Developing 24 stitch optical illusion patterns for use on punchcard machines and more.

I have recently become obsessed with designs that fool the eye in any number of ways, and although knitting them in more than 2 colors is possible, I prefer the ease of only using 2.
Floats are likely to be too long in these knitting patterns for knitting them as single bed fair isle.
Software facilitates but is not necessary to develop repeats, the process may even be performed on graph pater with colored pencils if one so chooses.
Punchcard machine users are not always included in conversations, this post  addresses some ways of developing full 24 stitch designs and performing the necessary color separations for knitting them as DBJ where each color in each design row knits only once.
Brother KMs: punchcards and their use  reviews the basics including DIY development of simple motifs repeated in symmetrical tiled patterns.
The Manual for the Brother KR 830 offers this advice on DBJ knitting: Using lili buttons along with the slip stitch setting in both directions on the ribber carriage reduces motif elongation and keeps the aspect ratio of the planned designs closer to that in the originals than when choosing other DBJ techniques.
Ribber needle tapes are marked with lines followed by spaces. If the start under the first ribber needle on the left is on a blank space on the needle tape, simply end on the right with a needle over a line marking, or the reverse.
I am often asked why in my own illustrations the slide lever on the ribber carriage, a Brother “thing”, is always in the center position.
Reducing variables exponentially reduces errors.
If the lever position is not changed after those first rows or accidentally changed during knitting, the knit gauge will change. An example: working on final projects, more than one student in my knit studio design classes realized only after completing front and back or the second sleeve that the rib with the alternate lever setting not changed resulted in a visibly different rib height in the second piece.
Necessary adjustments can be made in yarn mast and respective carriage tensions, along with yarn choices appropriate for the technique.

ArahPaint and/with/or Gimp with a sprinkle of Mac Numbers have become my preferred go-tos for developing knit designs.
Designing can begin with simple drawings which do not require complex software knowledge and help to build confidence, using the electronic equivalent of graph paper and colored pencils.
Beginning with ArahPaint, with the goal of developing a 24 stitch pattern: load a new square picture, with an odd number of cells, in this case 13X13
Choose from the default palette, or set the number of colors to 3 and adjust the the results to include white, black, and one other clearly contrasting color Draw some starting lines/shapes that can be outlined with single pixels pencils Using the single pixel pencil tool, fill outlines in with color 3 To eliminate double pixels, mirror the image using the 25X13 pngrepeat mirroring using the 25X25 png Using the rectangle select tool, again to avoid double pixel lines, trim a row from the top and the right side of the design the 24X24 cropped result tiled as is with with the palette reduced to black and white The question remains as to how best to knit similar designs on any machine.
The floats are too long for FI, the repeat is best suited for DBJ.
The easiest color separation for DBJ is the one where each color in each design row knits twice.
To have each color in each design row knit only once, electronic machines offer the KRC button. The same result can be obtained in punchcard knitting by custom color separating the design.
When knitting DBJ with these separations, the 2 most common causes of stripes on both sides of the fabric are beginning the preselection row on the right, rather than the left, or as in my swatch, forgetting to push in both slip buttons.
This separation process for me is a very quick one using Gimp, I have not yet sorted a similar one in ArahPaint.
Using color to alpha as described in previous posts, the required files:
24X24 BW
24X48
24X48 color invert
24X4 with the top rows in a color picked from the program’s built in palette. Use Colors, white to alpha, to render the white see through. Copy the file to the clipboard, and use it to bucket fill with pattern  a new 24X49 (col inv png 48+1 blank row at top) bucket filled with the clipboard patternthe pink color to alpha, renders it see through, th last row is cropped, to 24X48, and is copied and pasted on the original 24X48 imageThe proof of concept swatchIf you enjoy designing with pencils in paint programs, the same approach can be used to produce a larger repeat, which makes the illusion more noticeable, ie in this 36X36 design.
Open a new window with an odd number of cells,  ie. 19. Copy and paste the upper left of the design on the new upper left corner, keep filling in linesRepeating the steps described previously, the 19X19 png is mirrored -1 in both directions, and trimmed to a final 36X36 design Modifications resulting in added shapes beginning to appear can be small in developing variations while continuing with the 24 stitch constraint.      Repeating the process, the files in sequence   The proof of concept was knit using the color white for the first preselection row to the right and as the first knit color row to the left, the color inverted version of the original repeat.  The KRC electronic separations are intended to begin with the white pixels in the designs, but the knitter can change that sequence based on their preferred placement of dark vs light colors.
Visualizing the reverse color placement in a knit swatch using Gimp  ArahPaint in knit design 4 illustrates a way where following guidelines in Easily generate random weaves it is possible to quickly generate more random DIY designs for use in multiple techniques and stitch counts.

More separations for various knits using Gimp, color to alpha

WORK IN PROGRESS

a caution: 4/26/24 Gimp crashed repeatedly at the step when I tried to copy the brush from the clipboard to bucket fill any images with the pattern. The same reoccurred after an iMac restart and after a Gimp reinstall.
The problems appear to have been eliminated by uninstalling 2.10.36 and downloading and installing the previous, stable version 2.10.34.

Other posts have used the Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or Colors> Color to Alpha as part of other menu options, but in the last post and here the selection is the primary tool in developing transparencies.
This design was originally shared in the post: Gimp Update for Mac 3_more on color separations, where the goal had been to reproduce a published 12X18 chart. 

The PNG matching the chart on the right may be used in several ways. On electronic machines, it would be ready for knitting using both the color reverse and the double length buttons if planning to use tuck or slip settings with color changes every 2 rows.
Punch card machine users must punch the color-reversed file and set their models for double length,  but punching out the lengthened version 36 rows in length provides enough for the card to advance properly in the drum and makes correcting errors easier.
Revisiting the photograph of a swatch using the design using wire and chenille in half, and wool rayons in the other, I was bothered by the breaks at the midline of each repeat. Tiling the first design provides evidence of the area at issue, led to adding/subtracting a few pixels at a time, seeking slight changes, and ending with two final variations:  
Variation 1
Variation 2  The Gimp color to alpha process in RGB Mode for mosaic knitting: file 1 is opened. Several new files may be opened in sequence for altering, copying and pasting onto each other, with steps performed as a continuous process or with saving results and returning to them in separate steps    file 2: its color reverse
file 3: a 2-row brush with white color to alpha file 4: file 3 used to bucket fill 2 with pattern file 5: magenta color in 4 to alpha

file 6: file 5 copied and pasted onto file 1.
Change Mode to BW Indexed
file 7: file 6 color-reversed for knitting with the tuck or slip setting,   will need to be doubled in height for color changes every 2 rows using the double height button or use the file rendered double height to 18X36 pixels using Image> Scale in Gimp The proof of concept:  1: The StitchWorld #548, 24X40 pattern was also used in that post, it is suitable for punchcard machines as well  Using bucket fill with pattern makes the process faster than using the pencil tool to fill in color manually before converting colors to alpha in separating it.
While mosaics are processed in their original length, DBJ files are doubled in height.
2: the file is scaled to 24X80 3: and color reversed 4: a 2-row brush with white color to alpha 5: is copied to the clipboard and is used to bucket fill with pattern the color reversed image   6: the cyan is rendered transparent by using color to alpha again,  7: and 6 is copied and pasted on #2, the first 40X80 image,  8: and doubled in length to 40X160, it is exported as a BW PNG for knitting as DBJ. The results with both methods match.   Each color in each design row will be knit twice.
The method for emulating the separation that is built-in in Japanese electronic models, where each color knits once reducing elongation is a bit more fiddly to perform.
Charts from left to right:
1: the scaled 24X80
2: is color reversed
3: a new file, 1 row longer, 24X81 is opened, 2 is pasted onto it, leaving an all white pixel row at the top of the design
open a 24X4 row file, with two top white rows to alpha, use it as brush to bucket fill 3 with pattern
4: magenta color to alpha
5: crop that last blank row from the file, now 24X80 once more, copy and paste it onto 1.
The green grid is to differentiate this result from the one obtained in the other post, shown at its right
Change image mode to BW Indexed, export as png for knitting.
The proof of concept Returning to the repeat used to produce this punchcard the very low tech wayRepeating the steps used for the last designWorking in RGB Mode the 24X6 starting repeat was lengthened X2 to 24X12, and colors exchanged to black and white, because using color invert in RGB mode introduces a different palette confusing the process.
1: To produce the separation for a full punchcard, the image is tiled X3 in height to meet the 36 row minimum card length and 2: is copied and pasted on a new file of the same dimension, and color inverted 3: the color inverted file is copied onto a new 24X37 one with with an added blank row at the top 4: a new file 24X4 is opened, the bottom 2 white rows are rendered transparent using color to alpha, and saved to clipboard 5: to be used to bucket fill in pattern the color inverted 24X37 image (3) with pattern  6: the pink color is now rendered transparent as well using color to alpha crop the last blank row, the file will now be 24X36 again,
7: copy and paste it on the first image for the final KRC emulating png, check the file mode, and save as indexed BW for use in electronic models. When color inverted
the repeat matches the punchcard separation. It is possible to magnify, screengrab, and scale the pngs to print templates for counting stitches or even tracing to mark cards prior to punching holes.

DBJ, more than 2 colors per row 4

Revisiting older posts often brings to mind new or slightly different ways of looking at and achieving the same tasks.
Links to some related previous posts:
DAK DBJ color separations, templates, and other software
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 2
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ 1
Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 3
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2   img2track
DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 1

Color separations for knit designs in only 2 colors are more straightforward than those for 3-4 colors.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese models will yield results automatically where each color knits in each design row only once, reducing the elongation in the designs often seen when employing other techniques.
Japanese machine models for home use (not the semi-industrial ones) have a color changer that resides on the left, and aside from whether each color in each row knits once or twice, the combined carriages need to move to and from the color changer on the left for each color selection.
The color-changers for brands differ slightly and matter in cross-brand use if one relies on published separated designs and pictured swatches.
Yarn changers for:
Brother Studio Sometimes the placement of the colors within palettes will result in the colors not being read and downloaded properly.
As described in the Ayab post: when using each color, it is coded in a range of 8-bit values. For 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color A; 64-127 color B; 128-195 color C; 196-255 color D.
When only 2 colors are in use, in manual color separations, the ultimate goal is to produce BW-indexed PNGs. They are then downloaded and programmed as one would FI patterns, palette placement is not a concern.
Working in default or limited palettes produces familiar visual clues in DIY, to save custom palettes see ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3 
If the goal is to imagine the results in colorways based on yarns planned for use in the finished piece, that can be easily achieved after the fact.
This design has been used in past posts and is 6 stitches wide; hence, repeated X4 in width will also be suitable for punchcard machines. Looking at it again:
checking alignment when tiled
Stitches on needles not worked on the top bed are held while stitches in the other color(s) knit, and get longer. Some degree of alteration in the aspect ratio in the appearance of the design on the knit side in the final result is to be expected, also influenced by the addition of varied knitting techniques and carriage settings.  Methods I have explored in DIY repeat the same color sequence throughout even when any one of the colors is not represented in that design row: one way to decrease the visual lengthening of designs in dbj is to eliminate a row of knit stitches from each pair of passes by pushing Brother’s preselected needles back to the B position on the top bed before knitting from the right back to the left, thus skipping all needles in work on the top bed.
The HOP separation in Ayab performs this function automatically in addition to shuffling around repeat segments while keeping a fixed color rotation, making repeats that fail with other separation methods knittable.
In images where not all colors are represented on every row, there are more knit rows on the ribber than on the main bed, even with birdseye backing, another added cause of stitch elongation observable on the knit side.
When using birdseye backing, the ribber will knit every other stitch, alternating needles on each pass. An even number of needles is required. Patterning is akin to using a 1X1 card on the knit bed.
By the time the carriages have returned to the left only one row of knitting on every needle will be completed on the ribber.
The setting is not available in every model machine, including very early Brother ones.
When knitting in tuck or slip stitch, stitches grow in length until they are knit off again. This remains true when working in DBJ fabrics as well.
Yarn and tension choices can affect the final appearance.
There will be some degree of bleed-through behind the elongated stitches.
Blocking also influences the final appearance of the completed knit.
Exploring possibilities:
The initial 6X6 file is converted to stp and opened in DAK resulted in the following messages and pattern error corrections A second design was also tested in DAK and yielded the same error messages:  The 6X6 stp doubled in length to 6X12 cells allow for the option of selecting the type of dbj color separations, creating files that can, in turn, become PNGs for working outside the program, and for printing traceable templates for punchcards. That work is achieved through hacks since DAK does not allow direct import or export of file formats other than its proprietary ones ie stps or txt for use with Kniterate.    A closer look at the diagram of the color sequence options in each
The characteristics of the more commonly used methods in review:
Method A
works on pairs of rows, Method B creates the same separation as the default built-in KRC one in Japanese electronics with each color in each design row knitting only once, Method C separates each color row into separate rows of knitting, rows do not have to be repeated in pairs in DIY, and the double-length switch will need to be used in Japanese knitting machines It is possible to generate an output of the separation and to process it to generate files usable in img2track or for printing traceable punchcard templates.
The program does have an option to save a bmp but the save is of the separation on a grid with added data, not as a file immediately usable in other programs. Click on the floppy disk icon outlined in red to save as bmp as an alternative to screengrabs.   Using the same 6X12 file, the generated printable templates and associated converted PNGs:
A B  the repeat here is also for the original lengthened X2, and 36 pixels high with no segments repeated. The essential difference is that the first preselection row is made from left to right, with the pair of rows for color 1, design row 1 split between the top and bottom of the separation.  C

elongated X2=24X72, handy for other knit structures, but not for reducing elongation in DBJ Using img2track set at knitting in 3 colors, there is no error message, but the 6X6 file will not produce the planned design.
A proof of concept is provided in the post DBJ: more than 2 colors per row 2. Starting with the double-length 6X12 file, each color in each design row will be knit twice:  and the machine will offer prompts for its pre-determined color change sequences.
Most recently, my separation experiments using Gimp use transparency methods and are are shared in the reverse order of their development 
#3
The briefest and last method: working in RGB mode, begin by multiplying the pattern in height X3, to 6X18 Isolating the red color on a white ground:  isolating the yellow on a transparent ground:  isolating the blue on a transparent ground: copying and pasting the isolated yellow and blue with transparent grounds in  turn onto the red design isolated on the white ground
changing all 3 colors to black
doubling the image in length to 6X36
remove every second row using the pencil tool or bucket fill it with the 6X2 pattern, and change the cyan to white. Any other color can be used instead of the magenta at that point
change Mode to BW indexed, and save the final file for knitting.   Comparing the results for the full repeat from other methods on the left, with the one using this method on the right

Returning to that 6X6 repeat that was prone to error in both DAK and img2track, with each color represented once in each row, exploring the possible separation to knit each color only once, and using a final 6X18 PNG led to patterning failure.
The Image menu progression of its process in Gimp: the number of thumbnails grows and one can travel through the images using simple clicks until any image is discarded or the program is quit, the X appears aside the file viewed in the work window.  Each color was isolated on a white background, with guides placed horizontally across every pair of pixel rows.  Pairs of rows of each color were copied and pasted in alternating sequences on an all-white file longer than 18 pixels rows and the results were trimmed to a 6X18 file for a knitting test.  Though the built-in KRC separation takes that first design row and moves it to the top of the repeat, thus knitting a single row with color 1 and completing it in a pair on the last row of the program, the first knitting test began with preselection from the right, and color 1 knitting for 2 rows.  A second try at an 18-row repeat, also a design fail, with odd breaks in the lili action on the ribber, seen in Passaps when pusher selections on the back bed are disrupted.  When the motif was doubled in length, and the same method was used, the results matched the 24X36 file.
The 6X6 design, however, expanded and separated to a 6X18 file may be used in machines with color changers on each side, with a different color sequence, see DAK Method E notes toward bottom of post.
#2 Working with the 6X6 design lengthened X6 to 6X36

with every other row rendered in all white cells The proof of concept swatch

DAK
owners see the 36-row file and similar knit sample for the Half Milano separation F toward the bottom of the post.
In my #1, first separation draft, the 6X10 file is elongated X6, to 6X60, considering that each color in each design row will be carried for two passes.  The latest Gimp version for Mac is 2.10.36
Sometimes there are differences in commands in the Windows version.
Begin the work in RGB Mode.
The color-to-alpha command in Gimp makes all pixels in a selected color transparent.
The option can be activated through the Layers Menu by choosing Layer> Transparency> Color to Alpha or the filter via Colors> Color to Alpha from the pull-down menus at the top of the work window.
No threshold or blending adjustments are needed in the small 8-bit files used in designing knits.
Some previous repeats using  colors to alpha in 2-color separations can be found in the posts
Color separations for larger scale mosaics and mazes 
and on Using Layers in Gimp for Color separations
Magnify the image to a comfortable viewing size, ie 800% or more.
When the color to alpha dialog window opens, there will be a small preview of the image you are working on on the upper right that relates to how many images are available for processing in the work window at the time.  When the color white is in the mix using the 8-bit files, the preset color selection for transparency in the color bar is white.
To change the color selection, click on the white color, the palette window will appear, select the new color, and click OK.

To Bucket Fill with pattern: create a custom brush size, matching the starting design width in pixels. The number of rows varies with intent. White is used as one of the colors, and the second color can be any other.
Click on the rectangle tool and then on the pattern thumbnail, an icon for it will appear on the upper right of the work window. The brush will be copied to the clipboard and will be available to use to pattern fill until the program is quit. It can also be saved for future use as explained in other posts.  To fill specific groups of pixels with FG or BG colors, click on the select by color tool,  and then on the color you wish to change, use bucket fill, selecting foreground or background color.
The fuzzy select/magic wand tool mentioned in previous posts is designed to select areas of the current layer or image based on color similarity. It appears to the left of the select-by-color tool. It can be used when pixels in that color need to be changed in contained single areas rather than throughout the whole image.
If using the bucket fill with foreground or background color alternating with fill with pattern, remember to switch between the two as needed.
If an error is made, use Image> Edit> Undo to move back to any previous steps.
If at any point the image in the work window is surrounded by dotted lines, click on the rectangle tool and then again in the work window to essentially fix the layer.
The Image menu provides access to nearly any operation you can perform on an image.   Clicking on any one of those images will produce a dotted outline around it making it identifiable and usable in work such as for copy and paste followed by bucket fill with pattern,   or for navigating between series of open files.
#1  the longhand first practice run began with the 6X10 file multiplied in height X6 to 6X60. Good practice for sorting out a technique, but guessing the aspect ratio in the final knit would be bothersome.  1. has the first 2 of the 6 design rows rendered transparent, so when used to fill the original, only rows planned for color 1 are left exposed
2. will leave design rows 3 and 4 exposed for color 2
3. will leave design rows 5 and 6 exposed for color 3
Repeat these steps on the original design 3 times, and save each completed step until comfortable with working on several files open at once.
A. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for the color red
B. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for yellow, if the color seems too hard to identify, change it to another
C. select by color, bucket fill each with white except for blue. The red and white in the last step in A are left undisturbed, while the white background in the last steps in both B and C is rendered transparent, as seen in 2 and 3. Both 2 and 3 are copied and pasted onto A, rendering the final tricolor image, 4.
Using select by color and bucket fill, the three colors are replaced with black, 5.
A last brush bucket fill, 6, leaves only the first row of black cells exposed, changing the cyan to white and converting the final result to BW-indexed mode, 7, is saved for knitting with each color in each row knitting only once.  When all 3 colors are not represented on every row,
The 11X10 image was used in previous posts,   tiled,   the tiled elongation:  The separation uses method#3:  the process with the image lengthed X3 to 11X30 representing each color in each design row once:  working with Gimp transparency, isolate the red, retain the white ground isolate the green, render it on a transparent ground isolate the blue, render it on a transparent ground,  copy and paste the green and blue rendered on transparent grounds onto the red on the white ground initial image, obtaining a 3 color separation.
Replace colors with black. For knitting each color in each design row for 2 passes double the file in height to 11X60 pixels. To knit each color only once in an attempt to further reduce changes in aspect ratio, erase every second row. Images for knitting are saved in BW-indexed mode.  The DAK template (set for 950i) and img2track screen image compared to my result:  the 11X60 PNG, all pixels, 
and with black pixels on every second row changed to white The proof of concept swatch: the vertical lines between pairs of stitches result from the drag on the ribber stitches to the right and then the left as the birdseye pattern is formed, they are frequently also seen in ladderback dbj.
The yarns used are not of equal thickness.
Balanced yarn weight and tighter tensions would diminish both those lines and any bleed-through behind the stitches on the knit side.
The dropped stitches on the purl side indicate the need for troubleshooting the condition of ribber needles and their latches.Img2track_multiple colors per row dbj, each color knitting only once used the same 11X10 repeat, explored the results using HOP, pushing needles back to B manually EOR, and a color separation with the same 11X60 final file. 
An additional way to decrease changes in the aspect ratio of the original design
relies on eliminating as many passes as possible, by eliminating design rows with “no color” out of the color change rotations.
The color changes in continuing identical sequences vs skipping any one of the colors from the rotation when not in use:  The 11X60 repeat is now to 11X48  its companion with every other second row of black cells erased.  Both create the need to track what color to use and when. If the machine or software cannot provide prompts and reminders, a spreadsheet is easy and quick to create, listing colors and corresponding row counts:  Tracking those shifting color changes is more than my bandwidth and patience allow.

As I was working on this post, a friend asked about the separations for 3 color designs in the StitchWorld Pattern Book #3.
I randomly chose # 484, with the swatch pictured on p 57 and the design separation repeat found on pp 96-98. The shortest segment can be quickly converted to a knittable 140X50 PNG. Other factors to be considered and examined:
the color-changing sequences are provided on each side.
Each design row appears different from the row below it, raising the question as to whether each color is knitted only once.
The built-in KRC function in Japanese electronic machines automates that option when only 2 colors are used.
Passap E6000 users have a programmable reader technique that accomplishes the same for 3 and 4 colors.  This SW III segment is for rows 521-570, p98, with two more full pages in the pub beginning on p 96 with rows 1-260, and p 97 with rows 261-520.
Gimp Guides were placed on a screengrab of the file and it appeared each number was associated with 2 design rows.  The color numbers are not in fixed sequences and differ on each side, as seen in this magnified view.  Found when browsing through the SW III pub for added clues: the fair isle section symbols are suggestive of the CK35 Brother semi-industrial machine, produced in small numbers decades ago. The CK 35 has a color changer on each side.  From the manual regarding their use:  If the files are intended for the CK 35, additional information is needed for emulating or adapting them for use on home knitting models, not always possible.
The same is often true when traveling between machine brands manufactured in different countries.
DAK owners can use Method E jacquard separation for machines with a color changer on each side, like the Brother CK 35. According to the manual, the process works on pairs of rows and separates each row into a pass with each color.  A sample separation with no error messages when the 6X6 file is opened.   Untested DIY for the same separation:
The 6X18 repeat opened in Gimp, using a single-pixel pencil to fill in all except the color for that row with white.  Using the custom brushes and bucket-fill with the pattern, begin with isolating the red color, retaining the white background,  repeat to leave the isolated green exposed, and convert the magenta color from the brush to alpha repeat with the isolated blue,   in two steps, copy and paste the green and white on alpha and the blue and white on alpha on the red-on-white ground image, the tricolor final result, which matches the result from the pencil color replacements, is then rendered in BW for knitting. The last DAK Method F is referred to as suitable for Half Milano. It is directly translatable for use in the Japanese models.  The corresponding separations for both the 6X6 and its elongated sibling, 6X12 The 36-row repeat was quite different from mine, but a knitting test resulted in a matching result while trying out the 11X10 design in DAK resulted in obvious patterning fails, likely because the repeat is not an even number of pixels in width.
A repeated knit test of my 11X60 repeat, the arrow points to operator error when I failed to notice the color changer was carrying 2 colors at once. It is possible to superimpose final repeats on each other to look for errors and differences. The DBJ separation in DAK was 60 rows high as well, but it appears to be inaccurate, pointing to possible unidentified errors when working with a stp that is an uneven number of pixels in width.

Mac experiments on printing needle tapes and punchcard templates to scale and other tips

Periodically the question of printing blank templates for DIY drawings or images from published sources to scale to produce traceable images used to mark cards for punching is asked in forums and very recently in Ravelry.
I primarily use Apple and open-source free software in my work.
Creating knit graph paper on Mac, using Excel and Numbers began with Working in Excel 2008 and Mac Numbers 3.2.
The topic was revisited by me here.
A far more recent variety of printable tapes for multiple gauge knitting machines is offered by Claudia Scarpa in her 2022  blog post.
With some exploration, trial, effort, and good note keeping goals can often be achieved with tools on hand.
The concepts for retaining aspect ratio can be applied to other platforms, programs, and printers.
Suggestions exclude using banner paper or legal size sheets.
The assumption is made that only 8.5 X 11 inches stock is available for use.
Acrobat Reader free downloads provide limited functions.
Factory punchcards are marked in what appears visually to be a square grid.
Using a ruler measuring in mm, the blank 24X60 punching content measures 108 mm in width and 300 mm in length.
The 300 mm content length will be adjusted depending on the height of the design repeat and whether the 4 rows of all-punched squares need to be considered in the printout.
The individual squares on the factory blanks measure 4.5 mm in width and 5 mm in height.
Cards can be joined together with snaps for longer repeats, and the additional pieces ought to be a minimum of 20 rows in height for the card to feed smoothly and accurately. Some added taping will further ensure it continues to do so if the card will be used often or in very long projects.
Two editable spreadsheets to download:
Traceable punchcard templates for DIY designs 
1. Numbers 13, the greyed-out rows represent the first two all-squares-punched rows
Depending on the program used to process the file, there may be some juggling between the use of cm and mm values, a matter of a decimal point.
The shared table without numbers measures 10.8X22 cm.
The shared numbered table includes an extra column border marked needed to match the full blank card width markings, 14.2 cm in width, and the same length as the first table, 22cm.
2. A test PDF for a template including row numbers: punchcard-blank 35.
To print to scale using Acrobat Reader, select Matching results for both templates with a superimposed factory card segment.  Custom needle tapes
Working in cm, considering that needles are 4.5 mm, 0.45cm apart, eliminates the need for conversion to points, the format used when planning to use the resulting charts for conversion to pixels per stitch PNGs.
Both Gimp and Numbers alter some of the values by default very slightly, as seen here in Numbers for 1-10 cm needle spacings for designing blocks for needle tapes.   To maximize the available printing space, under print, setup, change all margin values from any preset default, seen on the left, to 0.54 Although the print setup shows page numbers in cm, the page orientation measures are given in mm  The 2.26 mm, 5 stitch cell unit tape in place on the machine  To change rulers in Numbers 13.2 to the Centimeter setting, and thus avoid the need for any conversions of the values to points, from the Numbers Menu at the top of the screen Choose Numbers >Settings, click and scroll on Ruler Units from the pop-up menu, then choose an increment, in this case, centimeters.
When returning to drafting for pixel charts, repeat the process for changing rulers back to points.  The math in calculating table cell size is simple.
This export is a revised copy for use in Numbers 09 using cm rulers: needle-tapes-only.
If working in a later OS, this prompt may appear  The matching document created in Numbers 13.2:
needle tapes only_numbers 2
Tapes printed in single blank units may be colored in or scribbled on easily, depending on end use The same concept could be used to generate printed blank graph paper for intarsia and/or to obtain a sense of changes in aspect ratio resulting from knit stitches forming a rectangular grid while designing using pixels per stitch is commonly on a square one.
The mm ruler settings allow entering the values from the swatch gauge measured in mm and calculated to include decimal points.
The chart grid on the left is shown in 6/4 proportion, a common width-to-height knit stitch ratio, while on the right it is in equal units.  The elongation in most knitting is often reduced by the choice of technique or if working in DBJ, by choosing ribber settings such as slip stitch with lili buttons.
Online published repeats converted to traceable printouts for punching cards 
It is possible to produce print-to-size copies of punchcards to trace in a variety of ways.
One alternative is to use Mac Numbers to ready the image for doing so.
Two jacquard tests began with images from a source for massive punchcard repeat collections regularly mentioned in forums (translated to English link ), and at times in my previous posts.
The first is for a border design, #4245 shown here with the holes made larger.  The second design is a far longer one, number 4937 In the help menu on the right, select the first option, make the holes larger 
Save the image or simply drag and drop it into a new sheet in an existing Numbers document or create a new blank doc removing the default table.
Click on the image, and in the top menu right, choose image arrange.  With Constrain Proportions left checked, change the image width to 14.2 cm punchcard full standard width. The height will be adjusted automatically.
The first printout test. Some of the dots were also marked with a pen, not necessary if tracing over a light source.  Numbers will split far longer images into segments/sheets, in this case, 3.
The top of the image is displayed on the first sheet, moving down rows to the start of the design in the following “sheets”.
Page margins are all set at .54 cm. Adjusting header and footer values changes and shifts the position of the segments to obtain full dots on each printout.
Scale contents to 100%, choose to print all sheets or any single one.  The printout is shown with a card laid over it, placed over a lightbox of sorts.  If a spreadsheet is not your preference, the same can be achieved with published cards using Gimp and Mac Preview. Printing from Gimp, even if the display is set to 100% appears not to appear to offer an option for dividing the file in scale automatically on more than one page.
A recent Ravelry query asked about printing individual cards from downloaded PDF sets for Brother machines, including this card for Brother Lace 18, from the set S  Open the full downloaded document, display the thumbnails by selecting the view button in the toolbar, and pick Thumbnails.
Select the thumbnail to print, it will be highlighted, and drag and drop the thumbnail for the punchcard to the desktop, it will be in PDF format as well.
Click on the chosen file, select open with Gimp, and an import PDF window will appear, as seen for this Fair Isle Design Because transfer lace cards have so few holes to punch and the placement is critical, the lace card 18s was chosen for testing.
Select Import and an image composed of 2550X3300 pixels will open, surrounded by white space.
Using Crop to Content will reduce it to 1485X3052.
Scale it by choosing mm values, and type in the 142 mm card desired width, reduced automatically to 141.99 mm. The value for the full, scaled image will still be displayed in pixels at the top of the work window, now 1677X3447 pixels.
Since the repeat is longer than 40 rows, it can be divided into two segments using the mm value. These are the cm and pixel values for my cropped top segment, exported as a PNG. The saved PNG was opened in Preview and with the option for scaling to 100% produced a good traceable result despite the printer needing a new ink cartridge.  Letting Preview split the image into large enough segments can be achieved by altering page margins.   The bottom of the above split printed is good enough considering the starting image was a tad rotated to the left and incomplete. A fail, a screengrab from the PDF full page, working with a PNG and printing from Gimp: the grab, 910X1522, cropped to content 694X1526, scaled to the same mm values,     yields an image with a very different pixel count from the PDF converted values,  and cropped to a segment 694X642 pixels and printed from Gimp was not to scale,  In the downloadable PDF for that fair isle design #4 from the R series, the punchcard is presented in the two segments required to meet the full punched height for knitting.
The bottom segment opened and scaled in Gimp first as a PDF Import and then as a screengrab PNG, resulted in the same failure in maintaining equal pixel aspect values with scaling for printing as seen with 18S The process was followed on the tulip file PNG: a segment was cropped from the bottom of the saved “larger hole” image, scaled to cm value, and printed in proper aspect ratio,   What of images from Brother Punchcard Volume 5, especially for those lace cards with so few dots?
Choose an image, open it in Gimp, crop it to the edges of the punchcard design
scale the image by multiplying both the number of stitches and the number of rows by 5 The result printing from Preview (and more ink)Dak is a Windows-only program. There are multiple volumes of stp files usable only in DAK, downloadable for free, including those for Brother Punchcard Volume 5.
The stp format is only read by the program, and stitch designs cannot be exported in other formats ie. PNGs.
Other posts have suggested hacks for converting screengrabs from DAK to PNGs for use in electronic machines.
I use InSync to move files between my Mac and PC and download to the 930 from there, using img2track.
There are many related ways to achieve the same task using only the PC.
If the goal is to use punchcard templates generated in DAK for traceable printouts to mark cards for punching, both Mac Preview and Numbers may once again be used.
The fixed full width for 24 stitches on a blank card is 108 mm.
Dak loads the files from the punchcard book in the smallest repeat for correct tiling when available, so lace #771 stp opens as a 12X34 stitch repeat.
A screengrab segment of the DAK window.  With the repeat isolated and cropped in Gimp, the entered values of 54X170 were adjusted to these by the program, the PNG was saved.  If Numbers is used for printing, under Image/Arrange, adjust the image size Or if opened in Preview, set the print scale to 100% The results for both matched Analyzing the repeat, note the blank first row, not usually seen in a Brother transfer lace design.
Checking the Volume 5 source after the fact identifies the repeat as intended for lace combined with knit weaving, a different knit structure.
DBJ color separations other than the KRC built-in function in Japanese electronic machines require other software or manual color separations.
DAK performs a variety of separations easily and quickly.
In Volume 5, pattern #53 is shown as punched for fair on the left, and separated for DBJ on the right.  If the # stp is opened in DAK as the 2-color jacquard design.
To knit a traceable punchcard template for the DBJ, the print option generates usable images.
This screen grab of the DAK window shows the jacquard design in the background.
The Page Dimensions window icon outlined in red when selected offers 3 ways to mark the black cells including as dots.
Choosing other (mm) and entering 600 for both values will produce results in a size that allows their being grabbed and saved in full.
The program will conveniently split the design into pages if needed.
The center image shows the generated template for the specific stp, the right one, the image opened in Gimp on the Mac with the content cropped to the dotted chart,  and scaled,  saved, and, in this case, printed using Preview. The punchcard is superimposed beginning with #1 only for an added visual check, punching always begins immediately above the first two all-punched rows

Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 2_hearts

Charts are included for repeats suitable for punchcards, where the designs must repeat in height to a minimum of 36 rows.
Some reminders: the BW pngs here are intended for import into a paint program or image processor where they can be magnified to suit, with a grid view for counting cells to consider the width of floats if used in single bed fair isle, adjust the design in DIY variations, or import into download programs as provided.
The tiled repeats help to visualize how the final appearance on the knit side.
While the pngs are shared in BW indexed mode, when dragged to desktops or otherwise copied and are opened in image processors, they may change to RGB mode by default and will need to be converted back to BW indexed mode prior to use for import and download to knitting machines.
Some machine models will automatically mirror the image horizontally, depending on brand and model year as does Ayab software.
When direction matters, ie in representational designs or transfer lace, the mirroring may be performed on the image provided before using it, or by using the appropriate button or command after downloading to electronic machines.
Punchcard users can mirror after the fact by simply turning the card over before inserting it, after marking and numbering at least the starting row on its reverse.
To retain symmetry in developing half-drop or brick repeats, it is useful to have an even number of stitches and rows in the original design. Some designs are broken up in ways that are subject to use based on personal visual preferences.
If used for blankets, the repeats can be tiled to dimensions leaving room for coordinated borders.
12X10 12X10 to 12X20 brick

12X10 to 24X10 half drop

24X24 24X28 32X32 34X34 43X43 adjusted to 44X44, an all symmetrical suitable as a single motif or in larger formats brick 44X88 brick tile half drop tile 84X44

3 color 14X3, requires a different color separation than KRC, each color in each row needs to be knit twice the 2-color version   From weaving drafts: a mosaic-like design the 68X58 png cropped to 67X58 to avoid double stitches
its half drop repeat 134X68  the source for a much smaller repeat the 14X20 png When all you need is a border, repeats that may be used vertically or horizontally, presented in punchcard configuration, 24X21: 24X20, rotated for horizontal use would become usable on electronic models only  
From To mesh or not to mesh 9: more on mock filet design See the post for additional repeats and my method of developing the design.
I could not find the source for this Pinterest find on the upper left, which results in a combination of large mesh and single transfers to create the heart shape.
The initial 24X44 png brick repeat, 24X88

with more knit stitches between shapes, 36X88 the knit rows separating the stripes of heart motifs are highlighted in red.
On Brother machines the KC does advance the repeat in standard lace, so each of those red stripes is reduced to two rows of blank cells, resulting in the 36X88 repeat charted on the far right A small proof of concept knit in 2/18 wool A Studio 560 was my first electronic model machine, owned decades ago. Among the mylars saved even though the machine was sold many years ago, I found this repeat, 24X47 cells, the last offered in this series. Studio mylar sheets were marked in 6X5 blocks as opposed to Brother’s 5X5. The punchcard repeat chart here is outlined in 6X6 blocks of cells, the convention in Brother punchcards. the png

A series also shared in the post Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 1
two from the various groupings
24X3924X78

Small to large repeat figurative designs inspired by filet crochet charts

Reducing figurative designs to repeats for knitting on a low needle counts results in loss of definition.
Filet crochet charts can serve as a starting point for repeats, but usually are planned on  more than equivalent 24 stitch counts, so results of adapting them are often usable on electronic machine models only.
The knitting technique used to execute the design determines whether the lengthwise aspect ratio is affected or not.
1: the source image
2: processed using Mac Numbers
3: opened in Gimp
4: the grid color can be altered to view and match stitch counts
5: the color reversed image to visualize the possible appearance of doing so in the knit
6: a small border frame is added, bringing the figure color to the edges of the knit piece, and the figure is mirrored, helping to make a choice about its orientation on the the knit side  Depending on the model machine used, the motif may appear as drawn on the purl or on the knit side, mirroring it when direction matters may be done using machine settings or mirroring before download.
On my 930 mirroring was not necessary, the swatch was knit on 40 stitches, with the added frame.
The figure alone, 35X72 pixels shown on 6X6 grid blocksA DBJ swatch with birdseye backing  A sitting companion, inspired by random Pinterest find, processed using ArahPaint, not knit tested, 49X65 pixels   shown on a 5X5 pixel grid  Graduating to pillow or blanket size, a bit of romance in advance of February, from a Priscilla Filet Crochet book, the original was in a nearly oval format.
A border was added to complete the original to full oval shape,
black pixels were added to complete the inner shape, and the BW image was extracted and saved.
Working in RGB mode, the border needs to be adjusted for symmetry, not fully complete here, and bucket pattern fill may be used to customize it or any frame the 117X154 modified oval chart and png color inverted 107X154 for DIY modifications to other shapes  A 137X184 RGB version with editable border  Mythological inspiration from a Priscilla source
A: the original
B: processed with GIMP
C: processed with Arah the final png chart, with some pixels removed  and the 118X54 png  A 142X81 pixel version that includes a border From previous posts:
74X54 Celtic design
43X53 squirrel  This image is not from a filet crochet chart but from one of my Studio 560 mylar sheets dating back decades. It is used to illustrate the possibility of mirroring in different directions to produce far larger designs ie wall hanging or blankets.
Alone it could serve as a scarf, with the image rotated and perhaps even mirrored at the opposite end of the scarf to match directions when draped around the neck The 60X50 cell repeat It takes a few clicks of a mouse and a couple of program windows nowadays to make the addition of single cells at the top, bottom, or sides of such large designs that avoid tiling intersections with double cells if that is the goal.
It is also easy to manipulate the chosen designs to visualize the appearance of a final piece. Printing the pixelated results in a larger format can aid informed choices before any actual knitting.
Adding a single cell blank column on the right, and one with a few pixels on the bottom a blank row on the top, 61X52 in a 122X104 repeat that with coordinated borders could approach the use of most of the needle bed with the initial shape mirrored horizontally and then drawn in repeat a column with double pixels appears again at the center of the design staying with that, but making shapes go around

Seasonal knits inspired by published repeats 1

In previous posts, ie Numbers and GIMP: online punchcard patterns to electronics 2, I shared some ways of converting online images from varied published sources.
This series was edited using primarily ArahPaint and some Gimp, both are available for free.
DAK users have the ability to achieve similar results in that universe, producing stp proprietary files. There is no export (or import) available to other formats ie png or bmp possible.
Fair isle is not in my preferred wheelhouse, especially in season specific designs, but that said, I have been sharing these repeats in the FB machine knitting forum  and thought I might make them available to others here as well.
The pngs are editable for further DIY modifications.
24X18924X94 24X85    cropping given repeats for desired tiling, # 1068 the original 24X119 png  cropped to 24X105 My first encounter with “naughty reindeer” was during a Brother dealer-sponsored small machine knitting club meeting.  A present update, using a Pinterest find as the source the original 24X60 with 2 rows added to 24X62in brick repeat, 24X124

A 40 stitch Madag design  40X68_1 40X68_2 A 24 stitch version, with the moose, and without the original, 24X152  cropped to 24X118 with the moose edited out, 24X84 Snowmen and trees
24X12024X50_1   24X50_2 testing tiling prior to knitting, editing out unwanted symbols the original 24X99 the edited 24X74 As a 24 stitch repeat, this is suitable only for single motifs, since repeating them horizontally would join the darker ball shapes. Adding a blank pixel column on the far right changes the horizontal alignment. A few pixels added at the top of the motif form an unbroken join vertically, the final 25X146 shown on the right  This Santa was identified as being attributable to Knittery, a company long defunct that offered pre-punched cards for purchase. Images where the background is punched out make it possible to introduce striping it with the color changer or using the chart for duplicate stitch embroidery on a knit ground.   the original, 24X38 in half drop, 48X38  and in  brick repeat, 24X76

the original, 24X185 with the elimination of some rows, first at the very top and then just above the snowman’s hat the final 24X182 png The question as to how to adjust repeats for use on 12 stitch knitting machines often comes up in forums.
Continuing in the seasonal vein, the easiest method is to begin with a 12-stitch repeat that occupies only half of the card vertically and twice in width. Here the original “half” is 12 stitches wide, 46 rows tall.
One method for the conversion is to work on a spreadsheet:
Begin with a table 24 cells wide, adding enough rows to the expected planned height to repeat the snowflake border, 46 cells in total
configure the cell borders for easy viewing, ie with a 3 pt red lines
hide 12 columns beginning with the second from the left
fill in black cells matching the original design or the DIY version
unhide all 12 columns for the final repeat  When converting the screen grab from a spreadsheet to png in Gimp, before scaling to final size, a first scaling may be required to make certain the result is divisible by the expected number of stitches and rows using the broken chain link, and then scaled again with closed chain link, the first png Working in Gimp or any paint program
draw the “original” and save it, mine now has 2 added rows, one above and one below the deer, making it 12X48 pixels scale it to twice the original width configure the grid properties for contrast/easy viewing
fill in every other column with white using a straight line white pencil. To do so, select a pixel with the mouse, hold the shift and command keys down to draw the lines, and release the mouse to stop. The first white pixel may be placed within an easy-to-follow section of black ones and then the mouse may be held and moved up and down to complete each column. Save the result.
Proof that it is always a good idea to draw the initial image in repeat before committing to color separations or any downloads and actual knitting:  Two possible alternatives in adjusting the design to one’s preference are marked in 6X6 grids in ArahPaint to match markings on blank Brother factory blank cards:
the first removes a snowflake border and is reduced to 12X39 pixels, the second adds 4 rows at the top of the second snowflake border, 12X52 the number of rows between motif segments can be varied for planning the introduction of stripes in added colors If only Gimp is available, I have not found a way to vary colors in grid borders in blocks other than to use guides, appearing as dotted blue lines.  A break from reindeer, teddy bears, and hearts follows, perhaps for a baby gift or to save for Valentine’s Day. When there are clear horizontal borders added to motifs the half-drop repeats will produce mixed results.  the pngs:
24X3924X78 48X40 24X6024X30
48X30
24X26
24X52
48X26 Bell motif variations  
24X3024X48 48X24  The last in this series, a nutcracker motif inspired by a larger scale cross stitch design, reduced by me to a workable 24 stitch MK design with varied borders and collaged small motifs in the background  24X101 24X87 24X87 with added background designs  Considerations in choosing a design are guided by its end use, tiling the repeats leaves fewer surprises in any actual knitting.
This might appear in casual observation to be a “snowflake”.
The full 25X25 pixel version can be isolated, with matching fragments around the whole. Magenta lines indicate cropping points depending on end use if double stitches not immediately obvious or planned are to be eliminated. A: the full design as a potential knit border
B: trimmed a one-pixel width column on the right to 24X25 while retaining matching top and bottom rows C: trimmed the single top row  as well to 24X24 for an all-over execution, drawn in repeat for an opportunity to evaluate whether the design as it now appears produces the initial imagined shapes and effect  Then there is the optical effect change that happens with color invert, for which an easy test may be made during knitting by simply switching yarn color positions in the knit carriage sinker plate

Swatches based on adapting random online published repeats

I still surf Pinterest daily and often encounter published punchcard repeats that catch my eye.
Many need some interpretation and editing for use in specific machine models.
The first inspiration: is knit using 4 colors, alternating 2 rows of a base color, then rotating color changes for 4 rows for each of 3 contrasting ones.
Counting up from the bottom of the illustration after the marks for the typical two all-punched rows, it would appear this is a Studio punchcard, but starting row 1 as visible outside the card reader can simply be changed for any other brand knitting machine.
The every other stitch configuration is for an every other needle repeat used in early machines such as the Juki.
A full reference volume   An illustration of the card use  If using thicker yarns on a standard machine that grinds at the loosest tension, this configuration can retain the full design while knitting every other needle/EON.
The adaptation began using Mac Numbers, the repeat was isolated and traced, and the 12 blank columns were then hidden producing a result scaled in indexed B/W mode to 12X36 pixels. The tiled design, checking alignments.  The proof of concept Periodically tuck stitch designs that appear to break the usual rules for the stitch are discussed.
This design is intended for a push-button machine capable of 24 stitch repeats, uses symbols in the associated chart interpreted to mean tuck loops form for 2 rows and knit along with all other stitches every third row.  The working repeat is made up of 8 pixels in width, and 36 pixels in height.    This next design is likely published for use with the Studio color changer, which is marked with letters for each color,   rather than with numbers as in Brother models.
It is intended as a slip-stitch. The bottom swatch relies on color changes every 3 rows, which would need to be performed manually.
In the elongated version, colors are changed using the color changer, every 6 rows.  The design was first tested in thin yarns using the electronic 24X84 elongated PNG  tested for alignment   and displays interesting 3D variations, the purl side is remindful of shadow pleating  Changing colors every odd number of rows is a tad fiddly.
The use of the color changer is not an option.
With the three yarns fed through the yarn masts, it became hard to keep them from twisting around each other. Ultimately, that problem was solved by hand-feeding one of the three colors with the cone on the floor, in front of the machine, as one would place yarns for weaving.
Brother knitters are familiar with yarn placements in the sinker plate.
Position A is for knitting when using only one color or for the ground color in fair isle patterning.  There is a “gate”, which is closed, and the B color/contrast motif color is placed in that front position, knitting the yarn in needles preselected to needle position D on the next carriage pass.
It is tempting to leave the gate open when switching colors by hand frequently, and that may work for a while, providing tension is placed on the yarn manually to keep the yarn back. If at any point the yarn shifts forward (green arrow), with no needles in position D, stitches will be dropped.
Textured stitches can make for more complicated correction of errors or dropped stitches.
Taking the extra seconds to close the gate (red markings) after each color change avoids what became fondly known as “dropitis” in my classes.   The proof of concept: two of the yarns used were acrylic, so steaming to reduce the curling of the swatch flattened the texture.  At one point Studio published a newsletter  with cover art composed of simple drawings, such as this, for #143, which spiked my curiosity, and led to these explorations:
the pattern and symbols refer to tuck stitch, but technically the design is executed using short rows and transfer techniques.
The programmed repeat selects needles, making tracking actions easier.
End needle selection is canceled.
No cam buttons are in use.
The knit carriage is set to hold.
Stitches on the single needles selected on rows, 2, 12, 22, etc, are transferred onto the needle on their left. The empty needle is then pushed back to A position, out of work, creating a ladder.
The groups of 3 preselected needles are pushed out to hold, the D position, before continuing.
After every 2 rows knit, a stitch on the left is pushed back into work, until lastly, the empty needle is returned to the B position.
All needles will then knit for one row filling in the empty needle with a loop and a full knit stitch on the next pass where transfers begin again. A brief summary of stitch manipulations  Images of the work in progress, a small claw weight single claw hung on edge stitch helps keep side edges equal in length:
preselected needles initially manually brought to hold position after the first carriage pass to the right
after the second carriage pass to the left, with the first needle on the left in each group pushed back into work  the second needle on the left in each group is returned to work
one needle in each group remaining in hold pushed back into work  at this point the empty needles have been brought to the B position, single preselected needles have been transferred to the left,  and a pass is made forming loops on the empty needles/ eyelets  The original 18X30 repeat, some machine models and download software may require that it be mirrored horizontally,   repeated to 44X30 with a planned distribution of plain stitches at sides, knit in 2/18 wool blends: Converting random transfer lace designs poses different challenges, and since the time at which the reference post was published, there have been several Gimp updates.
Lace designs contain few black and white pixels and, at times are brand-specific. Multiple transfer lace in Studio models begins with 2 blank rows, while Brother begins with a design row, and ends with 2 blank rows. As given, the inspiration repeat is designed for Studio/Silver Reed.
When using any program, ie Gimp, ArahPaint, or even Dak, the original scanned or screengrabbed design needs to be aligned horizontally and vertically to window borders for accurate conversions.
Gimp:
Before any scaling of images, establish stitch and row counts. In this case, they are published as being 16 stitches X 96 rows.
The process for converting the same lace design using Gimp 2.10.34 on the Mac, beginning work in RGB mode:
1. drawing a straight line to the side of the cropped image reveals a slight lean to the right
2. using Image, Transform, and Arbitrary Rotation -0.30 improves the alignment  3. using the rectangle tool, crop to the borders of the published image.
In this instance, the cropped image measuring 199X938 pixels is at first scaled to multiples of 10 for both width and height, note the broken chain link
4. 160X960 pixels. 5. Image mode is changed to B/W indexed, and the image is scaled once more to 16X96, the size of the expected repeat, note the intact chain link  6. the final repeat, when studied, matches that from the results in the previous post  1: the result using ArahPaints tools, including its guess weave from grid, compared to
2: the Gimp final image and
3. borrowed from the previous post illustrating other considerations before actual knitting,  
which include:
if using the repeat on Brother machines, the first 2 blank rows of the design are shifted to the top.
The 16-stitch design width makes it suitable only for electronic models.
The final PNG is actually downloaded as a fair isle pattern while maintaining the required needle selection for lace, and the knit carriage remains set to knit throughout while the lace carriage selects and transfers.
The machine, depending on the model, may by default mirror the result vertically, so the final PNG can be mirrored and saved as here, prior to knitting on the 930, or the mirror function in the machine may be used after programming.
I prefer to save my files in the orientation required for the actual knitting as a means to avoid confusion or errors.
Working in Arahpaint, rotating an image turns it on its center point. To rotate a layer, selection, or image, from the Image menu, choose Rotate.  Selections can be made at offered angles, or specified degrees can be entered in the degree field, or select an area, move the pointer outside the bounding border, and then drag on any one of the small boxes at each corner while pressing the left mouse button.  To align the image,
1. load the lace inspiration
2. choose Image, select Rotate Image, and draw a line that follows the orientation of the image. The color will be based automatically on the palette being used, and altering the pencil pixel size or color has no effect.
The program then rotates the image and will inform you of the rotation angle, and the drawn line becomes straight.
To confirm alignment, click the OK or Close button in the Rotate Image window.
3. use the rectangle tool to select the content for the full design repeat, and crop the aligned image to the selection. 4.-9. continue with the steps using the tool Guess Weave from Grid, producing the same final PNG. In summary, they are:
4. crop the selected image to size
5. change the color palette to 8-bit, adjust background and foreground colors
6. reduce the number of colors to B/W, adjust the threshold, and set the number of colors to 2
7. the resulting image
8
. use the guess weave from the grid tool, crop the bounded image to the selection, magnify the results to visually check the repeat, and save the PNG if satisfied
9. the final 16X96 pattern design repeat, matching the Gimp result. The associated swatch  This Pinterest find is credited to Tatiana Demina, and is intended for use on Studio punchcard machine models.  Studio machines are capable of transferring and knitting in single carriage passes. Studying the image of the card, it can be seen that there are no blank rows anywhere, and punched holes on alternate rows indicate transfers alternating first to the left, and then to the right.
The swatch was knit using the same technique described  recently in the post Unconventional uses for punchcards 2: thread lace cards for “filet” mesh
The original 24X56 design was lengthened X2 to, shown here also doubled in width to 48X112   to match the direction of the transfers, the hint offered in the inspiration source can be followed down to indicate the first row of transfers need to be made to the right,    hence the knitting begins with the knit carriage on the left, the lace carriage on the right. As the LC moves to the left it preselects needles, and as it returns to the right it transfers them to the right.
The LC is removed from the knit bed.
The KC knits a single pass to the right and remains there.
The LC is returned to the knit bed on the left, preselects needles on its pass to the right, and transfers them to the left as it returns to that side, and is removed from the bed.
The KC knits one row to the left and stays there.
The LC is returned to the bed on the right and the process is repeated.
Preselection of needles is made by the LC toward the knit carriage, transfers are made away from it.
Whether the repeat needs to be mirrored again may depend on the machine model or the software used to download the file to it.
The direction of the first row of transfers provides the necessary clue, they need to be to the right. If to the left, mirror the pattern horizontally and begin again.
The swatch was knit in a wool-rayon blend, the results point to the difference in appearance and gauge with a change in color and type of yarn used when compared to the inspiration image The context for this can be found in To mesh or not to mesh 8: more Numbers meet Gimp
the 60X74 png  and the proof of concept

Gimp 4, pattern fill, dithered portraits, and more.

The latest version of Gimp for Mac includes many small changes which come with no announcements and take a bit of sorting out to recognize or problem-solve.
There are good collections of Youtube videos intended for use on much larger files, with fewer color restrictions than images used for knitting.
A dock is a container that holds a collection of dialogs.
I work in single-window mode and had an issue a few times recently with the tool dock and dialogue disappearing from the left.
The method that worked for me:
on a Mac, select the link to the Preferences/Settings window found in the GIMP application menu, next to the Apple menu. Scroll down in the left pane until you see the Windows Management entry. Click on it to open the relevant settings pane. Look for the giant button labeled Reset Saved Window Positions to Default Values, seen on the bottom right.  Click on it, and GIMP will pop up a small notification box letting you know that the save will go into effect the next time GIMP loads.
Click OK there, and click OK again in the main Settings window.
Close GIMP and reload it, and familiar settings should be back.
To prevent a reoccurrence of the issue, it is possible to lock the associated tab, permanently fixing the dialogue. To do so, click on the small shape next to the Tool Options Menu text on the top right, then select Lock Tab to Dock.  Tool icons are also changed at times, leading to puzzlement when steps used in the past do not work. An example, The layers menu no longer offers the difference mode used previously in custom color separations.
From the manual: “If you need to stay compatible with older GIMP versions or you need to use the legacy layer modes for other reasons, look for the icon to the right of the layer modes selection.
This drop-down menu will let you choose between Default and Legacy. If you choose the latter, the layer modes list will only show the legacy layer modes and all modes will have “(legacy)” behind their name (the selected mode will use the short version (l). ”
To make the dialog available: click on Legacy to switch mode selections.  My posts are at times generated in response to questions I have received through forums or direct contact via my blog, but most often by my exploring whatever rabbit hole attracts my attention for a period of time before leaping into the next.
A quick way to fill with a design/ drawing in repeat is to choose and open an image, ie this rose, indexed B/W 28X30 pixels Magnify ie to 800X, go to Edit, and Copy Visible to save it to the clipboard as long as the program is open
Choose File, New, in size that is a multiple of the original ie 84X90.
Select the brush tool  In the Windows menu choose Dockable Dialogues and select Symmetry Painting, then Tiling.
After entering the desired values, as you move onto the canvas, a brush icon and crosshair will appear, along with a square bordered with a dotted edge representing the clipboard brush in full size, place it touching the left upper corner for a straightforward tiled repeat, an alternative to the familiar method using Filter, Map, Tile.  Undo and repeat if needed.  
For a brick repeat For easy and quick drawing in any repeat configuration including random, I recommend using ArahPaint.
For other tiling repeats, I have found Gimp offset limiting, offering this as an alternative method for, in this case, a half-drop design.
Work in matching magnifications as steps are advanced.
Begin with the rose, use filter, map, and tile it to twice its height, 28X60 Open a new file, twice its height and width, 56X60 pixels.
Using rulers as guides for the half drop, place a center vertical guide at 28, horizontal guides at 15, and 45 click on the 28X60 selection at the top of the work window, copy and paste it on the file marked with guides first on the left side, click on the rectangle tool to fix the layer
paste it again on the right, placing a full rose in the center square outlined in the column,
paste again and  move the selection above or below to fill in the empty third of the column
select the rectangle tool again to fix the layer, save the 56X60 file,   filter, map, and tile again to test the alignment ie here, 168X80 the icons selections at the top of the work windows change as steps are completed   A visual summary of the 28X60 image placements  A pattern is a small image that fills areas by placing copies side by side, while a brush is used for painting.
In drafting A collection of geometric design blocks built with squares, rectangles, and lines and considering optical design development, Gimp fill with pattern gained my focus once more.
Pattern fill was discussed in Gimp update for Mac 2
In developing pattern-fill libraries, and saving them, using larger pixel group pngs rather than the smallest repeat needed makes identifying them easier.
These suggestions are for drafts on 8X8 pixel grids.
They may be used to pattern fill from the clipboard while the program is open, or exported as .pat files, adding them to a “my pattern” folder through program settings, where they will be available after Gimp is quit and reopened.
Always tile/draw-in-repeats to check alignment prior to saving.
Color-reversed versions are also useful.
Once the basics are tested, one may begin to move towards shapes and more complex repeats, particularly if using electronic machines. A library of circles, some in dimension used in developing truchet tiles, drawn using the built-in Gimp circle brush, from 5 to 24 and 28 pixels in size. Developing dot designs merit a separate thread as well as more on symmetry painting.
The patterns may be saved as color or black-and-white files.
Passap users should know even though they may see this icon from some old company-shared files along with their own .cut ones,  they are not compatible with Gimp software or any other outside the DAK universe that I know of, where they were an earlier format later replaced by the stp format.
There are always many ways to approach DIY, staggered lines of equal size with alternate color starting points can fill in spaces between each other.
Gimp has offset and symmetry drawing functions.
As a long-time repeat builder, if working in Gimp alone, I prefer working with multiple images open to using layers, and visually making the drops or shifts in the repeats manually by copying and pasting on progressive-size canvases.
Starting out with colored squares in RGB mode allows for filling in each color with multiple different BW patterns, for these samples I am using only 2 linear pattern fills, beginning with a 40X40 design  tiled X5 in brick repeat  and in half drop  Introducing other shapes, 16X16 brick configuration, 32X32
half drop, 32X16   Keeping that black outline, but still rendered in B/W Eliminating the outline, retaining a quarter circle, 16X16Using mirroring, and cropping the repeat using several canvases, eliminating double lines in the process, 30X30.  The maximum size in width for large items in a single piece is generally between 180 and 200 stitches on 5 mm and 4.5 mm respectively.
Gimp comes with many built-in assorted patterns which can serve as a starting point. Here a 160X160 canvas is filled with a Gimp pattern, planning a 20 stitch border on all sides.  Convert image mode to greyscale,  using Colors/Curves adjust values to an input of 47, and an output of 203,   and if planning to knit the piece in only 2 colors, convert the result once more to indexed B/W mode To add any desired border, open a new file, in this case, 200 by 200, working in RGB mode, and fill it with any color other than black.
Copy and paste the image above onto it, it will be automatically centered  Choosing another built-in pattern, the red border is pattern filled To eliminate the yellow, use fuzzy select by color, and check that the bucket fill tool is set to fill with the background or foreground color again.
Press the shift key, and replace the yellow with white.
Convert mode to indexed B/W once more, and export as png.
If desired, using a grid view and pencil tool, additional black borders can be added.
The shift command keys on the Mac used in conjunction with the pencil tool help render straight pencil lines. Any of the larger files developed as tiled designs can be cropped to different dimensions depending on preference and end-use.
Decades ago, before software design aids, there was a knitting challenge circling around to include hidden language or undesirable language in a not necessarily easy-to-read format in knitting, beginning with hand-scripted text, which was then mirrored in width and height.
This was my version of DBJ vertical design, with the photo rotated and repeated to visualize what the appearance might be on a larger piece.
There are some really interesting examples of hiding messages in textiles throughout history and even books written on the topic, it is referred to as steganography, which means hidden writing.
When I was teaching there were often as many as 15-20 students knitting in the studio at the same time, and I felt a need for an expletive outside the less civilized 4 letter word that came to mind when multiple emergency yell shouting my name for help occurred at a single time.
Hints on using text: Gimp to create text for knitting
This image, rendered in Gimp with superimposed text and filled with patterns in both the text and in the background illustrates my answer to that problem.   I have often seen illustrations of artworks for sale online using portraits with superimposed all-over patterns.
This concept for a possible knit began with an AI-generated foursome using Midjourney  My chosen image, originally 700X700, with image mode changed from RGB to greyscale, indexed to 3 colors, scaled and trimmed to 181X183selecting a random brush for superimposed pattern, 30X40  file, new, exact dimensions as portrait, white ground, 181X183, fill with pattern, layer, transparency, color white to alpha,    copy and paste on portrait file, fix layer, save .png Image ready for download using img2track  For use on a 930, the design is broken down into multiple tracks by the software, each to be downloaded in sequence as a new pattern.  The same repeat, with a few pixel changes  Using a different punchcard pattern repeat with a different pattern fill, the portrait becomes more hidden A video on achieving a similar effect using Arahpaint   If the goal is only to change the background, there are several options for that as well.
One way to remove a background containing varied shapes, and return to an often-used of my old friend Rocco,
the file, 150X154,  add an Alpha Channel The Free Selection tool, or Lasso, allows for creating a selection by using a pointer.
Since GIMP-2.10.12, selection modes now, in 2.10.34, work differently.
Marching ants/dots come with a continuous line, meaning that the selection is not validated yet and that you can still change the selection shape (the mouse pointer comes with the Move icon) but keyboard commands may no longer work. When satisfied with the changes hit enter/ return key on Mac to validate the selection.  Enlarge the image to make following and marking its outline easier.
Freehand selection can be made in small segments at a time connecting short lines, or long, continuous strokes.
First, create a starting point by clicking on your image.
A yellow dot will appear. As you move along the edge of the image, the colored dot reappears every time you stop, with the previous locations turning into empty circles.
When it is reached, if you click on the endpoint, it turns filled and is accompanied by a moving cross.  Use the return key to pause if needed.
Pressing and releasing the mouse pointer allows you to mix free-hand segments and polygonal segments.
If you click on the endpoint, dragging alters the shape.
When the endpoint is on top of the starting point, click to close the selection.
Double-clicking on the endpoint closes the selection with a straight line.
You can go outside the edge of the image display and come back in if you want to.
Escape cancels all continuous selection segments.
When the lasso selection is completed there will be visible dotted lines around the selection Color invert the result Open a new, white canvas of the same size and magnification, and copy and paste the color inverted one on it  Use color invert once more, Rocco is now on a black ground Using the result in online dithering programs provides a different result than when dithering the full greyscale image. This result is from using https://29a.ch/ditherlicious/  If the result is an instant favorite, and the goal is to fill the ground with a pattern, use the lasso tool again to eliminate the black more carefully than I did, repeat the steps to color invert, copy and paste on red,  Color invert once more,
Fill the background with a chosen pattern, convert image mode to indexed B/W, and export the resulting file
If the image is to be knit using 3 (or more) colors per row, this is one of the myriad possible results using my favorite dithering option, https://app.dithermark.com. Returning to the greyscale image on the black ground,  the latter can be bucket filled directly with any chosen pattern   To superimpose a pattern on the whole image, fill a white canvas in the same dimensions with the pattern use Layer, transparency, color white to alpha  Copy and paste the result on the original Full greyscale is not knittable.
What about using the AI portrait in B/W or 3-4 color knitting?
172X172ditherlicious 2-color,   and dithermark using the built-in pattern selector for 4-color.   The image will be elongated in actual knitting, this window from img2track on the left is set for 4 colors. Changing selection to 2 colors and opening the same image, it is converted to B/W 3-color with diagonal hatching 2-color
Though visually some images may appear as though more than 2 colors are in use, here is the comparison using img2track between opening the above on the left, and, on the right, after changing the image mode to B/W indexed using Gimp with added cross-hatching followed by image mode to B/W in Gimp simply to note visual differences    
and a different cross-hatch, with a value balance change, in B/W mode

 

Blistered dbj 3

Names referring to the same knit fabric can vary between machine manuals for specific models and brands or references in books, magazines, and articles depending on the dates they were published.
My earlier share on the topic:
Blistered stitches dbj 1
Blistered DBJ 2 and technique variations on a single repeat, introduced some of the concepts involved.
Beginning with any random published repeat can offer the start of exploring a range of fabrics. This was a Pinterest punchcard share, markings indicate it was intended for Brother machines  Methods for obtaining color separations for specific knits have been discussed in other posts.
Brother models can use the cam buttons to perform a function in one direction only, ie by using only one tuck or slip button, the machine will knit when the carriage reverses movement to the opposite side.
Developing specific color separations makes the files usable on other machine brands and models, makes it easier to return to specific rows in error corrections, and is my personal preference in test swatching and complete pieces.
Drawing the initial design in repeat provides a visualization of the resulting secondary shapes and the number of needles required for tiled variations in finished pieces based on gauge.
The first design is intended for use in every needle rib, with the knit carriage knitting in one direction, and using slip or even tuck in the opposite direction.
The 24X32 design extracted from the inspiration punchcard  A: the rendering scaling the design twice in length
B: making the choice to color invert it in planning slipped stitches on the larger number of white pixels
C: superimposing black lines on every other row beginning with row 2 A quick review of the steps involved in working with Gimp:
begin with magnification for easy viewing, ie. 800X, view grid if preferred
the starting brush can be as small as this 2-pixel   select it and save it to the clipboard by choosing copy visible, making it available to bucket fill images, or export the same design as a .pat file and save it in the appropriate settings folder for future use.  A: the original design repeat rendered in black and white
B: layer, transparency, color white to alpha
C: file, new, white ground, matching size, filled with a pattern of pairs of horizontal all-white pixel rows beginning with white on row one, followed by all-black pixel rows on row 2
D: copy B and paste it on C, and export the file as png The chosen repeat may not be color reversed after programming it using the machine’s built-in electronic functions.
White pixels slip, stitches on the main bed in non-selected areas would not knit off for extended periods ie where red marks occur, and noticeable problems would develop quickly Beginning proofs of concept for this version, 24X64  knit on 60 stitches using it drawn in repeat X3, 72X64, and programmed as a single motif  The result is a very subtle contrast lacey knit The yarn thickness and color were changed. The pattern begins using the slip setting and transitions to tuck, also in only one direction. Because the ribber is knitting every stitch between stitches on the top bed holding side-by-side loops down, tucking on multiple side-by-side needles can be performed,  producing a wider, stretchy knit that also lies flat.  True blisters/pintucks generally knit rows on the top bed alone forming pockets that are eventually sealed by all knit rows.
Slip stitch settings are used.
The design is at first lengthened X5, then every 5th row is filled with black pixels or punched holes.
A begins in smaller groups of gathers, testing for any errors or problems, while B allows for deeper folds. A: the mark shows the stitches on the top bed begin to slip far too many rows
due to using the color reverse option in the 930 before continuing to knit.  With a switch to the blue yarn, all-knit spaces between the pockets now begin to appear gathered. Slip stitch results in narrower knits, noticeable in the ruffled effects on every needle rib above the cast ons B: the extra row of slipped stitches result in a far more textured knit   Developing other layouts for the same design, brick 24X128   half drop 48X64 Eliminating unwanted extra stitches from the original, modified to 24X28 pixels drawn in repeat to 144X168 brick version 24X56 half drop 48X28  adding those all knit rows  Viewing repeat alignments  The 24X112 brick repeat suitable for punchcards, not tested,   and the half drop, 48X56  tested using a 10/2 cotton and lightly steamed and pressed. Knit on 80 stitches, it measures 17 inches in width and 11 in height.
an attempt at a more detailed look