Lace meets weaving on Brother Machines 1

Several years ago, this punchcard was shared on Ravelry as one that was problematic in execution on an electronic model using Ayabthe supposed related swatch pictured in the publication
At the time, I made a long, convoluted effort to produce the fabric. I am returning to the topic and comparing 2 cards in this post, the original 589, and a new-found cousin, 259. Looking to the published cards for clues, remember that markings for carriage movements related to the first design row at the bottom of the card begin on the left of the card, above the Brother line numbered 1 on the right. The start of both cards: Lace patterning is unique in punchcard use. The card does not begin with the reader locked. As the carriage moves to the right, the card will advance a row. The lace carriage will begin to move in the direction of the arrows, making transfers on preselected needles in the direction of those same arrows as it moves away from and returns to the opposite side.
A typical pattern for mixing weaving and lace, seen in 259, usually starts with a blank row, followed by 2 rows with lace transfer markings, and a single every other needle arrangement row intended for the weaving pattern, repeating in varied sequences for the height of the card. The source for the repeat is  Brother punchcard pattern book volume 5. Due to the added experience I have acquired in working with spreadsheets and converting lace punchcard repeats, it took literally minutes as opposed to hours to produce a working repeat for use on my now 930 and the desired proof of concept. It is interesting how our perspective and skill can evolve over time. This is the new, “quick” version,  beginning with flipping the card segment over horizontally, a requirement with Ayab or img2track on my 930. 259 shows the traditional approach combining the two techniques that take into account the fact that when the second selecting carriage starts to move from the opposite side, the punchcard does not advance, repeating the same preselection. Added discussion of the differences in repeats for both machine types may be found in the post: Doilies: Lace meets hold and goes round In this instance expanding the punchcard repeat with extra blank rows to allow for extra LC passes to maintain proper transfer direction is not necessary, but the repeated punchcard selections need to be taken into account. There are 2 options for starts: if beginning with lace rows, the first preselection row is from right to left with the LC, if beginning with weaving, the first preselection pass from left to right. End needle selection is in the KC is canceled. As knitting progresses, if an end needle is selected in the pattern push it back to B prior to making transfers in that row. The movements when working with two selecting carriages on the electronic are standard, the repeat advances a row in the design with each pass of the carriage. Here each carriage operates for 2 passes, to and from its original side after the first preselection row. I began my proof of concept with woven rows. The punchcard repeat has been reversed  The top swatch tests the repeat as given above, beginning with the weaving pattern. Mirroring the repeat also produced an interesting variation, as seen in the bottom test A review of 589, showed that it could be knit using each carriage for 2 passes as done above.  The same repeat as the one in the original punchcard, mirrored, produces the same fabric on the 930 as with using the more complicated separation methods described further below. The chart depicts the desired actions. My first row was knit with the KC set on KCII, preselecting while knitting a plain knit row from left to right, followed with the first lace transfer pass also from left to right the electronic repeat and its .png Analyzing the card, sorting out possible repeats follows since mylars or bitmaps for download often only require a single repeat of the pattern. If you are not used to doing this, sometimes beginning with recognizable vertical ones first is a bit easier. The first problem: matching the arrow markings beginning just above row 1 mark on the right, it appears the first set of transfers should be to the left, The pattern is simply not workable as given using both carriages selecting needles from opposite sides of a punchcard machine, each moving for 2 rows.
Reworking the repeat for use on the electronic in order to use the LC for four passes, beginning and returning to the left-hand side of the machine: the movements of the respective carriages on both models are plotted out, beginning with the theoretical punchcard one, mirrored horizontally, on the left, expanded in the center for the electronic, with the final repeat on the right. I now use different color cells to represent the direction of the transfers, here red for ones for those to the left, green for those to the right. The grey rows indicate blank ones that are required for the lace carriage to perform the necessary selections, transfers, and then to complete its return to the left side of the needle bed the smallest, single repeated in width X 2 for use on my 930its .png Extension rails must be used as both carriages engage the belt. The LC operates from the left-hand side for four passes throughout. The KC from the right for 2 passes each time. It advances the design by one row for each pass, preselecting needles or blank rows depending on the presence or absence of pixels as it would in any other fabric type. End needle selection is canceled. The weaving yarn is laid over the groups of every other needle in D position. A quick proof of concept swatch, the ground yarn may need tension adjustments for the best result an interesting variation with the above repeat flipped horizontally the mirrored repeat is used in the top swatch, any dropped stitches will result in floats. The repeat prior to mirroring was used to knit the bottom swatch. Dropped lace transfers may be missed behind the laid in thicker yarn. Transfers may need to be made manually if they continue to be a problem, especially if the ground yarn tension needs tightening in order to achieve the desired effect.  Starting the piece with 2 woven rows, rather than lace transfers: charting for working with the LC operating from the left for 4 passes, the KC from the right for 2 passes (worked on my 910, using mylar):
comparing the sequences for both starts, weaving on left, lace on the right Patterning issues are not always due to needle selection problems. Weaving and lace pattern combinations may be tested in lace first to establish eyelet selection accuracy. Here the weaving test failures were due to a problem with the sinker plate. The weaving lever was working properly in one direction only. Check that both brushes are turning freely. If they are not, remove the screw and any fluff caught under them before replacing them and continuing to knit. Occasionally the lever that moves the brushes up and down fails and a new part is called for. Here, the hand technique success followed a change of the sinker plate a sample using 2 different weight yarns; irregular weaving may require changing the yarn, or adjusting the tension used for the background yarn I like to test these repeats first in transfer lace, to sort out the best tension and yarn to use, errors in programming, Taking another look at the original punchcard and those arrows on the left-hand side, a detail I had originally missed, they all start from and return to the right, the line thickness changing marking the alternate carriage Both carriages operate from the right side, for 2 rows each, switching their place on the machine bed. Arrows for design row 1 begin above the red line. Transfers are all first to the left, then to the right. The card advances a single row for each carriage pass. With carriages operating from the same side, the punchcard advances one row for each carriage pass As I was trying to understand what was happening, I was also able to produce a swatch using the original #589 card, using a method that, however, produced all lace transfers to the right, and differed from the desired effect:
KC passes are indicated with green text, LC passes in blue
Pass 1: COL, KCII, N for a knit row which preselects the first weaving pattern row, knit to the right
Pass 2COR, KC, EON preselected, set the card to advance normally, lay in weaving yarn, KC moving  to the left will weave the first row, preselect the second weaving row
Pass 3: COL, KC weaves second-row EON, preselects the first row of lace on its way to the right
Pass 4: COL, LC transfers to right, repeats previous row’s selection, as it moves to the right 
Pass 5COR, LC no transfer happens on empty needle selected for the second time by the previous row, selects for the next row of transfers, moves to the left
Pass 6: COL, LC transfers pre-selected row to right, preselects first EON row for weaving, moves to the right, release it, return it to left
Pass 7COR, KC, EON, lay in weaving yarn, KC will move to the left and will weave the first row, preselect  second weaving row
Pass 8: COL, KC weaves the second row EON, preselects the first row of lace on its way to the right
Pass 9: COL, LC transfers to right, repeats previous row’s selection as it moves to the right
Pass 10COR, LC no transfer happens on empty needle selected for the second time by the previous row, selects for the next row of transfers, moves to the left
Pass 11: COL, LC transfers preselected row to right, preselects first EON row for weaving, moves to the right, release it, return it to left.  This row matches design row 1 and is starting the repeat sequence again
Passes 2-11: each group complete 10 rows of knitting the knit, produced at the time on both my punchcard machine and with my 910 also requiring an LC release on its third pass, reflect all the transfers occurring in a single direction

Unconventional uses for punchcards 3: lace in rib

Lace patterns for drop stitch: cast on as preferred, transfer MB stitches to ribber, where all stitches will be knit on every row. The main bed will be knitting the stitches that will be dropped (lace carriage will not be used), cancel end needle selection, program your repeat, push in both part buttons. As the carriage moves across the bed selected “lace” pattern needles will knit, the non-selected will be skipped.
Continue to knit until no needles are selected. At that point disconnect the main bed and ribber carriages, change the setting on the main bed to knit, remove the yarn from the feeder, bring the knit carriage alone across for 2 rows, and stitches will be dropped. After the disconnected carriage is returned to the opposite side, rethread, and connect again to the ribber carriages, set the knit carriage to slip and it once again will knit selected needles. Repeat the process for the length of the swatch. If on an electronic machine with 2 carriages: the number of rows is usually an even number, so an additional knit carriage with no yarn could be positioned on the opposite side to the one selecting pattern, set to do plain knitting, holding no yarn, and it will drop the stitches on “plain knit rows” on lace card without requiring the other additional steps and cam button changes.

Transfer lace on the top bed: the question periodically comes up with regards to the possibility of using the lace carriage when knitting every needle rib fabric. The lace carriage does not operate with the ribber bed in use in the standard up position, there is not enough clearance between the beds for it to travel from one side to the other across the needle bed. It is possible to drop the ribber down one click, opening up the space between the beds, supposedly to allow for the use of thicker yarns.

My machine is old enough for the ribber to be bowed in the center, increasing the space between the beds there. Trying to use that position for every needle rib in my desired yarn I got yarn breakage in the center of the bed, some skipped stitches, and the sides of the needle bed were still up too high for the LC to have a clear passage. The problem appeared to be due to its brushes hitting the gate pegs. With the brushes removed, but with some grinding against those same gate pegs the LC was able to move along the top bed. At least on my machine, I am giving up on the idea of using it, even if only to preselect needles, let alone make transfers.
This page is from the Ribber techniques book. The fact that transfers are broken up with blocks where there are no transfers, including some with stitches transferred to the opposite bed, makes it easier to track transfers than if using all over designs. Standard pronged tools are sufficient to move the single stitches or groups of three. 

It is possible to transfer larger groups of needles on the main bed to create lace patterns, done of necessity in two-color brioche, but here I am seeking to modify lace punchcards so that the fabric based on them may be created successfully with as few errors and dropped stitches as possible.
My first attempt was made using a second knit carriage set to slip in both directions to preselect needles for transfers,  using a small lace repeat to test the idea. The advantage of this method is that the original lace repeat does not need to be altered in any way. The disadvantage, aside from requiring a second carriage to use, is that the width of the piece on the machine is limited.  The ribber carriage is in use and needs to remain at least in part on the machine bed on the far right, limiting the number of needles for possible use on the right side of 0 to about 20. The same work could be done using only one knit carriage as well, but that would require changing the cam buttons from slip in both directions to knit and back to slip at the appropriate points, one of the methods that make it possible to knit lace on the 260 bulky machines

The repeat used is for this swatch is from StitchWorld, and is knit using the second knit carriage for needle preselection.  Because each block contains lace transfers in only one direction, the fabric, even though it is a rib, reflects that in the biasing first in one direction, then in the opposite.

It helps to be clear as to whether one is producing lace repeat for use in a punchcard or an electronic model which in turn will require mirroring, such as when using Ayab or when using slip stitch selection with the knit carriage in combination with lace carriage selections to create shaped lace edgings. Testing on a small swatch will help determine whether mirroring is required for any specific design. Electronic machines usually produce the design as seen on the knit side, punchcard machines as they would be seen on the purl, thus making mirroring a requirement depending on the source for the design.
I usually begin by modifying my chosen repeat in a spreadsheet. On the left, the pairs of blank rows in the original repeat are temporarily colored in grey. It helps to be consistent. One repeat begins with a full motif, the other with half, which can be confusing when first starting out. The plan is to begin by producing a trim or edging, an all-over pattern for significant lengths appears daunting. Dropped stitches in single bed lace are no fun, in rib they may not even be noticed until the knitting is off the machine. The difference between the two repeats: the 2 grey rows on the left are replaced by black pixels or punched holes, with a blank row placed above and below each of the black row pairs. The design is now expanded from a 40-row height to a 50-row one suitable for use in a punchcard machine This explains some of the desired knitting actions Using the method described in other posts, this was the screengrab imported into Gimp. The grey line is a reference point. Cropping the image to content will allow the last blank row to be preserved by having the grey one there. After the crop, it can be bucket filled with white, or when the image is, in turn, bitmapped to B/W, you may find it disappears. Image scale is then used to reduce the repeat for knitting. This is the repeat used to knit the swatch in my 930. If working from it, punchcard knitters need to mirror designs from an electronic source such as this and will find it easier to do so by turning the card over, marking the holes that require punching on that side, doing so, and then inserting the card in the reader in its usual orientation.  The 930 .png: Prior to knitting the pattern using the ribber, it pays to test the repeat single bed to get a sense of where the knit rows occur and to make certain the transfers are happening in the correct direction and in what place on the needle bed. There should be no side by side empty needles, and in this design, the first pairs of transfers result in 3 stitches on one needle in the center of each shape, not side by side holes as seen here in the false start prior to mirroring the image Making things work: both carriages will be operating to and from the left-hand side. The process is facilitated by the use of an extension rail and a color changer. The knit carriage alone will operate to preselect the needles that will need to be hand transferred to create the lace pattern. With the following modification of the repeat, all transfers are made moving away from the knit carriage. So if the KC is on the right, transfer to the left, if it is on the left, transfer to the right. The paired carriages will create the two all-knit rows between lace segments. The blank rows above and below the two all punched or black pixel rows are there to return the carriages to the proper, left side to begin preselection for the next row of transfers. If any end needles are preselected on the knit bed, push them back to B.
It is best to knit 2 rows of full needle rib before beginning transfer, that will ensure that stitches on both beds are formed properly. I did not, had a spot on the cast-on where the loops were not properly placed on the comb, and that is reflected in the area that looks like a stitch was dropped. Begin with a zig-zag row from left to right, knit 2 circular rows, carriages will be on the right. Knit a sealing row to the left, followed by 2 all knit rows, ending with carriages once more on the left side.
COL: remove the yarn from the Knit carriage, hold it in color changer by pushing the adjacent feeder number
separate the 2 carriages
cancel end needle selection
KC is set to slip in both directions, it will remain there for the duration of knitting the pattern, make certain all main bed needles are in the B position
KC operates alone to the right and preselects the first row of transfers
COR transfer preselected needles to the left, away from the carriage. Make certain all needles are in the B position before the next carriage pass. KC will preselect for transfers to the right as it returns to the left side.  Repeat the process until all needles are preselected for an all knit row as you knit back to the left
COL pick up the yarn, engage the ribber carriage knit 2 rows on all needles
Repeat: *COL: remove the yarn from the Knit carriage, separate the 2 carriages, operate KC alone making transfers away from the carriage until all needles are preselected as you knit to the left. 
COL pick up the yarn, engage the ribber carriage knit 2 rows on all needles** until ready to continue in every needle rib.

This method is slow, I found it oddly meditative. It offers an opportunity to review stitch formation, thus avoiding dropped stitches. Hand transferring lace preselection on the single bed as well can sometimes make a fabric achievable that is otherwise cursed by dropped stitches and fiber issues.

A return to Ayab knitting

9/18/21 There have recently been efforts to provide the Stitchworld I files for easy download for electronic knitting. The file is in progress, the work of Thomas Price, it may be found at https://github.com/t0mpr1c3/ayab-patterns/tree/master/kh930. Click on the main folder “ayab. patterns” and then click on the green button at the right top of the page (code)
My starting document for subdivisions into categories: ayab patterns.numbers
I have been asked about Lace categorizations in the document, and specifically about fine lace.
Folks without access to the github can find similar collections of electronic repeats on KnitStudium.com 
Fine lace is created by changing the setting on the lace carriage between N and L whether for a whole piece or between the 2 settings on combination fabrics. Instead of being transferred from one needle to another, when the F setting is used, the single stitch is shared between two needles. Depending on the yarn and tension, far smaller eyelets may still appear. In my opinion, fine lace fabrics have a texture that is so “fine” that unless one is using a light shade of yarn with a smooth twist that highlights the changes in the surface of the knit the resulting texture may be hard to recognize. The combination fabrics have both eyelets and surface textures.

There are illustrations from punchcard books and accompanying instructions on what symbols mean in my blogpost
https://alessandrina.com/2017/12/08/punch-cards-to-electronics-book-symbols-and-samples/
Fabrics using the word lace in their name may not necessarily use the lace carriage or result in the familiar LC transfer eyelets

Variations using L point cams: punchcard machines method for isolating and/or spacing lace motifs or columns, I have read some folks have used cams on electronic machines as well
Tuck and lace: LC transfers combined with tuck stitch patterning
Woven lace: LC transfer lace combined with the weaving technique
Lace and fair isle: LC and FI patterning, both carriages selecting needles
“Lace-like patterns”: possible in machines such as Brother and Passap, which allow for the same stitches tucking in one direction, slipping on the return of the knit carriage to its starting side. It matters which cam button function leads in the start of each pattern
Punch/ thread lace: thick and thin yarns used together in machines that have the option of a setting that allows for knitting both yarns together in unpunched areas or blank pixel rows, with traditionally, the thin yarn knitting in the front of the fabric, the thicker floating behind it
Tuck lace: tuck setting in both directions with specific needles out of work
Ladder Lace: worked with columns created by needles left out of work
Punch tuck rib: every needle rib combined with tuck setting patterning on the knit bed Drive/ drop stitch lace: stitches start on either of the 2 beds, and loops are picked up and dropped on the opposite bed
Shadow lace: stitches are moved between beds in a pattern to create knit stitches on purl ground or vice versa

Repeats can be used in multiple cam settings:
Fair Isle repeats with short floats may often be used in other stitch settings
Though listed in the FI section, 3 A, B, and C are knit as tuck stitches with needles out of work, NOOW
Any patterns with large floats ie 6 -8 are best knit as DBJ, double bed, ribber setting
In patterns such as #43, the left-hand column lists numbers 2, 3, and 4 indicating color changes in the B feeder, while maintaining a constant color ground in the A feeder
Any single motif pattern may be used for DBJ if programmed accordingly
Many FI may work well when programmed with the G carriage.
Transfer lace, fine lace, and combinations of both are used exclusively for that fabrics.
Tuck patterns are safe to try with every cam setting, though the resulting knit may not be exciting. Most containing single or double rows of white squares may be knit double-long for more texture. If the tucks occur for 2 or 4 rows, with a color changer it becomes easy to change colors every 2 or 4 rows respectively, and patterns with many white cells may result in a knit that looks like what is often referred to as mazes or mosaics.
Three tuck rows such as in 236 and 248 would only tolerate elongation if a very fine yarn is in use. Color changes would result in elongated stitches being knit off on stripes in the alternating color, a less often used method than having them knit off on the next same color stripe. Any tuck repeat may also be knit using the slip stitch setting, but while tuck fabrics are usually considered reversible, the slip stitch purl side may be far less interesting.
Tuck repeats 283-292 rely on the correct needles being taken out of work to produce a fabric known as tuck lace. Depending on the machine model, the repeat may have to be flipped horizontally to set up proper NOOW for successful patterning.
Slip stitch settings with all-over pixel units matching those illustrated for tuck may be used in the tuck setting as well, ones with small areas of black cells may also work in weaving. Taking floats into consideration, repeats with rows with no more than 5 continuous black squares may work for Fair Isle.
When using tuck or slip patterns for FI, color reverse the image so the patterning of the white cells occurs in the B feeder and any color changes other than in the ground may be more easily made.
Patterns that look scrambled to the eye are usually intended for use with the color changer and again are accompanied by suggestions for color rotations made in the far left-hand column of the repeat ie in # 386 and 392 where the slip setting is used. The same patterns may be knit double bed, but any fabric changing color every 2 rows needs the first preselection row for row 1 to happen from the right, so adjustments need to be made when using such repeats in Ayab.
Thread lace patterns are best left for thread lace.
Hooked-up floats such as in patterns 408 – 413 use the technique to achieve added patterning on the purl side.
Some weaving patterns ie 427, 432, and 440 could be used for tuck or slip as well. Using repeats in other settings becomes easier when one recognized a few “rules”. Hooked-up floats appear here as well, ie 460, and variations on e-wraps ie 463
As presented the garter carriage patterns do not translate well for other techniques without manipulation ie color reverse or more.
Patterns in the series KHC 512-521 are intended for use with the single bed color changer to produce the striped color patterning, the first preselection row is assumed to happen from the right.
Patterns in the series KRC 522-531 are intended for use with the double bed color changer. The first preselection row is from left to right.
Both sets indicate color changes in columns on the far left of the illustrations.
The remaining patterns are also intended for use with the G carriage.
A spreadsheet I built at the time with the goal to divide the patterns into folders ayab patterns
1/2021 For a variety of reasons it has been nearly a year since I attempted any swatch tests in significant lengths using Ayab. I am interested in exploring long repeats created with small stitch units, and the possible illusion of color variations if any created by the fabric movement. My first design was a dbj heart of Pluto fail because of a problem between the monitor and the chair, the middle value was too close to one of the 2 other colors in the palette, so it did not get knit on the top bed, I did not pay attention, kept on going,  the patterning for only 2 colors appeared correct over more than 200 rows. The second test was of a different repeat in 2 colors. It was knit in single bed FI for the first run and here I am again with the issue I have had in the past with patterning errors in longer knit pieces. The fabric begins to do what I intended, the effect may be more marked if knit at a tighter tension. This is the working repeat, 34 X140 pixels, check if downloaded that the mode does not get switched back to RBC,  here repeated X2 in width, with a 2 stitch border in black on either side (72 X 140), suitable width for a scarf in DBJ. DBJ is a better choice for long pieces since fair isle has a tendency to not stay flat, rolling toward the purl side. The side border is a personal preference of mine. Now that Ayab allows for repeating the patterns both in width and height, such border additions, whether for a single color vertical line or to produce all knit stitches aside tuck or slip center areas are still not possible additions within the program itself There have previous posts on automated lace edging on Brother machines, ie 1, and 2. For anyone wishing to try them, this shows the proper Ayab orientation for the repeat, along with selection errors on my 910 The first preselection row is as always from left to right, the knit carriage, set to slip in both directions when on the right knits 2 rows, preselects for the first row of transfers as it moves from left to right, and lace patterning and selection begins from the opposite side. Extension rails are a must on both sides since both carriages are now selecting needles and each needs to be off the belt while the opposite carriage is in use

After absences from topics, I find it necessary to review them and their categories. This list, for now, catalogs my previous shares on Ayab use specifically, all are subject to future editing
Revisiting Ayab_multiple colors per row DBJ  1/20
Ayab: short rows automated with slipstitch  5/18
Revisiting knitting with 2 carriages single bed, 910 vs Ayab so far  4/18
A Brother 910/ Ayab diary/ EMS kit 3/18
Quilting using Ayab software  2/18
Drop stitch lace using Ayab software  1/18
Lace punchcards meet Ayab 1/18

Although my swatches this past year were often knit using another interface I have added mentions of ayab repeats which will turn up in searches. Other times I have added them to earlier posts such as this one combining KC patterning with racking 2017/12/20

 

From automated lace edging pattern to doilies and ruffles

This information follows that provided in  lace edgings on Brother machines- automated with slip stitch 2 and lace meets hold and goes round 
More on holding techniques: back to that pie,
Revisiting miters, spirals, going square, round, and more, and
Holding/short rows: hand tech to chart to automating with slip stitch 1

These repeats are designed for use on electronic model knitting machines. Because of the mechanical difference in the way that 2 carriage selection works on punchcard machines, though some are presented as 24 stitch repeats, the designs would need to be modified prior to use on punchcard models. For a discussion of the required differences please see the post Doilies: Lace meets hold and goes round

Plotting out changes to a randomly selected previous repeat

The process can also be worked out directly in GIMP, ie in the orientation in which the repeats will be used for download to my 930. The original repeat was mirrored (A), eyelets created by transfers to the right were considered (B), 4 stitches in width were added to the 24 stitch width, transfers to the right began to be eliminated (C). The final repeat D, with all transfers to the left, was used to knit the sample. The test swatch in progress I used a short cast on comb for weight across the piece, moving it up cautiously on a regular basis It is helpful when starting in waste yarn or simply using plain knit rows at the bottom of a test swatch to choose a clearly contrasting color. Here I did not do so, the drawn line is to help define the start of the shape formation created by the holding sequences and eyelets. The eyelet on the outermost edge of the circumference “disappears” as that edge gets stretched to the max. Two eyelets in the diamond shapes are not formed properly

Switching to a rayon yarn for knitting the “doily”, made for easy and quick knitting.  The comb used for weight in the wool swatch was not necessary. A single claw from a small weight on the edge stitch a few rows below the knitting and moved up frequently helped insure that the last stitch on that side knit off properly and maintained its length knitting without a knit gauge can be dangerous, here a guess is made as to how many more units might be required to make the final shape go round
I committed to 8 wedges,  another attempt at a check for size prior to seaming the shape.Before joining the stitches permanently, a quick look to see if there was enough knitting to form that pie With the knit side as the expected public side of the piece, the work was scrapped off the machine after some wast knitting, one end was rehung with knit side facing and the  waste yarn was removed and the process was repeated with the open stitches at the other end of the piece
The least satisfactory and most visible join is the latch tool bind off. Grafting by hand off the machine is the least so. For the sake of ease in identifying open stitches easily, both methods would benefit from a couple more all knit rows between each segment as seen in the repeat in the original doily post in spite of the fact that the shape around the very center opening will change.
I choose to remove waste yarn before binding off, some prefer to wait. One row was knit across all the stitches. Things were in great shape until the yarn snagged on the far right in my closing knit row, so there is a bit of added bulk there from the rescue attempts to correct the problem.
The center opening was gathered. The stitches on its side knit together so infrequently the opening beside them is larger than in any other held areas. The ladders in those spaces were latched up to get rid of those holes.  The doily after a very quick and casual press:

Not a doily person but fond of ruffles? they will be shaped with added all knit rows. The first test for adjustments in a spreadsheet The resulting pattern and reject:
A: if the design is programmed in the wrong direction, the eyelets for the outside circumference should appear on the right of the purl side, not the left
B: the last pass by the knit carriage preselects no needles moving to the right, LC makes its first pass consistently on a row with no needles selected
C: remember to set the knit carriage to slip in both directions, or knitting will continue across the whole row and “holding” is lost
D: keep an eye on the resulting shape and consider if worth pursuing Planning for diamond rather than bow shapes, the repeat was changed from a 28X68 one to a wider, 32 X 64  The extra knit stitches on the “held” side make for easier joining of the ruffle to the body of the piece. The “diamond shape” is restored. Its shape has some distortion as the spiral is created. The test swatch was lightly pressed after its removal from the machine, just enough to help it stay flat. In yarns with “no memory” (possibilities other than wool) stitches will be set permanently with pressing and steaming. If the basic principle is understood, other stitch types may be combined with slip stitch rows including tuck stitch, slip stitch, and 2 color patterning, seen here in some seam as you knit ruffles I added to some of my shawls and garments 

Revisiting large eyelet lace, hand transferred (or not)

My recent blog post on adapting lace edgings from published sources containing studio punchcards patterns led me back to reviewing a blog post from 2013 that included a hand technique and an automated pattern.
Since then I have moved beyond mylar sheets on the 910 or using punchcards. The present swatches are knit on a 930 using img2track. The pattern images and corresponding direction of transfers, in this case, occur on the purl side, therefore lace motifs need to be reversed either in the original image processing prior to download, or after download by remembering to use the mirror button to reverse the image horizontally, which is an episodic forgotten detail on my part. Adjustments in the horizontal repeats as charted here may need to be made depending on the other KM models as well.
Prior to my using Excel and now Numbers to produce my design charts, images such as this one were created using Intwined, a software program that became quickly unsupported, buggy, and then with no updates for use on Mac. It has long since been abandoned by me.
The first revisited repeat edited for automation on the 930 The lace carriage makes 4 passes, followed by 2 rows knit. The arrangement at the end of each transfer sequence will have pairs of double stitches moved onto the adjacent needles, leaving 2 empty needles in between them. Placement on the needle bed should be planned,  added “border” stitches can be moved away and toward the starting number of stitches to keep eyelets forming at the side edges for all over uniformity the end result will produce 2 pairs of doubled stitches achieved by the repeated transfers with 2 empty needles between each pair where loops and floats will form. Their locations alternate as each sequence is completed Blank rows between transfer segments are there to make certain the knit rows will happen in the proper locations at the top of each transfer sequence. The first design row transfers are to the left, the transfers to the left begin on design row 8.
LCOR ready for the first tow of transfers to the left LCOL ready to make transfers to the right after the transfers single needles are empty, with double stitches in adjacent ones, transfers to the left are repeated once more, this is the result, with transfer needles pushed out to show doubled up stitches After all the sequence transfers are completed, there will be adjacent pairs of doubled up stitches with 2 empty needles between each pair. As the following 2 rows are knit, the first row creates loops in the empty needles, the second pass skips those needles, forming a “float”. Looking a bit closer after the knit rows as the process repeats, the first transfer the second transfer The pairs of stitches that have been moved anchor the 2 side by side loops and result in the 3 strand stitch pairs, with every other remaining pair of needles empty between them.  The LC returns to the left with no needle selection  Knit 2 rows, continue in pattern.
Adjusting the tension will make for a tighter knit, I decreased it by a full number halfway up the swatch below. There is one “operator error” where I attempted to correct a dropped stitch. This fabric is composed of myriad double stitch transfers in both directions and definitely a challenge to produce in any significant size. Making those transfers by hand may wind up being the solution if yarns and automation refuse to work properly. Those short “floats” at the top and bottom of the eyelets can be reduced. This adds a hand technique to every opening, whether results are worth it becomes a personal decision. After the 2 knit rows use a tool to lift the float onto the needles holding the side by side loops Before the 2 knit rows, there will be the doubled up loops in each of those needles, and the 2 doubles up stitches made from the transfers are added to them as transfers continue. For all those strands to knit off properly, the whole row might best be brought out to E position before using the knit carriage. The differences in the hooked up float version of the pattern and the let it be one are shown in areas below the lines in the bottom corners and by arrows in the close-up Much easier and quicker to knit, though quite different, is large mesh combined with tuck stitches This chart was used in 2013 as a guide for hand technique using a 2/8 wool Knitting lace sequences in a single orientation produces a mesh that is biased. It could be the start for one more chevron shape but was not the intended fabric.
The adapted repeat: the odd number of passes between each repeating segment ensures that the following selections reverse the direction of the transfers the proper orientation for use on the 930Working out the actions in a spreadsheet, border stitches outside the fabric width may be added and subtracted to keep mesh formation along both side edges.
Needles preselected for transfer to the left during transfer, needles are preselected for transfer to the right. Doubled up stitches will now be moved during transfer, needles are preselected for transfer to the left. Doubled up stitches will now be moved during transfer, needles are preselected for transfer to the right. Doubled up stitches will now be moved during transfer, no needles are preselected. Doubled up stitches will now be moved, resulting in doubled up stitches on every other needle. Pairs of knit rows follow each of these sequences. A repeat that produces a smaller mesh with the swing right to left is found in other posts and references. Below part of a published punchcard is shown,  with the resulting swatch, and in turn, compared with the large scale version of the same mesh structure knit on the same number of stitches

Lace edgings on Brother machines- automated with slip stitch 2

Recently I have begun to look at lace edgings in a slightly different manner than in the past. I am looking back at my post from 2018, written while using the older version of Ayab software and working on a 910, and another including an edging written this month. Of late, most of my proof of concept swatches have been knit on a 930 using img2track for downloads.
A reminder: although I make an effort to include punchcard knitters in my writings, the full repeats as given and used for my test swatches and knit on an electronic are not suitable for use on punchcard machines as they are. For a discussion of the required design differences please see the post:  Doilies: Lace meets hold and goes round. The full repeat would need to be shortened to accommodate the fact that punchcard machines repeat the same preselection when the alternate carriage is used for the first pass from the opposite side.  Electronic machines advance a design row for each pass of each carriage.
When using the slip stitch setting and changing the number of needles in work, or having ladders created by having needles out of work in the A position, the knit carriage end needle selection needs to be canceled (KCII).
Many early published trim repeats were intended for use with hand transfers combined with plain knit rows. Such designs are easily translated for use on electronics with this method.

I am using a punchcard machine knit carriage with an added magnet as my knit carriage (KC). Adding needle selection to one side of the 910 electronic LC eliminated issues I had previously encountered with some inaccurate needle selections. The arrows indicate the direction of the adjustable slots in the mechanisms.The 910 LC is also missing its magnet (left), gluing on a magnet in the position shown below made it usable again on the electronic The direction of the repeat matters, its programming may vary with KM models or the software used to download them. These instructions are intended for holding to happen in 2-row sequences to and from the right, and for the eyelets at the outer circumference of the pie shape to occur on the right of the purl side as you knit (B). If those same eyelets occur on the left (A), the repeat needs to be mirrored horizontally.  Reworking some of the former swatches in no particular order, beginning with this one: The 2018 repeat is charted on the left, the amended 24 stitches wide repeat is in the center, and the mirrored image for download to my 930 is on the right. Having the repeat 24 stitch width allows for positioning the knitting other than on the very center of the machine following the markings on any 4.5 mm punchcard machine needle tape. If this is done in electronics, the design should then be programmed for all over patterning, not for single-motif.
Splitting the bottom 2 all black row of pixels/punched holes and moving the one row to the very top of the design is another of the new changes.
I prefer to plot out these repeats at the start of the decreasing angle. The first row then sets up the needle bed preselection on the widest stitch count of the pattern. The original repeat was charted using Numbers and scaled in Gimp to produce a downloadable file. The method as it was worked out in chart form, and symbols usedThe resulting, more successful swatch 2018 failed attempt at a continuous patternCharting it out anew: on the right is the amended repeat adding 4 more rows to the top of the originalThe resulting swatches:
A= the LC  switched to fine lace “accidentally” for a few rows.
B= on the very edge eyelets are single on decreasing angles, double on increasing ones.
C=Though the very edge has those differences, the number of knit stitches between the inner shape on the left and the outer one on the right is fixed.
D= the lines created by the transfer sequences to create the diamond shapes are far more successful. These charts illustrate the above repeat on the left. On the right, the edge transfers are imagined reduced to single eyelets on the increasing angle. In turn they would result in a wider area of knitting in the zigzag shape between the curved edge and the diamond shape. Another possible solution follows, using expanded graphs with extra LC passes 
“A Machine Knitter’s Guide to Creating Fabrics” by Susanna Lewis (1981) is the ultimate resource for punchcard knitting for knitters with any amount of experience. On page 223 she offers a repeat for a lace trim. It is shown on the left below, after being reorganized to start on the full 24 stitch width row of the edging. In the center chart, rows of black pixels are added, and on the right, the full electronic repeat is shown mirrored for download to the 930 2818, a 26 stitches wide swatch2020, 24 stitch version  The curved edge is noticeably different and more uniform than in edgings where the increasing angle is formed only by a single stitch being transferred to the next needle on the left, creating an eyelet immediately to its right.
The above design, as well as the Brother one published and shared at the bottom of the 2018 post, add two more passes of the LC for stepped decrease/ increase shaping. Three needle positions are involved in each sequence. The decreasing angle will have a single edge stitch, followed by a right-hand transfer with 2 stitches on that needle, and an eyelet to their right after the four LC passes are completed. The increasing angle will be formed by two single edge stitches with an eyelet to their right as well after those four LC passes are completed. Moving on to the Brother published chart at the bottom of the 2018 post: the original is on the left, readjusted for planning to begin with the decreasing curve in the center, and charted for download on the right (mirrored in turn for use on the 930). The original was said to be 68 rows high but proved to be 72. It is also 18 stitches at the widest point, not 24.  I did not follow the publication’s directions for alternating between fine and normal lace either, simply left the LC set to N.The test swatch A fellow Ravelry member reminded me of Tessa Lorant’s lace publications. I had forgotten I actually owned this single one from 1981. Upon examining it, I rediscovered her patterns, many for hand knitting with accompanying written row by row instructions and charts, others at the back of the pub, with punchcard machine repeats.
The 24 stitch card designs provided were for use on Knitmaster/Studio 260 and 360 machines. The repeats are typical of lace often referred to as “simple”, a specialty of carriages that are capable of transferring and knitting in single carriage passes. For some ways to use such cards on Brother models please see post, or search subsequent shares.
The increases and decreases are achieved through row tracking and hand manipulation. Many of the edgings pictured are very open, and the suggestion is made that they be starched. Using different yarns and working in trims that contain more stocking stitches in their body make for more practical use nowadays.
Transfers are made in the same direction, which may factor into the results biasing. The edges in some, in addition,  are shaped with multiple increases and decreases. If knitting long strips, a small piece of scrap yarn with weight on it may help keep the cast on stitches knitting and transferring properly.
I am not sharing any of her published directions, only providing ideas for analyzing and converting some of the punchcard repeats.
The first is from page 48, marked up for identifying transfers to the right (later decreases, magenta line), and transfers to the left (later increases, cyan line). A template with solid black pairs of rows to indicate slip stitch knitting sequences is a good place to start and can be expanded to suit the repeat. The yellow squares on the right indicate a beginning plan for increases and decreases. They and black squares to their left would be eliminated from the final design. Working one chart through to knitting: the bottom left image shows part of the original card. Magenta squares indicate transfers to the right and cyan ones to the left. The straight edge border with the larger number of eyelets was a bit fiddly to knit, so the second option is also offered and tested. The repeats were mirrored for actual knitting on my 930I knit to the left after all the needles were preselected at the end of the decreases and then cast on over the empty needles on the left, bringing them out to hold so they would be knit for the second row as the knit carriage returned to the right side. A garter carriage weight seemed to be enough to help anchor down the newly formed stitches during subsequent transfers. Making a pattern design more one’s own: part of the original design from p. 52, split so the pattern may begin on the widest part of the repeat, punchcard “holes” marked for left and right transfers Here it was charted out in Numbers with the intent to produce the 2 stitches stitch edge along the outer curve and a less open one on the straight vertical side This sort of knitting can be a bit fiddly. I believe if I were to produce any such trims in great lengths and had the option, I would choose to dedicate a punchcard KM to the project so it would be easier to step away from and return to it as the spirit moved me.
If any loops are formed (A) and rows are not unraveled to correct the situation, it is best not to tug hard with the work on the machine. Stitch sizes on several needles may be altered, and the movement of the pairs of eyelets may become distorted. Because the knit carriage must be moved to the far right to be disengaged from the belt, this will tend to pull down extra yarn from the tension mast. A very gentle tug at the start of the first knit row should keep loops from forming.
The condition of the latches and needles is important. In stocking stitch knitting one of the signs of a “bad needle” is stitches tucking repeatedly on a needle that is not intended to be patterning in any way. The stitch in the hook is joined by a loop that does not knit off properly.  It helps to start in a light color and a “friendly” yarn. Clearly identifiable stitch formation helps to develop an understanding of its structure. Eyeing the row of transfers upon their completion helps pick up improperly transferred or dropped stitches, saves runs that result if the latter go unnoticed before continuing to knit. At times there may appear to be a needle problem with a loop sitting over a needle or a dropped stitch and attempts to form “properly” knit stitches in transfer rows will create simple stockinette.  Eyelets will not form properly, and stitches will want to get longer and not maintain their shapes. B and C point to the resulting differences in structures. The last Tessa sample, from page 60, brings up the topic of large eyelet lace, also revisited in a recent post.  I thought the 24-stitch repeat too narrow, I expanded it to 32 and added eyelets on the straight edge.
I began by splitting the card in order to begin the pattern at its widest point and decreased the number of eyelets in the shapes to allow for automatic shaping. In these punchcards, rows with no transfers are part of the program, are free of any holes. Black pixels are used to program slip stitch all knit rows. More transitions in planning: two of the rejected swatches Consideration needs to be made in terms of whether some small ladders are a design element or not, hooking up “floats” helps reduce or eliminate them on decreasing angles on both sides of the shape, but the resulting eyelets appear a bit larger and different than the rest.
When at first I attempted 2 single eyelets following each other at the intersection of the shaps I needed to cast on after a single float was created between the center needles and followed by the first all knit row from right to left. That turned out to be unnecessary in the final swatch with the number of eyelets increases immediately after the single one in the final repeat.  Using it will place a transfer left and a transfer right, holding down the loops in the 2 hooks affected on the second knit pass to the right. Leaving the bottom float alone echoes the remaining fabric.
The image on the left illustrates the result of not casting on on that center eyelet if it is to be repeated. The other photos show picking up floats and hooking them up in needles not receiving any transfers. The Tessa trims are knit in fine yarns. This shows a portion the inspiration large eyelet trim, note the appearance of the space between the two center eyelets is different My version with the floats hooked up and onto the needles with no multiple stitches already on them at the center eyelet as the pattern shifts:
Sometimes less is more, here extra hookups are not used, making the trim quicker and easier to knit. At this point, I am experiencing sticky latches, not improved by light oiling, likely to be fatigued from constant use of the center 24 stitches. The needles do not look obviously in need of replacement. One alternative is to swap and shift the center 24 needles to a less used part of the needle bed.
Another image of the Tessa sample in repeat followed by my own test swatch At the top of the piece I did have to deal with closing the eyelets to facilitate 2 knit rows and binding off. I prefer to work from left to right, dealing with the right side of the loops first: drop loop on the right side, use a tool to enter the float created from its back twist tool and yarn clockwise lift the e-wrap onto the empty needle on the right Repeat the process with the loop on the left of that needle pair, and do so across the bed before continuing to knit. The wraps will create full stitches on the next pass of the knit carriage.

An example working with a randomly selected pattern from Stitchworld, #156: A: the pattern is divided and shifted so as to plan the trim beginning with decreases rather than increases
B: with the superimposed table grid in numbers, the eyelet transfer squares were traced, adding all black rows for slip stitch selection of all knit stitches in between each transfer sequence
C: increases and decreases are planned by removing black squares
The image was then scaled in GIMP, and downloaded with img2track.
The straight edge eyelet detail alternates the direction of transfers to the right and in turn to the left in each segment.
On the curved edge, increases and decreases were performed manually prior to each 2 knit rows. Empty needles need to remain in work positions throughout.
I chose to use the fully fashioned method for shaping, moving 2 stitches to the left for decreases, and two to the right for increases, then picking up from below the adjacent stitch to their left to fill in the empty needle. This was slower than having planned needle selection for eyelets do the work of shaping.

A very similar charting process may be used to construct circular “doilies”, where the slip stitch rows are used as a substitute for hand-selecting needles to holding/ short row positions. I have revised my 2011 post on lace meets hold and goes round/, plan on following that up with one using edging repeats to achieve that type of shape.

 

To mesh or not to mesh 7, lace knitting tips

Early versions of the Brother Lace Carriage (LC) for machines such as the 830 did not have the capacity to control end needle selection. If any needles were selected for transfer to an end needle not in use in the piece, the LC still will attempt to move that stitch, and if no needle hook is there to accept it, the stitch will drop. Where an and needle has been selected on either or both edges, the option that remains for folks with no automatic way to cancel end needle selection is to push those needles back to B position by hand. Since selection is likely to not happen every row, it may be an easy thing to forget as the length of the piece grows.
Later LC models include mechanisms like those seen in punchcard knit carriages that override the selection made by the patterning device on the end needles.There were also point cams, that help to change the spacing between vertical lengths of design repeats. For images of the Lace carriage and use of point cams please see posts 2017/10/05/lace-point-cams-…brother-machines ..
Electronic carriages are equipped with a magnet, and must always travel past the center needle 0 position center mark on the needle tape. Markings on factory punchcards give clues as to which carriage to use and for how many passes. They also may vary depending on the year the punchcards or mylars were issued. To review, here are some of the markings commonly found The graphic from the KH 860 punchcard model manual Illustration modified and adapted from multiple decades-old  Japanese magazines of fine lace
single complete transfers   Multiple transfers may be made either as a hand technique or expanded for use in electronics. Because single stitches are moved with each carriage pass, pattern repeats can become quite long, with few punched holes or black pixels Generally, it is best to use a yarn that is smooth, has some stretch, and does not break easily. Because the yarn will be transferred to and from or in addition also be shared between needles, some extra yarn may be needed for proper stitch formation. In overall meshes, it is best to start testing using a tension at least one whole number higher than when using the same yarn for stocking stitch.  Too loose a tension can result in dropped stitches or loops getting hung up on gate pegs, too tight and the stitches will not knit off properly or drop, or the yarn may even break. When eyelets are few in number, adjustments in tension may not be needed.

Begin with waste yarn and ravel cord, then followed by casting on and knitting at least 2 rows before beginning to use the LC. The cast-on will need to stretch to accommodate the growth in width which increases with increasing numbers of eyelets. The same applies to the bind off. One option for matching both is seen in this “answer lady”  video.

In most punchcard repeats, if when the row of transfers is completed there are two or more empty needles side by side, troubleshooting is required to solve the problem unless are intentionally planned in the design, with deliberate adjustments to components of the overall pattern repeat.

The needles need to be in good condition, with latches that open and close smoothly and easily. Also, check for any bent gate pegs, and use a tool to even out the spacing between them if needed.

Error corrections need to be made matching the proper stitch formation. As in any other knit, if tuck stitches occur in the same location and are not part of the planned fabric, it is likely the needle is damaged and needs to be replaced. If a loop is sitting on top of a needle with a closed latch prior to knitting the following row, that stitch will drop. If it is noticed prior to knitting the row, the loop can be knit through the stitch manually while being mindful of what action that same stitch should take in the progression of the pattern. The appearance of tuck loops, red row To form eyelets a loop is created on the needles emptied by the transfers on the first pass with the knit carriage to the left (red), the stitch on that needle is completed as the knit carriage returns to the right (cyan) If when trying to correct the direction of a transfer or a dropped stitch the transfer is not formed properly and the stitch in that location is knit manually the eyelet will be absent 

The traditional placement is for the LC on the left, the KC (knit carriage) on the right, but there are patterns that can work with their placement reversed or even swapped at regular intervals as knitting progresses.

Bringing needles out to E before the all knit row may help avoid additional dropped stitches when there are multiple stitches on any needles. Though knitting may proceed smoothly, checking the work frequently visually will make rescues of problem areas possible as opposed to having to restart the project. If test swatches are hard to knit, it is likely the problems will multiply when a larger group of needles is in use and the project should be put aside.

Because there are so few markings in lace, the lace card does not necessarily resemble the finished stitch appearance. Needle pre-selection does not make as much sense as in other types of patterns. Where knit stitches occur in vertical stripes may also not be immediately evident. Some shifting on the needle bed rather than centering may be required to have a cleaner edge, which also matters in seaming.

There are a definite top and bottom direction to lace, so in knitting scarves or sleeves that is a consideration. One solution is to knit 2 pieces in mirrored directions with many possibilities for methods to join them. No top-down on sleeves if you wish to match the body and it has been knit from its bottom-up.

It is possible to use short rows combined with lace patterns, but any shapes created are likely to change visually, so planning is required unless those changes are deemed suitable. Traditional holding by changing the knit carriage setting may not be used. Needles to be put in hold need to be knit back to A position and brought back into work as needed. Ravel cord or any tightly twisted cotton may be used. If needles have a tendency to slide forward when holding large sections or at the hold starting side as the piece progresses, some tape may need to be placed in front of the needle butts on the metal bed to hold those needles in place. These illustrations of the process are from an early Brother machine manual As with any knitting, there are times where nothing seems to work for no good reason after intervals of smooth knitting and no other changes, and a break is best for both the operator and machine.

The greater the number of eyelets in the pattern, the wider the finished knitting. Blocking in some form will usually be required to set the stitches, and may be required if the piece grows in length and narrows as it is worn or hung when stored.

Out of habit I usually leave weaving and tuck brushes in use for all my knitting, but particularly when creating textured stitches and lace.
Gauge swatches should be larger than usual, all in the pattern, and treated as the final piece will be in terms of pressing, blocking, washing, and allowed to rest prior to obtaining measurements for garment calculations.

When stitch symbols first appeared in Japanese publications they were represented as the stitch formation occurred on the knit side of the fabric, which could cause confusion since in machine knitting we are looking at the purl side. Eventually, Nihon publications made the transition and other pubs followed. A comparison of hand to machine stitch symbols with illustrations and more information: 2013/07/21/hand-to-machine-symbols-5-lace/
For cross-brand use: 2019/02/23/revisiting-use-of-lace-patterns-studio-vs-brother-machines/

I have been blogging for years and sometimes return to topics after long absences. In terms of more information on lace design and some tips on translating hand knitting instructions for machine knitting please see: 2013/07/23/from-hand-knit-lace-chart-to-punchcard-1/
2013/07/24/from-lace-chart-to-punchcard-2/
2013/07/26/from-lace-chart-…3-adding-stripes/
2013/07/27/from-lace-chart…-4-a-border-tale/
2013/07/29/from-lace-chart-to-punchcard-5-to-electronic/
2013/08/29/from-lace-chart-to-punchcard-6-to-electronic/

A punchcard tale: after the chevron post, single color sideways chevrons appealed to me. Two variations from a Brother Punchcard VolumeA= the full 24 stitches wide repeat, half the required height for the punchcard user. B= the single electronic repeat. C= the single electronic repeat tiled X3, checking to see that pixels actually line up properly.
Punchcard markings of note: A= design row 1, B= mark for first row visible on the exterior of the machine, the card reader is actually reading 7 rows down, C= typical markings for the direction of the LC movement on that row, and for knit rowsThe two rows at the bottom of the card reflect the overlap when punchcard snaps are in use to keep the pattern continuous. Looking at it in more detail Column identification at the bottom of the chart: A= direction of the lace carriage, pixels or punched holes preselect on that carriage pass
B= direction of transfers; note there are extra blank rows where their direction is reversed indicated also by the change in the color of the arrows. Multiple rows in one direction only, happening here in series of 5, will result in bias knitting. As bias is reversed, the zigzag shape begins to be created.
C= markings for 2 rows worked with the  knit carriage, the pattern does not advance on those rows on any machine
D= markings on factory punchcard
E= design rows
When working with electronics, the actions need to match those indicated on the factory design beginning with row one punchcard marking on the right.
The width of the planned swatch or piece may be programmed for use with the single motif setting in img2track or the required default in Ayab. Adding a blank square at each end ensures the end needle will knit on every row, no pushing back needles by hand will be required. Changing fibers opens up a brand new world: this swatch (unblocked) is knit in a tightly twisted rayon, edges also begin to create clearer shapes than that achieved by knitting the same design using wool. Spacing out the zigzags, another 24X30 repeat. This is the minimum repeat for electronic KMs as well, knit stitch spacing (white squares) can be planned to suit 

Once again, one must be aware of whether the lace repeat needs to be mirrored on the specific model machine. I initially forgot to do this on my 930, which results in an erroneous repeat if the lace carriage is operated from the left. Planning the placement on the needle bed controls the number of knit stitches on either side of the resulting mesh shape.  Today the rayon was having no part of knitting properly, this swatch is once again in wool. 

At one point I shared ideas for automating mesh patterns in lace edgings using the LC and the KC (knit carriage) set for slip stitch

Changing the above repeat for a zigzag border: in my first experiment, I tried keeping the number of eyelets in the zigzags across rows constant, did not like the visual “extra” line away from the edge, was happier with my second try. This fabric would do better with a yarn that can be blocked to shape, the wool used here is a tad too thin. There will be some tendency on the part of the eyelets on the very edge to appear smaller as the edge stitches are stretched into shape. It appears I also have a needle that needs to be changed The transfers of the stitches by the LC while using the knit carriage set to slip in both directions to create the knit rows, will automatically create increases and decreases along the left edge. Due to this fact, there will be one less eyelet in each transferred row than the number of pixels/punched holes in its corresponding pattern row. The knit carriage in this instance preselects rows for the lace carriage, the lace carriage preselects all needles required on its way back to the left for the knit carriage to knit on its next pass. This chart attempts to show movements of the carriages and the location of stitches after they have been moved along with eyelet symbols in their locations after the transfers The pattern repeat on the left below is as I drew it and intended it, on the right, it is mirrored for use to knit it on my 930The first preselection row is from right to left, the knit is centered with 10 stitches on each side of 0. I canceled end needle selection on both carriages. The first row is knit, when the KC reaches the left side, set it to slip in both directions. As it returns to the right it will knit a second row on all needles in work, and preselect for the first LC pass. Extension rails must be used as both carriages will lock onto the belt for pattern selection. At the start of the piece, as the LC moves from left to right it will transfer preselected needles to the right. On its return to the left, it preselects needles that will knit as the KC returns to action from the right. Each carriage in this design makes alternating pairs of passes.
When the top half of the pattern repeat is reached, the LC makes its pass to the right on a blank design row. As it does it preselects for the next row of transfers, which are made to the left as the LC returns to its home there (A). Though the Brother LC does not knit and transfer on the same row as the Studio one can, it is able to transfer and preselect for the next row of knitting (B). The above fact allows for planning transfers in both directions while still keeping the routine at 2 passes for each carriage to and from their original home. Based on that, here is another trim with eyelets in alternating directions along the side opposite the zigzag shape. The repeat is now adjusted to 22 stitches X 48 rows to accommodate the reversing eyelets arrangement. It is shown here mirrored for download to my 930. There is a blank square at the top right corner, the corresponding stitch will be cast on by the knit carriage on its move to the left, and transferred automatically when there is a return to transfers at the bottom of the design repeat. The yarn used or the swatch is a 2/18 wool-silk. There will be 2 stitches on each needle (A) at the very edge where stitches are transferred for decreases and look different than where the edge stitch is simply moved one needle to its left (B), leaving behind an empty needle. A parallel, similar difference is also noted at the inner edge of the zigzag shape. The sample is pictured turned 90 degrees counter-clockwise, its bottom edge appears on the right Transfer lace on the Passap: the console will be used to select needles for hand transferring stitches. The technique will determine the number of plain rows between transfers. Use tech 137 for two rows between transfers. The pushers will set the corresponding black cells for transfers, they will stay in that position until the next set of transfers. Many tuck patterns may be used to make the selections, they are not designed to knit on adjacent needles, choose ones that have white columns for non selected pushers 2 rows in height. Stitches are worked on the front bed. The front lock is set to N, the back lock to GX. Move selected pushers up so that the corresponding needles are easily identified, used a tool to move stitches right or left. Move all stitches in the same direction, first across a row to the right, then across a row to the left to avoid biasing if the pattern is an all over one, for borders all transfers in the same direction may work as well. Leave the needles in work position, return pushers to rest, continue in pattern.

To mesh or not to mesh 6: chevrons

While creating the test swatches for a version of single bed 3D scales using the lace carriage I was intrigued by the chevron effect that became more obvious with color changes The fabric was capable of changing considerably in look and width that could be encouraged to remain more permanent with blocking. There is a visible asymmetry, with one side of the chevron actually containing an extra eyelet. Still trying to retain the 24 stitches in width design constraint, I began to work with simply counting eyelet transfers matching in number, guessing rather than planning. Tiling the repeats can help get a sense of how things line up horizontally and vertically. Electronic repeats can be minimal unless one is programming the pattern as a single motif that includes edge knit stitches etc when downloading via cable to an electronic or using the Ayab interface. A and B continue to produce uneven numbers of eyelets on each half of the resulting “V” shapes. The greater the number of row repeats of eyelets in a single direction, the more the resulting bias. If asymmetry is the goal, then this may meet the need. I knit most of the swatches on 48 stitches, with more needles added on the right if needed to ensure the edge stitch will be a knit one. Larger shapes require wider tests. The photo is rotated to reduce its length on the page This effort produced uneven sides of the Vs, and the eyelets along one of the vertical center columns were not properly formed, resulting in an added knit stitch The added eyelets in pattern C produce an interesting change from a sort of V shape to more of a W, but the fabric is still unbalanced Back to the drawing board: a different mesh, with eyelets in alternating numbers, resulting in a  more balanced fabric. Here the charted repeat is shown X2, side by side. Different day, same yarns, both were having none of it. When knitting progresses in this manner, it’s a good time for the machine and its operator to practice social distancing.  The quality of the lines produced by the mesh was different and heavier than the one I was seeking, though the number of eyelets remained constant on both sides of the center stitches, alternating on the alternate pairs of design rows. Back to charting things out in Numbers: though the LC, usually (but not always) starts located on the left, preselects on its first pass to the right, and begins to transfer to the left on its second pass back to the left, in order to visualize the direction,  the repeat is mirrored. Cyan cells indicate actual transfers to the left, and magenta transfers to the right. This 24 stitch repeat shows where 2 transfers wind up on a single needle while an extra knit stitch is also formed in the blank vertical column, seen in the swatch above. In programming an electronic KM the black pixels alone with 2 blank rows above the second set of transfers is enough. I like to program repeats that are a bit larger, and usually will tile them as well, looking for any errors my eye might notice before any actual knitting Using electronics one may expand or reduce the number of stitches in the repeat to reach an estimated equal number of eyelets With any mesh, the number of knit rows may be varied between each pair of transfers. My swatch was knit using a 26 stitch repeat width The cast on used is a temporary one. In final pieces, the quality of any bind off and cast on should be tested as well to accommodate the changes in width lace fabrics may have, increasing the number of total eyelets exponentially. The knitting this time went smoothly. The eyelet count was as planned. That said, I was 6 stitches away from completing the bind off when the yarn simply ran away from me, and chose not to make any effort at rehanging the piece. In the top blue stripe, the number of knit rows between transfers was increased from 2 to 4, while in the top white stripe I alternated between 4 and 2 rows of knitting. Playing with such intervals between rows of transfers can produce interesting differences and perhaps a more static quality in the fabric after blocking the completed item. The knit carriage is set to N, so it has no effect on the advancement of the programmed lace pattern. The white yarn used here is a tightly twisted cotton knit at tension 9, the green a softly spun, slightly thinner rayon On a lighter background behind the swatch, 2 areas at the center are marked: on the left, there are extra knit stitches, which happened because the yarn had gotten caught on a gate peg affecting selection, and that had been missed.
With lace as with any textured knits, running a finger behind the knit along where the stitches meet the top needle bed periodically helps to find and troubleshoot the problem early.
On the right, there is a small diamond shape beginning to appear which is absent from the much crisper transfers and eyelets created by the cotton.
With these patterns, the number of rows in the striped sequences may be varied throughout the piece A repeat in this family of stitch repeats was used as a border in some of my shawls Exploring a smaller repeat, also 24 stitches wide The lace carriage makes 4 passes followed by 2 rows knit throughout
The white yarn used is the same cotton as in the previous sample, knit at tension 9, the chenille is rayon, 1450 yards per pound, the eyelet patterns are stable and distinct, Here 2 thin yarns are used, and the spacing between color changing is varied in height Another variation Adding more rows of plain knitting between lace transfers stabilizes the width of the fabric and reduces the number of transfer rows.
Here the first row after the planned number of transfers is knit using the white yarn, 4 rows in the contrast color follow it, and a single last row in white is knit before returning to transfers.
Dropped stitches do not run the way they might in other fabrics, and may not be noticed until after knit rows. Such errors here are marked with red dots.  As often can happen in machine knitting, on a different day, the same yarns, same tension, same operator, and stitches drop, get hung up on gatepegs, and perform other unwanted actions.
This test aimed for that “W” shape using the thinner yarns.
I downloaded an image that accounted for all needles in use for my swatch, so in the 930 using the isolation button on by default with img2track was OK.
Your machine may vary as to which side of the center the extra stitch will be placed when the total number of stitches in width is an odd one. If uncertain, plan the repeat for the next even number, in this case, 52, divide it evenly on each side, and either air knit to sort out selections before casting on or simply transfer that extra knit stitch over one as you begin to knit.
In a final piece, good notes will provide reminders for such small details The blue yarn refused to knit off properly, so the different added colors were tried to see if I fared any better using them.
My first swath was discarded, and the second one is shown.
The repeat is sound, the visible “errors” are the result of stitch formation issues. The swatch at first is shown stretched in length, its size could be set with blocking, and has a very different appearance when lightly touched with my now fiber burning iron On a different day, all other things being equal, the same needle locations resulted in easy success. I programmed for a 60 X 24 repeat, planning for different size V shapes. During knitting, these fabrics will appear to be producing straight color stripes It takes a while for the change to begin to be noticeable This was the result as the work came off the machine, relaxed, with no treatment of any sort the ribber is in place there are avid beliefs expressed by folks in terms of whether or not to bring the knitting to the front of the ribber, I am a between the beds’ advocate. Also, even with the ribber off my machines’ top beds have always been set up with ribber table clamps in place since having them flat simply never worked as well for me in any of my knit experiments. Taking the guesswork out of repeats, one may begin with or use published cards as they are, this is from a Japanese magazine,  from Brother punchcard volume 5, click on the images for larger views  Zig_zags are essentially chevrons rotated counterclockwise, I am including some here. The repeats for knitting them are quite different.
A one-color zig-zag from the Brother punchcard volume 5 book with a different approach could serve as trim or for knitting accessories, note the markings for the location of knit rows and varying numbers of LC carriage passes as typically seen in published lace cards There are limitations in producible width. The stretch of the cast on and bind off and the fact they need to match as closely as possible while allowing the mesh to stretch sideways in blocking must be taken into consideration, as is the fact that every end needle selection will occur regularly and those selected end needles must be pushed back consistently.
Not all lace carriages have the option of canceling end needle selection, found in later models. Point cams could provide another alternative, I personally do not like to use them.
In this attempt, the cast-on followed knit rows in pattern, the manual end needle canceling was inconsistent at the sides, and LTBO (latch tool bind off) around single gate pegs was simply not stretchy enough. Here the cast on and bind off match very closely. I used the looser cast-on method described by the “answer lady” in the video, but I bound off around 2 gate pegs instead rather than wrapping the needles as shown in the video, a method often used on the PassapSpacing transfers so zig zags are actually created in knit stitches and transfers are made with the LC passes alternating for 2 rows, and then followed by 4 rows, with each set followed by 2 rows knit.   2021 visualizing the punchcard in an added way, using Numbers: transfers to the left occur with LC making 2 passes, the transfers to the right occur with the LC making 4 passes, and both sets are followed by the KC knitting for two rows A new, 48 stitch test in the crisp, tightly twisted cotton knit at tension 9 produced a transfer texture that is more noticeable and clearly retaining the mesh grid.  A variation in the shape formation with a number of added knit rows in specific locations which are hard to decipher even in the original paper pub, where the suggestion is for 8 rows of knitting at punchcard rows marked 56 and 24. A personal choice can easily be made both as to the number of knit rows and their location(s). From a Brother magazine, a repeat moving toward a very different type of line, with an echo of the chevron movement  More information on striping options: a hand transfer lace variant 2014/03/27/striping-in-lace-fabrics-1/, and another using a stock punchcard 2013/07/26/from-lace-chart-to-punchcard-3-adding-stripes/A very different chevron in an advanced technique combining tuck stitches with lace and fine lace patterning

Single bed scales made with stitch transfers

In the past, I have explored several ways to knit scale-like fabrics aka dragon teeth/scales, and a multitude of other names. My test swatches were created using racking, pattern repeats were provided for both punchcard and electronic machines. Some of the archived material:
2018/07/19/more scales and chevrons racked fabrics 4
2016/02/22/ hand knit dragon scales
2016/02/02/ vertical racking 3: automating half fisherman in pattern-2
2016/01/13/ racking 2: vertical chevrons and herringbone

With summer here and a long absence from lace knitting, I was curious about producing scaly fabrics for the single bed. Lace transfers may be used to create folding fabrics with permanent pleats, so what about 3D shapes? I began with a repeat suitable for a punchcard machine and its limitations, adjusting it in 3 different ways A variation of Card C, with 2 rows blank after each pair of transfers throughout was used in borders in some of my lace shawls including these, made in 2011.  All 3 card designs share the fact that the lace carriage (LC) makes 4 passes followed by 2 rows using the knit carriage set for normal knit to complete the eyelets with exceptions. The exceptions are in areas where there are extra blank rows, where the lace carriage will make 6 passes in order to reverse the direction of transfers. Brother lace cards usually start with punched holes on the very first row, have 2 blank rows between LC passes that complete one sequence (here each sequence is 2 rows in height), and 2 blank rows at the top of the card.  Lace markings are few and far between, errors are easy to make when punching long cards and working in designings with pixels in particular. In this case, I did not notice until I began composing the post, and after I had completed the first test swatches that the repeat on the left has an extra 4-row segment in the top half, making it 24 stitches X 54 rows as opposed to the other two at 24 X 50.
In any lace patterning if a zig-zag is wanted in parts of the design, having 3 blank rows in planned locations will reverse the direction of the transfers from those below them. Blank squares in rows containing no punched holes (or pixels) will have no transfers, so in their absence stitches in those areas will be knit, producing extra stocking stitch rows. The spacing for such knit areas on the card may be adjusted to suit. This segment of the above designs identifies the areas in both rows and columns with no punched holes (or pixels)The knit side of the fabric is the most interesting. The swatches were first photographed as they were immediately after their removal from the knitting machine. I also tried to photograph them at an angle to show the protrusions from the surface. Pattern A: A short test version using cards B, and C When using card A, the shapes alternate vertically between all mesh ones with all knit rows at the outer edge of the folds. Using Card B, all protrusions have a fixed number of knit stitch rows at the outer fold. Card C produces an all-mesh fabric that made me think of ocean waves somehow. Turned sideways, and pressed to set the folds, the resulting fabric could provide a springboard for a host of other, different ideas: A larger swatch started on waste yarn, with 2 rows of knitting at the bottom and at the top before binding off. The design is card B, with 4 rows added to each half of the design. I am still working with the constraints of a punchcard machine, and for the moment, of retaining symmetry in the width of the “scales”. The working chart, turned counterclockwise to save space Planning for 3 repeats based on 24 stitch widths the above arrangement will, in turn, need to be mirrored for the lace pattern. My sample was knit using 2/15 wool at tension 7, using needles 36 left to 35 right The actions are reviewed here once more
The knitting in progress  I cast on loosely enough, but the bind off was too tight at the top, which should always be tested on swatches before committing to a project. The resulting fabric was photographed immediately as it was removed from the machine. I tried to touch the edges only with an iron, and mine is now overheating and doing a good job of burning my wool, thus the color changes in spots With an attempt at some steaming and pressing, the folds are retained Often the question of what fine lace is and how it is made comes up. Fine lace is a fabric against which I have a personal bias. It seems to involve a lot of work for the result unless one is using a light-colored yarn with a smooth surface to show the subtle and at times hard to observe surface changes. It fares better visually when mixed with eyelets. The yarn is shared between the needle that would normally be left empty and the one with the formed stitch already on it to its right or left depending on the direction of the transfer. If the shared yarn is dropped instead of staying in the hook of the transfer needle, as the next 2 rows are knit there will be eyelets on the ground lacking them anywhere else. Card C, knit using only the fine lace setting on the LC, looks very different from the previous fabrics, both knit and purl sides are shown, with a couple of spots where the yarn was not shared by 2 adjacent needles, forming eyeletsNow evaluating the possibility of mimicking my hand-knit version: Planning out a repeat in chart form: Knitting began with working in a 2/15 wool, tension 6, using a 7 prong tool with all prongs engaged to transfer groups of stitches onto their new positions on the needle bed. The first two images review picking up from the row below to fill in needles emptied by transfers. It is one of the machine-knit equivalents for the M1 direction in hand-knitting patterns. As a result, the number of stitches being knit remains constant throughout the piece. The stitch structure so far appeared too loose to me, so I then switched to a 2/8 wool, at tension 7 with the intent to test knitting as tightly as possible while still facilitating the multiple moves of stitch groups on each row. The resulting fabric was stiff and wanted to curl strongly to the purl side, needed pins to help it lie flatter. The shapes refused to stay poked out to the knit side.
I seldom wash my swatches, viewing them simply as proof of concept of technique concepts, not usually as springboards for finished pieces. Generally, I stop at steaming or ironing if needed.
When I made garments for sale in wool I usually tested the swatches and washed the finished garments as well. The “hand” and the behavior of the finished piece can change considerably. The hand-washed sample in the second illustration below lies flat and has a soft, drapey feel absent in the unwashed, retains the flatter shape with no encouragement needed. In its 2/15 portion, the “scales” became more flattened as well.
Washing wool removes any sizing and excess dye. Open spaces in the knitting become reduced in fulling, as opposed to closing tightly in felting. Using a constant temperature in both the wash and rinse and avoiding excessive friction, in turn, avoids excess shrinkage. On electronic machines, one does not have the same limitations in terms of the width of the repeat maxing out at 24. For example, the number of eyelets on either side of the block components of the repeats may differ, the greater the number of eyelets, the wider the spacing between the 3D shapes. Gradations may be planned in height and width of repeat blocks across the full needle bed, limited only by patience in designing, the capacity to download, and the tolerance for both the yarn and the operator to complete wide, long pieces using the technique.

Experimentation can yield quick results, sometimes with unexpected but pleasant surprises. One of my best-selling felted items for a couple of decades was an accessory that was planned deliberately to mimic a test piece that had almost been tossed in the trash. It’s good to return to things after a break for another look, and then it is really helpful if notes were kept. Another variation of the A-C cards in single repeat was tested at the bottom of the swatch below and in a staggered one, tested at the top of the swatch The “scales” were more like twisty bumps, with subtle variations vertically in some of the stitch groups. That said the results were dramatically different when color changes were added to the pattern knitting in the shorter repeat. Blocking may make an even more marked difference depending on whether the mesh (lightly steamed) or the tighter knit (vertically pulled, should be washed) produces the preferred effect. The looser stitches at the top outside edge ie at the top left corner are the result of a stitch that got away from me. The cast on was a bit too loose, I knit 4 rows at the bottom after the cast on and 4 rows at the top of the repeat before binding off. The differences in the width of the same fabric are dramatic. Any overall mesh/ lace fabric blocked for openness such as on the left will grow in length over time, is best stored flat, and will benefit from episodic pressing/ steaming to reset the width. Then I began counting eyelets, which were equal in number in the schematic for the repeat, but not equal in number on either side of the center pivot for the bend in the herringbone shape when the piece was finished. Any extra eyelet rows in the same direction will result in increased biasing in those sections. Time to test more mesh variations, a topic for another day.

Long stitches meet transfer lace

Eons ago, when I was exploring long stitches I shared directions for a tuck stitch combination fabric At about that time I came across this image on Pinterest.
It combines transfer lace and long stitches, has characteristics that make some lace patterns unable to be reproduced on home knitting machines. Upon inspection, one will see that the number of stitches varies in different parts of the repeat. Aside from creating eyelets, the smaller triangular shapes increase in width, the fan shapes are decreased by half on their top row. Long stitches are created across all needles in work, then they are reconfigured so the center single stitch of the triangle and the center 2 stitches of the fan shape realign in the same position. The number of stitches at the start of the pattern and after the long stitches are created remains constant. Trying variations on inspiration sources can lead to success, failure, somewhere in between, but also increase learning and skill that will carry over into other knitting techniques, even if the results are never used for a finished piece.

The Brother ribber is used to produce the long stitches. A bit of review: the bracket lever has 3 positions:

Dropping the ribber down 2 mm on each side gives enough clearance for thicker yarns.  At a seminar, I saw Susanna use the position to create transfer lace in ribbed fabrics, something I have been threatening to try for decades, but have not yet. Here the lace carriage is shown in position, clearing the ribber’s gate pegs. My preference is to create a chart in order to visualize and plan an “attack” prior to any knitting. White squares represent needles emptied by transferring their stitches to the right and to the left respectively. One must remember to keep empty needles in the work position to form eyelets. I found making the transfers easier an the process more visible if I dropped one side of the ribber to the second, 17 mm. position

The ribber remains set to slip <– –> on all transfer rows, and any all knit rows on main bed only. The ribber is set to N <– –> for three rows. On the first pass, all its needles will pick up the yarn, creating loops on every needle
With the ribber carriage alone,  still set to N/N, free it, and make two passes to and from its starting side. The first pass releases the loops, the second returns it for coupling with the knit carriage. Below the long loops can be seen. My needle tape is “somewhere”, has not yet been returned to the ribber after my racking handle adventures were completed. Return the ribber settings to slip in both directions, and repeat the process. Dropping the ribber to the lowest position at any point can verify goings-onHere one row has been knit on the main bed only, anchoring the loops, returning carriages to the opposite side prior to starting transfers once moreA word of caution: if loops are picked up on any single row that in theory was set to slip and was to be worked on only single bed, check to make certain the tuck lever has not been accidentally brought up to the tuck position. Although tuck <– –> can serve for a free pass on the main bed, having this setting on the ribber will create loops on all needles in work My test swatch had a couple of different# of transfer trials in horizontal segments and a few operator errors. It was knit in wool for the “spring” of the fiber, and unpressed formed pleats of sorts, while with a hard press it flattened out considerably, with not as much of a wave as I might like. My later effort led to a fabric that was different from the inspiration one, but far more interesting to me than the one above. I began with a schematic, originally planning only 4 eyelets, then adjusted for 5 (yellow line marks the change) I cast on 55 stitches 27 left, 28 right. A ribber comb and weights are required.
Having a chart with any numbering that makes sense to you is helpful.
I used a water-soluble pen to mark the center needle location for the start of transfers on either side, in this case, 18 left, 1 and 19 right. The 55 stitches include 2 full repeats of 18 plus a half (9) on each side edge.
Brother has 2 #1 positions, one on the left and the other on the right of center, separated above by the red line. The fact is something to be kept in mind with stitch counts for hand techniques where needle selection is not automated across the needle bed but is reliant on accurate counts by the knitter
A 3 prong tool was used to make transfers, the pattern could be translated for use with lace carriage if one desired to do so.
At the bottom of the swatch I stopped after 4 transfers before creating the long stitches, and then switched to 5 guessing I would like the transition better, also a clearer stopping place occurred when a single stitch was left with doubled-up ones on either side of it.
I did not find it necessary to drop the ribber at all to check on the progress of transfers. Below the swatch is shown on both sides, both relaxed (to my eye the more interesting) and after light pressing

It appears to me to be the sort of fabric that is worth revisiting after a break.  😉