterns.
When working in single colors there are ways to obtain extra slack to make the crossings easier, but using the FI settings makes the knit tighter as in any slip stitch, limiting the use of such measures. In addition, returning the needles to the proper preselection position in pattern after the transfers needs to be performed manually.
A starting best-guess rule is to knit a minimum number of rows between crossings matching the number of stitches moved ie. for a 3X5 cable, knit at least 8 rows before repeating.
Tracking transfers can be achieved in several ways. The needle bed or tape can be marked with water-soluble ink, custom paper needle tapes may be printed to size, or paper strips simply marked and slid under needles in work.
In machines such as Brother, where needles are preselected, that fact can be used to advantage in establishing guides for the cable locations within the programmed design.
This swatch can be knit using a 1X1 locked needle selection.
While hand knitters have the advantage of seeing the color movement clearly on the knit side, machine knitters can find it harder to follow their locations with only the purl side facing them.  The vertical stripes can be interrupted at intervals by additional patterns or shifting cable locations.
My charts begin in a spreadsheet, Mac Numbers. The first trial effort:  To begin with, the goal was to avoid the 2 by 3-pixel blocks that occur with tiling, which upon later consideration, might aid in avoiding placing cables in the wrong columns,   resulting in a 20X18 design. Black pixels represent the dark color, or simply the color in the B feeder.   The alternate repeat to yield those double-width blocks, 21X18 When matching hand-knit designs such as in complex arans, the direction of the crossings matters and may need to be reversed throughout. In these instances, it is enough to be consistent, and their direction can be a personal choice. I prefer cabling right over left.  In the first test, using the 20-stitch repeat, I marked up a paper strip placed under needles in work and followed markings for Row Counts and needle GrouP shared in the table on the right.   The result begs the question of how to avoid cables in the wrong columns and the possibility of repeating them more frequently than every six rows.  Occasional stitches in the wrong color may be duplicate-stitched to mask them, but small cables in the wrong place or the wrong direction are problematic.   This repeat is 20X12 pixels, and it includes areas missing needle selection that will serve as visual cues on the needle bed for where stitches need to be crossed, now every 4 rows. Using the repeat on the 930 required mirroring horizontally to achieve the desired direction  Returning to the inspiration sweater, imagining a possible repeat keeping in mind cable crossings no wider than 2X2, The knit tests were knit using 2/13 wools at T10+.
It proved impossible to use a tighter tension or to across more than 24 stitches along any single row without stitches dropping from becoming too small or the yarn breaking. The solution was to place the cabled details in a center panel. Using similar panels between undisturbed plain or patterned columns could become planned design features.
The full swatch repeat, 40X20 pixels, reversed on the 930. The end needle selection is canceled, and cable crossings are all made in the same direction. The left pair moves under the right pair to the right, and the right pair moves to the front and behind them onto the two empty needles every 10 rows, immediately after the change in needle preselection and before the following knit carriage passes.
A printed needle tape can help track their locations.  It is placed on the proper preselected needles, bring those needles out to the E position, check that transfers have been made properly, and knit the next 10 rows, repeating the process.  Maintaining diagonal details requires planning a repeat that works as an all over design, then choosing a panel to add to cable details. One such repeat, 12X12 the smallest repeat, 6X6,  could be used for bucket filling parts of designs with pattern in Gimp
tiled alignment test:maintaining diagonals with cable crossing blocks,   The proof of concept after testing yarn tolerance for crossings, using the 24 stitch repeat suitable for punchcard model machines as well:  Fails are easily predicted in a paint or image processing program when rows are added keeping the repeat at 24 wide, the diagonal is not changed, but the spacing between cables is increased  ie by 2 more rows: Making it work: 24X48 rows
More on developing DIY cable charts:
Visualizing knit cables 3_ using Numbers and Gimp 
Visualizing knit cables in color 2_ using Numbers and Gimp , includes cumulative links
ArahPaint is often a part of the process now as well

Revisiting lace leaf design repeats 2

I am constantly drawn into multiple knitting rabbit holes.  Along with my revisiting 3D surfaces, more leaves are still in my line of sight for further exploration.
Here they are surrounded by a traveling mesh ground: a 12X52 repeat, marked for punchcard use:

the associated PNG The test swatch knit on 38 stitches:  This design was shared as an stp file for use with DAK by Claudia Scarpa.
Her blog post includes downloadable files with clear markings for knit row locations, a punchcard version, a schematic for working it as a possible hand technique, and more.
DAK does not allow for exports in other file formats ie PNG.
Charts for the designs can be screengrabbed and processed with other programs ie Gimp and ArahPaint to make them usable in other ways including download options.
This electronic repeat is 20X136 pixels.
Horizontal mirroring was not required when using it in my 930.   Knit on 40 stitches, using the same wool-rayon yarn as in the first sample, there is a considerable change in the size of the resulting leaf shapes  This is my chart for Claudia’s punchcard version, marked in 6X6 squares blocks as found in Brother factory punchcards,   the result is a longer repeat resulting in larger leaf shapes, 24X228 pixels And then there is the world of leaves formed with hand techniques and surrounded by ladder spaces.
This was published in an early Silver Reed/ Studio pub eons ago and got filed in my “someday” image folder.  Visualizing repeats and necessary actions in spreadsheets before any actual knitting is useful.
With practice, we develop a personal library of choices regarding symbols and any additional information.
This was my initial draft taking into consideration:
the direction of the transfers
the location of single-stitch columns that are left undisturbed throughout
the needles on which stitches are doubled after transfers
where stitches are decreased, every 2 rows, marked with orange cells in the second column from the left
where stitches are brought back into work on every row, marked with green cells and arrows that point up in the first column on the left
Printing custom needle tapes is an alternative to marking the needle beds or needle tapes to offer guides that help avoid errors or lots of needle counting in many hand techniques.
Mac Numbers version at present: 13.2. Its rulers can be set to centimeters for easy calculation of needle space cells with Japanese machine needles set 4.5 mm apart.
This PDF printed to the correct size for me when set to 100% landscape: 7 needles
4.5X7=31.5 mm: to convert the mm to cm in DIY move the decimal point one number to the left. Row height can vary with the limit being about 2 cm. The specs from the shared file:  The work in progress on the machine as transfers are being made and the empty needles are taken out of work back to the A position.  The end of transfers approach and needles are returned to work before each carriage pass, forming loops on them.  The test swatch, knit in 2/8 wool at tension 9, the color chosen randomly for weight and easy visibility The pattern is evocative of another Studio transfer lace #112, 12X104 a smaller design without the missing stitches and empty spaces.  Following some research, the chart for Studio punch card 123: The electronic equivalent, 14X92 cells The file adjusted for knitting on Brother is now reduced to 14X88 cells, and the cyan is marking areas where the knit carriage makes 4 passes rather than the usual 2 The result is a 14-stitch leaf in traditional transfer lace.  And then, the general shape begins to “appear” in other, older post swatches such as in this, part of the development of very different 12-24 stitch designs.  More leaves combined with open spaces, returning to hand techniques:
in DIY charts symbols can be developed to suit and included or eliminated in final directions. Convention matters if directions are to be published with patterns for general use, and matters less when for personal use.
Examples:
 the starting diagram:
The test swatch was begun on 2/8 wool, then switched to a 4/10 alpaca and silk because it was green, and the guess that the resulting looser stitches using it might make cable crossings and transfers easier, As can be seen in the work that follows, the size and definition of knit stitches at the edge of the vertical columns and the leaves are sharper and better retained in the thicker yarn.  A chain cast-on was performed on the number of needles as shown above, and chains were dropped to achieve the proper setup   To make a visually balanced increase from one to three stitches, the tool is inserted from back to front of the ladder on each side of the stitch, twisted clockwise on the right, counter-clockwise on the left, with the twisted loops lifted and placed on the empty needles each side of that center stitch.  An illustration from one of my earlier posts on leaf shapes surrounded by ladders e_wrap0-2It is helpful to have a couple of 7-prong transfer tools to speed transfers along, with one set to move 4 stitches, the other 5, or simply use a combination of the standard ones. Another variation: The slightly revised repeat  A few images of the work in progress: in this design, actions take place every 2 rows.
The dark segments on the custom-printed needle tape mark the needle positions for stitches that are never transferred, ie rows # 1, 7, 13, 19, etc. in the chart.
At this point in the work, there are 3 stitches on the needles holding the last transfers, marked with circles, and single stitches on the alternate needle locations, marked with squares.  After a row is knit to the opposite side, the groups of 3 stitches are reduced to a single stitch.  and it is time to begin to reduce the width of the floats.
Empty needles are brought to B position/work on each side of the single stitches.  Loops will form on each of those needles as the knit carriage moves to the opposite side.  Moving forward, empty needles are brought into work adjacent to each loop every 2 rows.
A closer look at the twist in the floats as the action continues and the number of needles out of work is reduced: The locations in which stitches are taken out of work form straight floats, where needles are returned to work, the floats form the familiar twists seen in transfer lace patterns.

Not to be forgotten, fully automated lace edgings such as here
and this, with both patterns shared in the same blog post  

Revisiting “wisteria” 3D shapes and their possible automation

Present software makes automating textured designs in these families easier to plan and execute.
This method is limited to single colors being used at any one time and does not allow for additional patterning through fair isle or end needle selection.
Slip stitch in both directions results in black cells being knit sequentially, and the limit in width for the total design is limited to the width of the knitting machine and how the program is read and implemented.
End needle selection is canceled.
All needles in work need to be cleared with each carriage pass.
My electronic km samples are now knit on a 930, which automatically mirrors any downloaded repeats, an advantage for lettering, but not for many other situations. These designs require mirroring when using any machine or software that does so if the holding is to begin with the knit carriage on the right.  The direction of movement for the knit carriage is illustrated by arrows in the charts, which serve as guides in planning sequences.
The original charts were executed using Mac Numbers, the table was converted and scaled to size using Gimp as described in other posts, downloaded using img2track, and mirrored horizontally before test knitting on the 930.
Both swatches are 40 stitches wide, planned in blocks 8 stitches in width and height, the first repeat 40X178 pixels  

The first test: the knit carriage is set to slip in both directions. A wool yarn was used, retaining spring-back for more of a 3D texture. The design can be interrupted with all knit rows breaking up the shapes at varied intervals, with added colors if preferred. The second repeat, 40X 226 pixels.  A PDF for larger views of both files pdf
A quick test in a 2/18 wool produced a soft, loose, drapey knit.  The same swatch was photographed 48 hours later, in a relaxed state.  A 2/10 wool knit on the same number of stitches produced a firmer and more clearly 3D effect which remains unaltered with time.
Hems and a knit stripe were tested as a way of breaking up the shapes Possibilities with hand selection of needles: some samples from  Adding fair isle patterning to short row patterns creating eyelets.  
“Wisteria” meets hems “Wisteria” cousin 2, also called fern leaf, hand technique “Wisteria” cousin revisited (“holding” using slip stitch), the first programmed repeat, drawn on mylar. The 910 knit the image as drawn on the purl side, with no mirroring necessary  
“Wisteria” 2  Horizontal “cable”