Ribber trims 4

Ribber trims 2  presented a series of ideas for edgings I meant to return to. Rather than adding more to that post presently, I am expanding on the topic here.
Scalloped trims are popular in single-bed knits. Preventing any needles from knitting for any number of rows will form a wave. If automatic needle selection is used, they may be formed using both the tuck and slip stitch settings.
This version from the Brother Ribber Techniques, with knitting directions included in Ribber trims and edgings 1 If there is a problem in double bed versions using loops formed by holding stitches or tuck patterning, try completing a tubular cast-on before starting either sequence.
Using tuck stitch rows created manually way can work as a cast-on method:
Begin with a familiar yarn and tensions to form the usual zig-zag row from right to left
Set the ribber to slip in both directions
Bring every 6th needle on the top bed out to hold, and set the knit carriage to knit. At that point the yarn will be knitting solely on the top bed, so tension needs to be adjusted closer to what may be normally used in knitting it in stocking stitch.
Set the ribber to slip in both directions. 
Make at least 4 passes on the main bed, 6 will yield more of an effect but may be hard to manage on Japanese machines while in Passap, the strippers facilitate the process.
My first swatches were knit using 2/8 wool, which pushes the limits for smooth knitting in every needle rib on the 4.5mm machine. After knitting 5 rows the top bed stitches began riding up.  The next row needs to be knit across both beds, sealing the scallop.
Bringing the top bed needles all the way forward can help with that, but to ensure gathered loops will knit off properly, a bit of fiddling may be required, any tool can be used to push down lightly on alternating sides of the loops to keep the stitches to their side from unraveling. Release the hold lever on the top bed, set the ribber to knit in both directions, and continue in every needle rib to the desired length
The top images show the result of forgetting to set the ribber to knit, so there are 2 extra all-knit rows on the top bed, the bottom images were knit with the proper setting transition Since the top bed only knits for several rows, the ribber stitches can be seen elongated on this side of the knit Switching to a 2/20 wool, the same needle spacing, and holding stitches for 6 rows: One last fiber switch, a different 2/20 wool shade.
Here the detail is used at the bottom of the stocking stitch swatch rather than a ribbed one.
Watch for loops hung up on gatepegs, seen below in the top swatch.
The scallop shape wanted to turn toward the knit side but did set with some steaming.
Upon completing the holding sequence, transfer all ribber stitches to the top bed.
The tension in the swatch remained the same throughout, but in the bottom views, a loose joining row (perhaps too loose) was knit after transferring all ribber stitches to the top bed, as is often done for smoother transitions in single-bed hems. After the single loosely knit row, the tension is adjusted set to a number appropriate for the specific yarn in single-bed work.  This information and pngs expand on the knit charts in the 2019 post. If the pngs are copied, check that mode has not been altered to RGB automatically, and index back to BW mode prior to downloading them to machines for knitting.
Though, in general, starting side does not often matter, when testing techniques consistently beginning on the same side and leaving a yarn end will help identify which surface is knit facing or purl facing and whether that is of implications in the specific design.
Designing the repeat tiled for the width of the bed when working on electronic machines allows one the opportunity to add all knit borders in specific widths and to program the result as single motifs without concerns about needle placements on the knit bed or how to influence edges.
Punchcard knitters are faced with fixed 24-stitch locations on the needle bed, all knit borders would require manually bringing the needles involved out to E before each carriage pass.
As always, white pixels/unpunched areas tuck, and black pixels/ punched holes knit.
These repeats can make for interesting all-over fabrics as well as serve for edgings that flair and form bottoms that are wavy to different degrees.
12X18Knit using a superfine 2/18 merino: the tension on either or both beds may need to be adjusted repeatedly for stitches to form and knit off properly, reflected in stitch size variations here.  What happens when one is so engrossed with watching stitch formation that the fact that the cone has just run out of yarn is completely missed 12X24 Switching yarn to 2/18 silk wool at the same tension produces knit with a very different density and drape. Light bounces off this yarn interestingly, making it harder to photograph in sharper focus.  Here the same brand and weight yarn, steamed and pressed lightly, resulting in some flattening of the tuck texture’s 3D effect. Different colors or even different dye-lots of the same color in any yarn can behave differently with all else being equal.  The relaxed and stretched view and an attempt at showing its ruffling effect.  A very interesting surprise: a few years ago during one of my temporary obsessions I developed racked scale-like 3D patterns, this series reflects some of my first attempts One of several illustrated repeats designed for assistance from needle patterning preselections  I wondered whether the triangular repeat for the trim above modified to a diamond shape might produce similar results. The proof of concept swatch was far easier to knit, with no racking, and no critical tracking of all-knit row locations than the every needle rib version.12X24, rendered suitable for punchcard use The tiled repeat for a sense of resulting pattern movement 10X24 is missing the single all-knit vertical column seen above also tiled for visualizing the pattern’s movement 12X12 knit using the tuck setting,  or the slip stitch setting, making for more subtle results

Pintucks 2, ripples in knits using the ribber

This content, on a topic I intended to expand on further, had been “tucked” away as a draft last March.
Ripples in knits are created by knitting an unbalanced fabric, with one of the beds knitting more rows than the opposite bed.
Depending on the design, the fabrics may share similarities with blistered stitches DBJ.
Pintucks vs shadow pleats introduces fair isle patterning possibilities on the top bed.
Pintucks are created by knitting on one bed and slipping on the other for often as many as 6-10 rows followed by plain knitting on both beds to seal the fabric together.
Nopps are made in a similar fashion, but using the tuck setting and for fewer rows. Before moving on to exploring added textures, this shares a few of the many options.
Both fabrics may be knit with or without added automatic patterning.
Pintucks tend to be firmer and with less stretch than fabrics using tuck settings.
Some published sources for single-color versions, though intersections could be isolated and horizontal colored stripes continuing on both beds may be introduced:
fromStudio punchcard volumes included samples, calling the fabric punch pin tuck

Brother introduced the idea in their Ribber Techniques Book: My experience in knitting these fabrics has been using Brother and Passap. In my blog posts, I discuss fabrics and settings I am able to test and reproduce, so specific ones for other machine brands are not usually included for specific techniques.
In creating DIY textures, an extra needle is generally used on the bed used to knit the sealing rows.
Nonautomated patterning may be created by leaving needles out of work on either bed. Adding racking changes the fabric even further.
If automatic patterning is used along with tuck or slip settings, the end needle selection on the patterning bed is canceled or the needles on either side of the ones out of work will knit the stitches rather than tucking or slipping them.
Many decisions are made in the process, beginning with a simple variation, A, followed by B with a small number of needles out of work on the top bed,
which will create ladders between knit spaces as would happen in any single-bed knitting.
Switching to needles out of work on the ribber renders the main bed knitting with blocks of pattern and no floats, C.
The remaining pintucks are created with 6 rows of knitting on the top bed. C: racking sequence is by one position in either direction, followed by another pintuck with no racking before every sealing row
D: racking is by one position in each direction, before every sealing row
E: racking by one position X4 before each sealing row, then reversing the sequence in the opposite direction. The effect on the knit side is subtle. Additional swatch photos in each post
Ribber fabrics produced with 2 knit carriages selecting needles 
racking   Adding lots of texture:  Combining knit carriage needle selection with racking and needles out of work. The surface here is more dramatic, it is best to use yarns with memory such as wool, and to have a memo provided by the machine if possible or some other way to help track the racking sequence without errors in long projects.   Racking by more positions as well as more knit rows on the top bed. Racking: Passap/Brother 3 Combining  knit carriage needle selection with rackingAdding complexity with transfers from one bed to the other to racking A Passap special begins with deciding on which bed to produce patterning, at first with manual selection on the back bed, then with a programmed repeat on the front bed, no racking At the top of the swatch, to secure stitches, a strip of woven interfacing was ironed on, and a zig-zag stitch was added with a sewing machine before further trimming.

More on standard and modified 1X1 and 2X2 ribs

WORK IN PROGRESS

Ribber manuals usually give instructions and diagrams for ribs, and in some early manuals, the way in which the needles should be set up so that side edges will match the when garment bands are seamed is not included.
In later model manuals, instructions began to call “perfect-selvedges”.
The position of the beds in relation to each other is dependent on the pitch lever. When both beds are being used, both the pitch and racking levers may be moved so that the ribber can travel one or half turns in either direction. A half turn is sometimes used to set up the position for some accessories, or may simply be what works best in the specific knit fabric and yarn.
If traveling between Japanese brand instructions, some of the naming for parts differs.
Brother Studio or Silver Reed:
A: half pitch lever, B: swing handle, C: swing indicator Not leaving out the Passap: the racking handle and racking indicator The Passap racking handle moves in a circular direction, clockwise or counterclockwise.
On the Bulky machines, after the zig-zag row, consider ladderback arrangements for less thick and stiff double bed work.
If the bulky rib was to be applied to single-bed work, I was never happy with direct transitions on the machine. Hand-knitters have some advantages when owning a range of needle sizes and types. One option then is to start on waste yarn, end with a row of ravel-cord, and begin the piece on open stitches. Upon its completion, pick up the open stitches on an appropriate size knitting needle, and knit and bind off the rib by hand.
If only the look of the cast-on row is not pleasing, another option can be to start ribbing after waste yarn configured to the necessary needle arrangement, ending with a row of ravel-cord and beginning the rib on open stitches while leaving a length of yarn for binding it off later.
After completing the piece pick up the open stitches with a small gauge double-point knitting needle for added ease, but use an appropriate size hand knitting needle for binding off in rib configuration.
When choosing to leave a length of yarn for binding off a previously knit piece of fabric, wrap around all needles in work a minimum of four times, wrap it in a small bundle and secure it with yarn or another small tie, or wrap it around a bobbin like those used in embroidery or intarsia.
The third circular row is not needed after the zig-zag row and placement and addition of weights in ribber cast-ons. It actually will form a small float on one side of the fabric that will show if that side becomes the knit face of the finished piece.
That third row is recommended here, as in most pubs, in Brother Ribber Techniques.
The first setup given does not include any transfers between beds The rib with transfers recommendation results in a commercial-type rib which is used when the garment is to be knit entirely on double beds or when using fine yarns so that stitches are brought closer together, resulting in less distortion. Its use can make ribbed bands appear narrower than the remaining part of the garment, with no buckling or distortions after the technique change, while allowing the needed stretch.
There are other arrangements that will form ribs that lie flat and make better joins when used ie as bands in cardigan fronts.
Test swatches should include transfers to the final fabric bed arrangement, whether single or double followed by treating the swatch as one would the final piece before calculating the gauge and committing to a garment or even an accessory.
Begin with a zig-zag row and tension suitable for the yarn being used, and knit 2 circular rows.
At this point, stitches are transferred. If the fabric is to be used with the purl side facing transfer stitches on the ribber, for the knit side facing make the transfer on the main bed.
In this post, it is assumed that the knit side will be worn on the outside in each case. Seaming edge stitch allowances are taken into account.
The tension used after any final transfers to the opposite bed will need adjustment based on the yarn thickness, twist, and machine being used. It is wise to begin any experiments with familiar yarns.
The racking lever position is recommended to be set to 5 prior to any cast-on. Other positions may be used as long as the ribber can still be moved by one to one-and-a-half positions to either the right or left if there is any reason to do so. Passap markings are different. When racking I found it easier to mark its bed with my own numbers since I usually work out most of my patterns on Japanese machines. They do not apply if any reader technique racking numbers are in use, since any console prompts are based on the manufacturer’s sequencing. A practical reminder from Silver Reed: do not turn the swing/racking handle on any Japanese machine with all needles up to D on both beds on a serious collision course.   It can sometimes appear easier when making transfers to have needles point to point. If that or another bed adjustment is made to any personal preference, keep the desired final setup in mind, and before continuing to knit, check that the machine is set for half pitch.
Prior to casting on bring the main bed needles into work. Bring the same number of needles into work on the ribber, plus an extra needle on the right.
On Half pitch, H, for knit side facing, transfer stitches from the main bed to the ribber for a 1X1 effect. The number of needles in work on the main bed should be a multiple of 2+1. After the transfer, adjust the tension settings. The pitch remains on H For a 2X2 effect, the cast-on method is the same, with every 3rd stitch transferred down to the ribber.  The number of needles on the main bed should be a multiple of 3+2 When the band is complete, all stitches may be transferred up to the top bed and the piece continues in single-bed knitting.
Straightforward two-by-two bands knit and applied as a long vertical strip will want to curl when joined to a knit. Modified commercial rib variations will produce far better results.
If a sideways application is chosen, after all the stitches are transferred to the top bed, knit a row before applying the band by the chosen method. This row may appear as a stitching line on the finished piece.
Other variations: here the number of needles in work on the top bed must be a multiple of 4 +1
with half pitch on H bring needles into work on both beds A single needle on each bed seen here on the left, remains in place until the cast on is complete the ribber is racked to the left, half pitch now set to P, those 2 end needles on the left of the above chart are moved to make the edges of the work identical With a multiple of 3+1 needles in work on the main bed, begin with every needle, on half pitch the ribber is moved 1 whole position with the racking lever to the left, the end stitches on the above left are moved so as to produce identical ends.  The post Seaming, joining, picking up stitches 3, ribbed knits offers suggestions on seaming techniques.
Vertically worked bands require their own small gauge swatch. The weighing of a  small strip is bound to differ from that distributed across a wider band ie that at the waistline, and the results need to be calculated accordingly. The same consideration is a factor in shaped sleeves vs. sweater bodies.
End the bands with waste yarn, then if too many rows have been knit they can be unraveled, or if more are required the stitches may be rehung on the machine for continued knitting.
Apply bands to garment pieces that have been allowed to rest.
Some binding-off methods have been discussed in the post on binding off on the double bed.
Binding off ribbing sparks discussions on which way is best, especially if both the cast-on and bound-off edges are both visible and the hunt is on to get them both to match.
To review, bind-offs may be done in a multitude of ways on the machine by transferring stitches between beds or leaving them where they are, as well as working them after removing the knit from the machine on waste yarn.
Instructions abound in hand-knitting pubs and machine-knitting demonstrators talk about smiles-and-frowns visualizations including in some youtube videos when discussing tapestry needle-sewn bind-offs.
There are techniques that can accomplish similar effects with the knitting still on the machine as long as there is room to jump up several tension numbers before knitting the last row with both carriages from right to left.
The drawback I find using a tapestry needle with the work when it is off the machine is managing the length of yarn necessary in pieces wider than demonstration swatches.
The process may be easier for some if the work is taken off the machine and onto a hand-knitting needle, preferably a double-pointed one with needle stoppers available. Any hand-knitting illustrations or videos then become easier to follow.
With a tapestry needle, one inserts the needle as if to purl into the first (knit, cyan) stitch and as if to knit on the second (purl, yellow), both stitches are left on the needle.
The first stitch is then “knit off” and the needle is inserted into the next stitch (knit) as if to purl. Both stitches are left on the needle. Repeat steps 1 and 2. I used to suggest my students think up ditties for repeated actions, here it might be “purl into a knit and knit into a purl”.  The steps after the work is scrapped off on waste yarn bring up discussions on how best to scrap off.
The missing how-to preparation for binding off:  When the rib is completed, transfer the stitches on the ribber up to the main bed, pulling needles out to E as you move across the bed
Cut the yarn, leaving an end long enough for binding off.
Remove the ribber arm, exchange it for the standard sinker plate, place a contrasting color yarn in feeder A and secure it.
My test piece ended COR. Push in the cam button for slip stitch corresponding to the direction in which the carriage will move on its next pass, in this case, the left one. Another option is to simply push in both.
As the carriage moves to the opposite side, what is now identified as knit stitches will knit, and the B position needles will be skipped, creating a float. Knit at least 10 rows in the contrast yarn. No ravel cord is needed as knitting ravels down easily to be removed. When the piece is scrapped off, the all knit rows will roll nicely to the back of the swatch, and the rib can be stretched easily, with the top of the knit and purl stitches easily identified for sewing. Two by 2 ribs with stitches transferred to a hand-knitting needle: Using the same waste yarn scrap off keeping as for the one-by-one rib, but keeping the two-by-two needle arrangements when setting the knit carriage cam buttons to slip: 

The collection of posts on casting on, binding off, and seaming ribs
Casting on, double bed 
Ribber cast ons: breaking the “rules” 
Picot cast on for every needle rib 
Racked ribber cast on and rib configuration tips 
Ribber trims 3: one trim, four variations
Ribber trims 2
Ribber trims/edgings 1
HK trim as MK edging
Binding off, double bed
More shapes on ribber fabrics with tuck patterning, fantasy fair isle
Seaming, joining and picking up stitches 3, ribbed knits  
Twisted headband meet fisherman rib, seaming, variation ideas
Seaming, joining, and picking up stitches on knits 2
Transitions in ribbing from EON to FNR fabrics  

Seaming, joining, picking up stitches 3, ribbed knits

These illustrations are not my own work, they were taken from various out-of-print Japanese published resources including manuals for different machine brands, or handouts received decades ago, in the days of international machine seminars, and altered and resized.
For more information on seaming and joining also see the previous posts: Seaming, joining and picking up stitches on knits 2, which includes some illustrations on joining ribs as well
Seaming, joining, picking up stitches on knits 1
The plan here is to provide additional illustrations for joining ribbed stitches in various configurations so as to maintain the stitch arrangement  rib join through the edge loops of knit stitches 2X2 rib ending with one stitch 2X2 rib join ending with 2 stitches

2 X 2 rib join ending with 2 purl stitches, 1 full stitch from the edge  Attaching ribs to garments: it often is best to weave under and out of single bars at a time, particularly in bulkier knits and in short ribbed edgings. If the stitches are small, it is possible to weave under bars 2 at a time, always test on swatches before committing any technique to a garment.
In A there is a fully formed knit stitch on each edge while in B, some shaping may be seen. The gauge for the ribbed fabric vs stocking or other techniques may be quite different, so in joining, it may be necessary to adjust sequences of pick-ups on either side in order to ease any differences in fabric lengths and maintain a smooth, flat join. Attaching to a V-neck, adjusting for shaping

Working with diagonal patterning in machine knitting

After a slow down in my blog posts for a variety of reasons I find myself playing catch up with the eternal list of knit fabrics that I wish to explore out of my own curiosity and the attempt to answer questions from knitters who contacted me directly via the blog or have asked them in the online forums in which I am a member.
Stephen West is a prolific designer of colorful hand knits in a variety of techniques and complexity. This honey-striped scarf is an example.   Slip-stitch patterning is a likely way of knitting a similar effect combined with
the use of the concept familiar to many when making bias cast-on rags.
A fixed number of stitches is cast on and positioned as far to one side of the machine as possible. They are then decreased on a fixed side and increased on the opposite one.
The strip moves across the needle bed, when far enough on the side opposite to the starting one, it is returned to the original needle bed position and the process is repeated until the desired length is reached.
If the moves to and from are performed on solid color rows matching needle selections may not be an issue. If the repeats in other cam settings are to match, then proper needle placement can be assisted by marking the metal bed, the factory-supplied needle tape, or a custom-printed one, and hand-selection for the first design row may be required and planned.
This chart attempts to visualize the proposed movement using colored stripes. Stitches are bound off on one side and cast-on on the other to maintain a fixed width with shaped edges.  If the goal is to maintain straight bias edges, the design repeat would need to be rendered wider in order to compensate for the shifts on the needle bed in turn modifying increases and decreases at a different rate The black cells represent the adjusted stitch counts needed for each pattern band.  When an item such as a scarf is worn, both options will appear as diagonals. If any picture knitting is included and the direction of it matters when the piece is worn, appreciated particularly in representational fair isle, such accessories are best knit as 2 pieces knit from the bottom up, and grafted together at their center after the fact.
Increases and decreases are calculated based on the knit gauge carefully for garments. The approach to accessories may be more casual.
Stripes heights are varied to accommodate any specific design motifs or cam settings and in turn, are added to the base visualization charts.
Here an attempt at 45-degree striping is made by beginning on a 3-stitch tab.  Increasing on the carriage side creates loops, while those opposite the carriage form knots.
Increases and decreases are indicated by arrows.
Increases are made on alternating sides, opposite the carriage, to produce matching edges.
The red cells in the chart represent the carriage side prior to each pass.
Table cells have been rendered rectangular in a 4 to 3 ratio, estimating the difference in gauge between stitches and rows.
Striping for an even number of rows matters if color changes are made on a fixed side ie if a color changer is in use. Yarn ends at color changes may be cut or the yarn can be carried up the side depending on preference and the number of rows involved. If carried up for long stretches, the alternate color yarn not in use may be secured by e wrapping it on the end needle periodically. Care needs to be taken that the float up the side is not so short as to have an effect on the swatch length and having an effort to remedy that will leave yarn ends too short to be secured.
The result is not going to produce a proper square, garter stitch is the only knit stitch that results in approximately true square shapes.
If the center of the machine is always used for swatches, keep an eye on the stitch formation. If loops are formed repeatedly on specific needles akin to tuck stitches or problem areas such as those in the center of this swatch are encountered, they can be caused by damaged needles or sticky latches that may result from frequent use. Diagonal lines in knits that maintain straight sides are also achieved using short row/holding intarsia techniques. Segments are planned in specific orders which can be varied to form added shapes.  Chevrons would be more easily created by knitting separate strips and seaming as you knit or after the fact. The addition of small-repeat fair isle patterns is also possible. Keep in mind when bringing needles back into work to reverse shaping, needle preselection for accurate patterning in Brother machines needs to be maintained by hand selection.  Some of the published punchcard patterns can serve as a source for diagonal lines that may be tiled and programmed for the full design in addition to being used for their original intent. Numbers 52, 384, and 328 (published with error), are suitable for tuck, slip, and FI with moderately wide floats, while 335 would fail as a tuck stitch.
Tiling as in any patterning will reveal errors, such as here for 328.  The latter was edited to a 22-stitch wide repeat, becoming suitable for only electronic machine models.
The charts with the red grid on the top row were rendered as tables in Numbers. Since their end use is different, they are the color-reversed version of the cards, whose screengrabs were in turn processed in Gimp to create knittable pngs.
The smallest repeats suitable for electronics are given in the center row of images, the amended 328 cannot be reduced in size. The last row illustrates tiling for all files as BW images that may be opened and amended to suit the size of the pieces planned.
Files in png formats for the group: if pngs generated by me in BW indexed mode are downloaded and opened in editors such as Gimp, they will open in RGB mode. To make them suitable for download programs, convert them to indexed BW mode again and save the result. There should be no loss of data.
384, 12X2412X48 144X144328, 22X44
176X176
335, 12X24
24X48 144X144  52, 8X16
24X48 192X192 The black lines formed by units 2 rows in height can be followed or erased to establish short rows shaping a stitch at a time every two rows, in a view of at least 2X2 full repeats to check color placement as seen here. The method was used to isolate the previous ungridded color illustrations. Another instance of a published diagonal tuck card, in this case, incorporates a combination of 2 and 4-row tuck patterning. The repeat is 24X48 The previews may be used to replace color selections with those matching yarn colors used in the project to develop some idea as to how color shifts might affect the final piece.
Adding lettering or small shapes and maintaining the diagonal can result in distortion of the motifs.
One option to add such motifs is to form the knit by beginning on 3 stitches as in this shared swatch and planning the stripes to heights and widths that accommodate adding designs or fonts. Short-row intarsia will also produce diagonal striping, from simple to complex as seen in this chart, with knitting sequence numbered for each segment.  complex_number_01A limited number of rows may be knit in stocking stitch in areas following shapes not simply to travel to the opposite side and reverse shaping,  but also to add small rolls or hems.
Another use might be to add small vertical motif details or patterning in their usual orientation.
The limit appears to be a maximum of 8 rows of alternative patterns, in order to keep the short-rowed areas from developing into distorted edges, which may be variable depending on the yarn and pattern used.
This first swatch was knit using progressively thinner yarns, wool, wool rayon, and a 2/24 acrylic in the FI segment. FI is a slip stitch that narrows the knit. The dark acrylic color stitch definition here gets lost. The band is seen pulling in the short-row segments on both sides. The shaping in both the top and bottom segments is by 2 stitches at a time.  The result in different yarns of equal thickness, with the FI band knit at a tension one full number looser than the stocking stitch areas, with the top and bottom solid color segments now shaped 3 stitches at a time. There is a trick when making A-line skirts to change the triangles that would poke out normally at the bottom if shaping were to begin immediately used as a design feature in many runway knits recently. If between an inch or 2 are actually knit up straight before shaping starts, the problem is eliminated. Depending on the design this may be a solution or it may read as a patterning error.
There are some conventions and “rules” for short-row techniques, but they do not always apply.
Keeping good notes helps to make successful experiments reproducible.
Two more tries began to experiment with working on the first and last groups in the holding techniques on a different number of stitches than the remaining shapes, noting differences. In the first an all-knit row is made across the short-row eyelets, reducing the planned FI band from 6 rows to 5. A rough spot in maintaining even stitches on one side is noticeable.  Progress: holding happened at the start of the bottom wedge, the FI was knit at 2 tension numbers looser than the stocking stitch, for 6 rows.  The goal in the short row shaping for the triangles is to maintain vertical edges that appear as straight as possible to the eye. One need not work on large swatches, small ones can provide clues as to differences resulting from variations in the starting side of the short-row shapings.  Studying the results can lead to many variations. There are student theses and careers based on exploring limited techniques to the max.
Building a theoretical true square or other predictable shapes is subject to the yarn and tension used. Beginning with a small sample, this shows the order of knitting 2 triangular shapes with the carriage beginning to knit each shape from alternate sides. In this case, 2 stitches are to be brought in and out of holding at a time. Because each color knits for 2 rows, small slits happen in the fabric resulting in eyelets. They may be used as design features, or attempts can be made to reduce their size. One way to do so is to have plain knit rows between holding selections to keep the small slits from intersecting and becoming double height. On the left swatch, one yellow row was knit to the left before reverse shaping in the same color. In the swatch on the right, in addition, 2 rows were knit in the blue prior to reverse shaping.  Reviewing the concept and developing a chart for larger swatches: the cyan color cells represent stitches in the hold position and the white cells stitches that will be knit.
At the top of the first wedge, most needles will be in the hold position, return them all to the B position manually before knitting the next row.
With the carriage on either side, set it for KCI with the cam buttons to slip for a free pass to the opposite side, the first FI pattern row will pre-select. Holding need not be canceled, since no needles are brought far enough out for the technique.
Cancel the slip setting, change the cam setting for FI knitting, place the pairs of colors in their corresponding feeders, and knit 6-8 rows of pattern.
Bring all needles out to hold except for the first desired group, if the holding lever has been canceled, reset it and commence reverse shaping.  Merrily knitting along and you forget to loosen the tension for the fair isle stripe: And what if the FI were to actually follow diagonal colored stripes? The approach is the same. I am right-handed, my default is often to begin on the right. Left-handed knitters can mirror charts as needed to make them easier to follow.
The first triangle is shaped from right toward left, subsequent ones begin on the left, then to wrap or not wrap becomes the question. Review of wrapping, which does not disturb the stitch on or the position of the wrapped needle:   bothI obstinately use random yarns at hand, sometimes too thin for the task at hand, true here. Any type of intarsia, of which holding is one, will be accompanied by lots of yarn ends that will require weaving in. Some of the stitches were wrapped here, some not, and maybe the eyelets could be considered a pleasing design feature. The 8 rows of FI, knit at 2 full tension numbers higher than that used for stocking stitch, minimizes the size of the eyelets all on their own on both sides of its stripe. Errors in bringing an added group or not into work may not always be immediately visible, frogging this type of knitting can be painful.
I would not use the last 6 stitch modification in any future swatches. Elizabeth Zimmermann published many patterns for hand knitting utilizing garter stitch and striped diagonal wedges for garment shaping.
Machine-knit stitches do not form as close to square ones found in garter stitches. Rendering the full-scale garment on a knit leader would make knitting to gauge while avoiding tons of math calculations possible.
DIY is a bit like assembling paper cut-outs that are required to fit together, first attempts at planning do not always succeed. One may begin at different parts of the piece and seam two halves together if necessary in order to keep matching stitch formations in both directions. Stripes may be added to form secondary intersecting shapes. On the left is a simple one-piece vest concept with no miters in the back panel, which may be knit from the bottom up or as two pieces with a center seam.
The bolero style is repeated in 2 separate pieces with mirror shaping in the second and would be joined at the center back.
The knit gauge is easier to maintain in short or small wearables.   Many garments may be made following the concepts for creating “pies”.
Decades ago batwing sweaters based on a sideways circular knit concept were standard presentations at knit seminars. Short-row diagonal graduated wedges were followed by varying amounts of all knit rows.
This idea for a short sleeve garment is from a Japanese magazine. In creating such illustrations because of the scale of the publication, the aspect ratio is distorted. In the final garment, the bottom circumference can in fact be far narrower than it might appear to the eye in the sketch and may be gathered or left released depending on design goals. The neckline diameter at the end of the project, after joining one shoulder, is gathered with evenly distributed decreases to the desired measurement prior to knitting the collar.  A way to form a long sleeve item, using binding off and casting on stitches in addition to shaped wedges followed by all knit rows. Knitting a garment on the bias at 45 degrees will produce a knit fabric that drapes differently.
Horizontal patterning can turn into diagonals and chevrons, and fancy decreases may be used in the center shaping of the garment.
Pre-computer programs and knitleaders, an easy way to sort out shaping for garments, was to begin by drawing on large sheets of graph paper. An all-square grid is fine.
Calculate a 10 cm/4 inch knitting gauge to the second decimal point before any rounding off. For example, if the gauge works out to be 5.728, and the measurement needed is 19.5 inches, the multiplied value result is 111.696, which can be rounded off to a 112-row line on the graph paper.
Working in cm can actually lead to easier calculations and is required when using a charting device.
Each cell in the graph paper grid equals one stitch and one row.
For knitting on the straight grain, based on gauge, draw series dots placing them on the beginning and the ending pots for each measurement, and connect them with straight lines.
Curves such as those necessary for necklines may be composed of short straight-line segments.
When knitting from the bottom up, continue with a colored pencil, filling in squares as they jog in or out, maintaining the new outline as close to the first as possible.
For the bias knit, whether on graph paper, the computer, or a charting device, begin by drawing a 45-degree line.
Rotate and trace the unmodified original straight-line image in place, follow the lines, and mark in and out jogs once more in color for contrast.
This is a very small chart so outline jogs in far larger pieces cannot be reflected. They would produce edges not as straight as in standard knitting, which will need to be considered when joining finished pieces.
As the piece is rotated, a wider grid base is required. Consider that the motif images as they are worked on the purl side will be mirrored horizontally on the knit side, a particular consideration if any text is introduced. Comparing theoretical purl as opposed to knit views on the left, two purl views on the right.   Fonts in various stitch and row counts are useful when planning knit text.
The point at which the text or pattern is introduced needs to have enough stitches in work on the machine to contain the intended words, ie for the above, a minimum ground, independent of shaping, would need to contain more than 9 rows if solid color stripes are to be added above and below it, and 26 stitches in width in this case.
A proof of concept swatch with arbitrary shaping on every other row illustrates the need for shaping based on a calculated gauge if a square is indeed the aim.
I knit on a 930 where mirroring is automated for programmed designs, so the text was programmed as drawn.
Sometimes less information is more. It became evident very soon that the placement of the text on the left was wrong if the aim was to have it centered in the final shape, and that more rows were needed at the top of the design.
On the right, the purl side as it faces the knitter is shown, with black pixels used to represent increases and decreases. The center red line separates the needle placements on either side of 0, and the text is shown in the default mirroring. The respective swatches after their rotation preview one of the potential results A true diagonal repeat may be planned for motif patterning knit from the bottom up. The drawback is that for executing a fair isle using more than 2 colors or with multiple color changes, partially illustrated on the far right, the 32X32 repeat would need to be rotated and knit as above.  

From the Brother machine knitting techniques book, a suggestion for dividing a sweater front into diagonal halves created by using the holding technique  

The idea of chaining the eyelet areas to reduce the size of the slits is an interesting one that up to now I have not tested.

Diagonal pleats

Long vertical button holes/ slits in knit fabric 1: intarsia

There has been a long thread in the machine knitting FB page lately that arose from a share of these 2 images.  There are three hand-manipulated methods available on most machines. True intarsia knits all parts of a design simultaneously and is best suited for complicated designs. Short-rowing is best suited to diagonal shapes, while the slip method is to vertical shapes. Both knit designs one section at a time and have no floats between shapes on the purl side.
True intarsia is also called bobbin or tapestry knitting.
Members contributed their concepts along with some of their swatches illustrating the idea that effects similar to the cables on the left could be executed in intarsia.
One member shared an Instagram link with a body of work by cari + carl using the technique.
I have been knitting for decades. Intarsia on the knitting machine along with cables or most hand-technique-only finished garments is something I have avoided at times, simply because they were too time-consuming when knitting items for sale in shows or even galleries, at others because some evoke my personal flight response.
I used to hand knit as well, preferred lace, intarsia, and most definitely complex cables knit on 2 needles.
Prior to attending a design school as a student, I worked in a shop that happened to sell knitting machines but whose main income came from selling yarn and lessons to hand knitters. As part of my responsibility, I had the job of hand knitting bulky intarsia sweater samples which at the time featured large images, often of birds or other animals, that were sometimes wrapped over the shoulder and onto the back or sleeves.
As I began to work on Brother machines, I acquired all the related accessories. My intarsia carriages other than in demos were stored unused for years. I gave away my yarn-brake years ago,  and very recently shipped my Brother 260 bulky intarsia carriage to a Parsons student, so by default any of my experiments at present will be knit on a standard km.
I was stuck on the idea at first of large stitch count cable crossings being made by using holding techniques and initially could not imagine how the same could be done using an intarsia carriage. It took a while for me to sort out in my brain that slits may be created in intarsia by simply not wrapping stitches as the knitting continues and maintaining color changes across the row of knitting, resuming yarn crossings in the areas that require joining.
Some considerations: using the intarsia carriage, the stitches are formed in stocking stitch, so the resulting knit strips will tend to curl to the purl side, far more noticeable in narrow strips, perhaps less so in yarns that will result in stitches that are permanently set by blocking. Using bulky yarns on appropriate gauge machines may also lessen the curling.
Experimenting with familiar yarns helps determine whether the familiar knit carriage tension when using them on the single-bed matches that achieved when the intarsia carriage is in use.
My Brother Machine Intarsia Standard carriage is the KA-8210 model:   It was intended for use on early Brother punchcard models listed in the manual. Trippers were required to advance the row counter in later models.

The B tripper doesn’t engage in my carriage, the A tripper does, and triggers the row counter in my 930.
The yarn placement for intarsia knitting is the same as that used in knit weaving.
“Sinkers” are provided with the accessory, and frequently turn up in the “identify this please” questions in forums. I have a tendency developed early on to use clothes pins as small weights when needed, used them in the swatch that follows, and if bobbins filled with yarns are used instead of the yarn balls or cones, their weight will be enough to keep yarn lengths manageable.
Each area of color has its own yarn supply, usually wound on bobbins.
Yarn bobbins are available in a variety of materials and sizes from cardboard to plastic or even wood. The overall shape may vary, but the concept of wrapping yarn around the center of a narrowing shape and slipping an end through a slot to secure it is shared by all types related to the image on the left. It is possible to make your own in similar configurations out of any material that will hold its shape.
The clamshell version became my preferred version of the tool. The small ones come in handy for holding ravel cords or even wire.   When knitting more than a swatch it is likely far easier to work without a ribber in place. I like to do all my knitting with the main bed anchored and angled with ribber clamps rather than flat. If the threader is missing from the supply of sinkers, floss threaders can help, and are also handy when beading on the machine. The used yarn here is 2/18 To knit: begin with a familiar yarn. This carriage may actually produce a different stitch size and resulting gauge than the result when using the same tension number on the knit carriage, a factor if the plan is to combine intarsia segments with the main carriage for any stocking stitch across all needles in use.
Brother knitters are familiar with the preselection of needles when patterning. When using the intarsia carriage all the needles in work, B, are aligned in the D position. They are seen below just behind the latches.
Knitting may begin on either side. Start on waste yarn and ravel cord if working on a large piece, cast on, and knit one row unless casting on in different colors matters.
Remove the knit carriage and continue using the intarsia carriage, beginning with it opposite the side on which the knit carriage had been removed, leaving a yarn end.  If any latches are closed, the stitches will drop on the next intarsia carriage pass. They will drop as well if the yarn skips being laid over any of the needles in the D position. There will be an eyelet at the very start of the process which is eliminated when the yarn ends are woven in. A reminder for Studio knitters: Brother needle positions are A, B, D, and E, C was present in very early models but was then eliminated permanently, while Studio kept the alphabet in proper order.
Laying on the yarn  An illustration of the crossings to eliminate holes.  I had initially begun on an uneven number of stitches, then decided it was more practical to be able to use 7 prong tools for my planned cable crossing, so I decreased on each side accordingly.
Eliminating the crossings will deliberately cause separations between the colors.
If the intent is to cross the resulting strips, then the side of each where transfers stop matters.  Using the appropriate tools remove the stitches onto them.    The yarn ends need to be kept free for the next intarsia carriage pass, the needles are aligned in the B position after the cable crossing is created. Remove the carriage by sliding it off the bed or using the release knob Return it to the opposite side to make a free pass and return to the side of the needle bed where the necessary yarn ends will be available to proceed.  Resume wrapping to join the strips once more Knit to the desired length, and bind off in one or more colors.
When off the machine the stocking stitch strips will curl. Here the knit is exposed to steam and some light pressing This gigantic swatch, for me, is the end of my intarsia knitting, though it is best to never say never.
Tips and techniques for the Studio AG 50 Intarsia Carriage
Brother Intarsia without an intarsia carriage
If cable crossings are the goal for this and following slit techniques, planning the crossings in color can help track the process. This is one of my earliest illustrations for doing so, from my Excel days, followed by a series of later blog posts on the topic. screenshot_33

More “buttonholes” and slits

In the past few years, in many runway collections, knit pieces have featured slits that happen either/both horizontally or vertically, with some effects achieved by turning the fabric sideways.
My first post on horizontal slits was written in 2016.
This post will share published references describing additional various methods for creating them.
A review of grafting aka Kitchener stitch is illustrated here for hand knitting and used in some of the buttonholes/slits that follow. Some single-bed buttonholes were illustrated in the post. One of the many resources Horizontal single-bed: using a ravel cord and tapestry needle  A vertical option  Single stitch eyelet in knit one purl one rib, suitable only for small buttons Another version: leave the needle in B position out of work for a few rows, slide latch tool under a couple of the resulting floats, pick up the next in the hook, and latch-up as shown.      Using waste yarn/ ravel cord followed by sewn bind-off, possible on unfolded fabric bands   An interesting translation in the publication of horizontal 😉 

The published reference to waste yarn here implies the use of a contrasting color yarn in a fiber content that allows for it to easily be slipped out when the process indicates. Any smooth yarn that will not break easily and can be knit at the same tension as the knit piece for a comparable gauge may be used, ie crochet cotton or nylon. Although yarns that shed may function for this purpose, they may leave contrasting bits of fiber and color behind in the finished knit that will not be removable.
Double-layer buttonholes may be used in stocking stitch bands applied to the side edge of a garment ie cardigans upon completion of the piece or may be planned in hems if the piece is to be turned sideways.  Here they are folded horizontally on a band that will be applied to the finished edge ie of a cardigan’s front
1: push the required needles to hold, knit them back with waste yarn
2: continue to the position for the next slit, and repeat
3: with a transfer-tool pick up the sinker loops of the first slit that were
created with waste yarn
4: place the sinker loops onto the needles in the holding position
5: push the needles back into the working position
6: knit loops through pre-existing stitches
7: to complete the lower edge of the buttonhole transfer the second
stitch to the first stitch of the buttonhole
8: transfer both stitches onto the empty needle
9-11: repeat the process
12: pick up the loop below the waste yarn
13: place the loops on their respective empty needles
14: continue to knit, and pull out waste yarn after a few rows to check for proper formation of the buttonholes It is possible to work across a whole band, here the joining method uses a tapestry needle and is akin to grafting.   Buttonholes folded vertically are actually worked on live stitches. Pressing the fabric helps to set them. Another view: This method uses holding on the ribber to create vertical openings tappet tool. The latter is the ancient term used for what has come to be known as a latch tool

Building more textures in needles out of work spaces


WORK IN PROGRESS

A collection of previous posts exploring some variations on the topic:
Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 1 3/15

Ladders with lace, (leaf) “making things work” 2 3/15
Ladder lace 8/13 Instructions reviewed in 2022, one of the accompanying swatches: Ladders and Lace 8/13. MK ladders, and a bit of crochet 12/16
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 1) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims (and fabrics 2) 6/17
Tuck “lace” trims or fabrics 312/17
Automating tuck stitches combined with “lace” 2 6/17
Combining tuck stitches with “lace” 1 3/15
Many fabrics other than the traditional ones familiar to hand knitters and machine knitters that create eyelet patterns by transferring and combining stitches with yarnovers often include the term lace in their name, one such is ladder lace.
No matter what machine is in use, charts may be developed and followed that include row-by-row directions for needles out of work and any movement of stitches to alter the look of the floats created in the resulting spaces.
Knitology offers endless video inspiration for lovers of hand techniques including ones relying on patterns including ladders.
There are several aids in maintaining the desired repeat in NOOW (needles out of work). When establishing the initial needle configuration, punchcard knitters can punch a single row to match the required needle selection if the repeat works within the 24-stitch constraint, and use locked preselection to make transfers in base knitting.
Electronic knitters may use the same concept, I prefer if doing so to plan for programming the width of the stitches in use on the needle bed, adding pixels for knit borders on either side. Punchcard users may need to disregard some needle selections to form them.
Another option for hand technique tracking in addition to marking the needle tape or even the needle bed is to print custom needle tapes created in a spreadsheet.   They can be marked as needed to guide hand technique selections, with colors added if preferred, and are easily swapped out if corrected or additional tapes are needed for different segments of the same technique.
A variety of printable tapes for multiple gauge knitting machines is offered by Claudia Scarpa in her blog post.
A series of printable sheets for tracking row counts at even intervals may be found at the bottom of this post.
In laddered fabrics, the edge stitch on either side of the float may widen and grow in size over time.
The 8/13 swatch uses lace transfers that produce doubled-up stitches to help with stitch stability.
Adding hand techniques serves a similar purpose in wide or varying ladder space designs created on the knit bed.
The length of the item produced combined with the added weight in the finished piece as it is hung or worn may quicken any lengthening and narrowing of the piece, requiring blocking again or at the very least pressing and steaming.
The fiber used makes a difference in the retention of the blocked shapes, in this case, man-made fibers may serve better than wool with its spring back.
If a needle is emptied, if left forward or brought back to the B position, it will pick up a loop on the next pass, and when followed by a second knit row, an eyelet is formed in the loop location.
If a loop on a previously empty needle is dropped after it is formed, the resulting ladder grows in width.
Latching ladders while on the machine creates knit stitches on the purl ground.
Stitches may be removed and returned to the needle bed, cable crossings may be involved.
Picking up the heels of specific stitches on designated rows below and placing them on the knit stitches to the right or left of the ladder space is a way of adding non-vertical shaping.
If experimenting with the number of rows knit before adding hand techniques, keep good notes in order to be able to reproduce segments in an all-over pattern. Beginning patterning with simple transfers in stocking stitch ground, here the needle configuration shifts but remains constant throughout. My proof of concept swatch is knit in 2/8 wool.  Visualizing the necessary actions:  The proof of concept: 
Adding 2X2 cable crossings: this repeat is 12 stitches wide.
A chain cast-on allows for dropping the 2 chains in the location of the starting ladders, with some weight applied to the starting rows one may proceed to the first cable crossing.
On row 6, and then again at 10-row intervals from there, the designated pairs of stitches are crossed consistently in the same direction. The needles aside from the crossing are pushed back to the A position.
Knit 4 rows.
On row 10, and then again at 10-row intervals from there move the left stitch of the pair of the center needles to its left, and the right stitch to its right, restoring the empty column at the center of the chart. Return the remaining empty needles to the B or E position
Knit 6 rows.
Repeat the process, ending with 6 knit rows. This variation uses transfer lace stitch crossings to produce larger eyelets than seen in the above swatch. Row counts for specific hand techniques can be tracked in a written or printed document if preferred. The knitting in progress: the initial needle spacing:  Emptied needles are in the process of being returned to work after the transfers to restore the initial setup, the first knit row will create loops on those needles, and the stitch is completed with the next knit pass from the opposite side     The growing pattern becoming apparent After updating the 8/13 post, these experiments continue exploring the above concept. The yarn now used is a wool rayon, which appeared not to split, and retains blocking if it is used.
The samples use an 8-row repeat with different transfer methods. The first uses two-stitch transfers. The 24-stitch version is suitable for a punchcard, 48 rows in height. the smallest electronic repeat  tiled to a 28-stitch repeat for the electronic, in the width of my planned swatch, only for the required 8-row height The now familiar double loops Beginning ladders A partial row view of stitches moved 2 at a time toward the higher end stitch count, treating the loops as one would stitches e-wrapping one of the two loops consistently in the same direction at the top of the piece will form equal eyelets on the next pass  Working with multiple loops held in hooks of specific needles: the following swatches were actually the beginning for what became the above thread
I tend to web surf in the early morning hours. Sometimes that includes coming across YouTube videos where contributors show fantastic dexterity at handling tools while developing complex fabrics using only hand techniques.
This is one example:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoJbbInlxck.
As usual, I attempted to automate as much as I could and failed to be able to execute a truly similar fabric.
In my first modified version, I introduced knit rows as seen below to make tracking of hand techniques easier and to facilitate knitting stitches/ loops groups.
The result is of course quite different from the swatch in the video.
To knit: begin with a permanent cast on over the planned number of needles. In this case, 2 needles are included to form vertical all-knit borders on both sides.
I knit most of my proof of concept swatches on an electronic machine and download a plain design repeat with a stitch count equal to the entire width of the number of needles in use on the bed.
On a punchcard model, the all-knit border needles would have to be brought out to E on every row for them to knit with each carriage pass.
Using provided repeat pngs as shared may require mirroring the repeat horizontally depending on the download program and the knitting machine model used, as well as changing the image mode back to indexed BW since downloaded designs from the posts may be converted to RGB mode as they are copied.
If working on a finished piece, knit several rows of waste yarn, followed by a row of ravel cord and a permanent cast-on, otherwise simply knit enough to hang a comb and some weights, required for most tuck knitting.
I happen to have a 2/20 wool as my go-to for most experiments that result in 4 or more loops building up in the needle hooks.
The beginning concept: hand transfers and automated tuck patterning 
The programmed repeat is planned for two rows of knit stitches between sets of loops  After the cast-on and base knit rows, program the machine and preselect the first pattern row. The starting side does not matter unless the use of the color changer is planned, in which case, the first preselection row would need to move toward it.
Because some needles are taken out of work, end needle selection is canceled.
After the first preselection row, the machine is set to tuck in both directions.
My test repeat was programmed as a single motif on the 930, with the image mirrored horizontally.
Each pattern segment is 6 rows high, the full repeat is 12 rows tall. Color changes could be introduced every 6 rows.
Following the chart for the first segment, transfer the A marked nonselected location needles to the adjacent preselected ones on their left, push the emptied needles out to A position, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches/loops out to E position.
After 4 tuck stitch rows, push any needles previously placed out of work to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass as part of an all-knit row.
As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the second all-knit row will preselect. As the carriage again moves once again to the previous side, it will knit the whole row, while preselecting for the first hand-technique row once more.
Prior to the next carriage pass, transfer each of the marked B location nonselected needles to the adjacent preselected ones on its right, push the emptied needles out to A, OOW after each transfer, and its adjacent needle with the combined stitches out to E.
Form loops for 4 more rows, and push any needles previously placed back to A position out to E so they will knit appropriately on the next pass, forming an all-knit row. As the carriage moves to the opposite side, the next all-knit row will preselect, followed by preselection for loops and transfers again as the carriage moves again to the previous side knitting every stitch.
Repeat the process for the desired length.
End the piece with at least 2 all-knit rows after a full or half design repeat. Cast off loosely to compensate for the widening due to the type of stitch formation. This fabric is executed as a hand technique/ short rows with no automated tuck patterning assistance.  I have found when using the tuck automated setting in Brother models there is often a limit for accumulating no more than 4 strands in the hooks of the needles, while in using holding, manually pushing needles out to hold and back to work can be far more forgiving.
In this instance, loops are formed for 6 consecutive rows.
There are no all-knit rows. The color changes were made every 6 rows prior to knitting across the newly adjusted needle positions.


 

 

Pretend/ mock cables 4

The blog post Pretend/ mock cables 3  presented the concept of using tuck stitch patterning and needle preselection, a Brother feature, as a guide to creating a version of mock cable crossings.
These designs are from an ancient Japanese publication.  Technically the results are not very cable-like for these three concepts, but they share the principles behind the technique. I am offering this information as a way of interpreting and adapting the suggestions in the publication. There has been some editing of the originally shared repeat suggestions after testing them in proof of concept swatches.
The scanned inspiration source:    The punchcard repeats: symbols are used in the above chart. The elongated short inverted U shapes, with some in bold type, represent the tuck stitch locations and needles that will hold loops in a pattern. The longer, thinner inverted Us suggest which tuck loop(s) will be raised and hooked up on new locations to create the desired textured effects.
Punchcards mirror the design horizontally when in use, so the texture will appear as shown in the swatch photos on the knit side when the design is worked based on the illustrated charts on the right.
When using the tuck setting, unpunched holes will create loops on nonselected needles, punched holes will create knit stitches. Electronic patterns will use black and white pixels to result in the same selections.
Deliberately not punching holes or adding white pixels may be used to provide a marker on all knit unpunched or black pixel rows for hand techniques to take place, ie in the repeat planned for 194.
With the charts as guides, partial punchcard repeats for the three designs: Punchcards ideally require a minimum of 36 punched pattern rows to roll accurately, the single, smallest repeat segment is adequate for knitting on electronic machines.
I knit primarily on a 930 and prefer to tile the repeats in width to the number of needles in my samples. The single motif button, default on the 930, need not then be reset and the design will be automatically centered. It is not a necessary step. Centering any single repeat across the needles in use or otherwise placing it may be achieved by programming its position. In punchcard machines, the selection is fixed across the 24 stitch markings on the needle tape, other positioning may be achieved by shifting the knitting in its position on the needle bed.

My illustrations are achieved by using both Mac Numbers and Gimp.
Adding color to help visualize hand techniques, and tiling to check alignments:
192 is 8 rows in height, more than that is needed to indicate the locations for hooking loops up. It appears this happens on white squares in the published original chart, which translate to knit stitch locations, the punched holes in the card.
For some transfer locations, no needle selection clues are provided, and they are made based on visual identification.
If the transfer is to be made onto a preselected needle, push the appropriate needle back to the B position.
Visually follow the rows down to locate the appropriate tuck loop(s),
lift them onto the needle just put it back to B,
and push that same needle out to the E position after the hook up in order to form a knit stitch with the next carriage pass.
The repeat with the most frequent hand technique is 192, with hookups every 8 rows    Using light color yarn makes it easier to identify the closely packed stitch structures.
The tool used to pick up and rehang stitches can vary depending on personal preference.
Programming the design as an 8-row pattern allows for easier tracking in a design that requires actions to be taken at that specific interval.
Another view: I had a hard time finding the proper spot for picking up loops and needed extra magnification in addition to my bifocals to sort that out.
The wool used for the test swatches is a 2/8 weight.
Because transfers in the scanned publication are made on a tuck stitch row, these designs may be easier to execute on a Studio machine.
As Brother knits that last tuck row, it preselects every needle for the knit row that will happen with the next carriage pass from the opposite side. I found the location easier to track for the hand technique a row early, before the every-needle preselection.
The effect is subtle and time-consuming, a consideration if planning larger pieces of knitting. 193 is 20 rows high, with hookups every 10. In the concept swatch, some of the tuck stitches were eliminated, seen here in a 48 stitch wide repeat, allowing for a released edge on either side. The tiled X2 in height repeat checks its vertical alignment.  This time as many of the compounded knit and tuck loops as possible were moved, producing more detailed surface textures on the knit side 194 is 48 rows high, with hookups also every 8 rows.  The single 24X 48 png is followed by the tiled 48 stitches wide version and the tiled Gimp alignment check   The visualization of stitch/loop movements The hand technique occurs after an all-knit row, which in cards would be all punched, in electronics all black pixels.
In Brother kms, while the first all-knit row is made, the next with isolated pairs of preselected needles will occur.
Prior to moving the carriage to the opposite side, hook up from highlighted locations, and bring needles out to E after doing so. As the carriage travels across the bed again, all knit stitches will form while preselecting for the subsequent tuck stitch row. A rhythm will develop eventually.
Notes to self:
some days it is not good to be near a knitting machine
cables and intensive hand techniques are still on my avoid if at all possible list
keep an eye on broken ends of yarn in old cones at least periodically before knitting across whole rows
if knitting lengths of this technique, or even a large swatch, removing the ribber if it is in use will facilitate the process. Remember to check its balance when it is recoupled with the main bed
while you are busy keeping an eye out on what to pick up and which stitches did not form properly or are jumping off the main bed, remember to look up at the yarn mast periodically, especially if the tension appears to change suddenly An improvement, however, over this masterpiece a decade ago when working in my attic supplementary studio space 😉 Although all hooking up aka ruching is in the same direction, there is no apparent biasing. This fabric is quite compressed, not for someone without a lot of focus, patience, and good eyesight. This pattern emulates the wishbone trim familiar to many knitters. It is the easiest in the series to execute, with the most textured result. The knit repeat used in the swatch is 26 stitches wide and can be trimmed easily to 24 stitches wide for use with punchcard machines.
The heels above the designated tucked stitches at the bottom of each repeat are lifted up and onto the single unselected needle of an all-knit row.
End needle selection is on, and the tuck setting in both directions is used after the initial preselection row.
Though initially an all-knit border was planned on each side, several knit stitches were eliminated on one side of the swatch. The difference is seen in the edges of the work, where all-knit stitches are allowed to roll, creating a very different “trim” than where tuck patterning was left uninterrupted. Such rolls can make satisfactory added details along accessories such as scarves, where a few rows of all knit stitches may also be allowed to roll to the purl side at the top and bottom of the piece as a finishing alternative.
The 26X16 single repeat.  Tiled repeat, checking alignment  Charted information   The proof of concept swatch A mock cable trim may be knit separately, in any color or even multiple colors, and applied as you knit on a large piece or stitched on after the fact.
One variation as a hand technique: after a closed cast-on on 10 stitches, knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side of the original cast-on row, and hook up on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center. Knit 10 rows.
Pick up the second stitch from each side 10 rows below, hang on needles 5 and 6 on each side of the center, and repeat to the desired length.
Color changes may be added every 10 rows when all knit selection is made.
The slip stitch setting in this case is used to track and facilitate the process.
End needle selection is on, with the knit carriage set to slip in both directions, with the first preselection row made after at least one base knit row.
Weight may not be necessary depending on how comfortable one is with managing the knit without them and the yarn being used.
The repeat, in turn, is tiled twice in height in the shared png A short slip stitch float will form in the location of the white pixels at the bottom of the chart and when the selection is made to match the top row of the repeat, the single float is picked up and hung on the unselected needles, Those needles are brought out to E position after the transfers.
At that point, prior to the next carriage pass, the color may be changed. The short single skipped stitch floats are shown more clearly in this image. When changing colors it is best to use yarns of the same thickness that will knit easily at the same tension, not done in the first shape in this sample.
If using 2 carriages operating from opposite sides to carry different color(s) remember that extension rails will need to be used, as both will be selecting needles and will anchor onto the belt to do so.
Floats will happen at the side(s) as colors are carried up, but they and cut yarn ends can be hidden when the trim is applied. Here a fixed number of stitches +1=11 is knit for a fixed number of rows
an eyelet is created every 10 rows A
A single eyelet was sufficient to allow for feeding the trim through on the same side and from the bottom up, B and C, upon completion of the planned strip length. The red sample on the left is knit with 2/18 silk/wool, the blue is 2/wool. It is best to avoid any fiber that will pill easily.
The blue samples were knit for 65 rows each. In DIY, begin a test by casting on an odd number of needles (11, chart row 0)
if all needles are not properly formed after a permanent cast-on, bring all needles out to E for the first 2 or 3 rows
insert a claw weight
knit the same number of rows as cast on -1 (10)
transfer a needle to the left or right so as to maintain an even number of needles on each side after the transfer, making certain the empty needle is in the work position before the next carriage pass (chart row 10)
as you knit to the opposite side a loop will form on the empty needle, the eyelet location (chart row 11)
a carriage pass to the opposite side will form the full stitch in the loop location (chart row 12)
The charted working repeat for the trims below is outlined in red 

ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 3

Previously published:
ArahPaint and Gimp in knit design 2
ArahPaint meets Gimp in knit design 1

Gimp allows one to work on multiple images with only a single window open, left mouse clicking on any one of the images will bring it into view for editing. In the dark theme, it is hard to see the difference, but a lighter border actually surrounds the active image distinguishing it from the others, outlined here in yellow In Arah, multiple windows may be opened at any one time, and left-clicking on any one of them will bring it to the front for editing.   When working using the same file in more than one window, the degree of magnification needs to match in each.
Spreadsheets and paint programs may be used to achieve color separations for designs intended for specialty fabrics, many worked on the double bed.
Two places to begin exploring them here are for knitting single bed mosaics and double bed jacquard in its form where each color in each design row knits twice.
It is unlikely to happen often in knitting that more than 6 colors are used in any one fabric except perhaps in an elaborate color-changing fair isle.
The palette that appears in Arah when opening a new file is random, as seen here when two new files of the same size are loaded  If one’s preference is to reduce the number of colors, the specific number may be set by choosing from the colors menu, editing the number identified as that for the working palette, changing it to the new value, in this case, 6, and the palette reduction occurs as seen in A. For most knit repeats a black color is handy, any one of the 6 colors or more may be adjusted as described in the previous post, seen in B, where black has been added, replacing the color in position 1. More Gimp information: https://docs.gimp.org/2.10/en/gimp-palette-dialog.html
Some of the related content in brief: the former versions of GIMP had a “Save palette” command. Palettes were stored in a specific folder via the preferences pane. Easy to do and manage. It no longer exists.
To save the palette of an image, indexed or not, you must now import it from the image.
The “Palettes” dialog is dockable: from the Image menu, select Window, Dockable Dialogues, Palettes.
A few dozen more or less randomly chosen palettes are supplied with GIMP.“Import Palette” allows you to create a new palette from the colors in a gradient, image, or palette file.
Right-click in the space to the right of the illustrated palettes to call up the import option, or for palette editing. It is not necessary to index the image, this image was used in RGB mode. A palette name can be assigned, and if previously used, a number will be appended by the program.
The number of colors: the default is 256, you can set the number to any you choose. Gimp will try to create a palette by spacing the number of colors evenly across the range of the gradient or image. Each screengrab in the top row shows the initial selections for gradient or image, and the second row of screengrabs notes other changes made when choices were available and the results. White dots mark selections as seen while using the program.   Using the same image, indexed to 5 colors, the custom palette is rendered in a one-step process. The gradient seen in the first position on the top left was randomly assigned by the program and does not influence the results. The Columns selection number settings only influence the way the palette is displayed and have no effect on the way the palette is used. The lower the number, the larger the display size of each color unit.
Double-clicking on any palette color will magnify the palette view on the theme color background. Left-clicking on any color makes it available for drawing, the selection will have a dotted bounding line and the selected color will be assigned to the foreground position,  Right-clicking on a color results in these options.  The imported palette will be added to the Palettes dialog and is automatically saved in your personal palettes folder when you quit GIMP so that it will be available in future sessions.
In Arah, the color palette will always display the colors of the active layer. The working image contains colors intended for use in my designs.  In addition, please see the note from the developer in the comment at the end of the post.  The palette tools: A: if you press this icon the program will underline the colors actually used in the image, since all colors are used in this case, each color is underlined in either white or black in this instance  D: adds color(s) to the palette  B: removes unused colors in the above palette, it would restore the original colors
C: removes duplicate colors, not applicable in this instance
E: removes the last unused color, will not work if all colors are used.
Changing color positions in the palette: to switch the position of two colors in the palette, click the chosen color in the palette, move the cursor to the color you want to switch the position with, and press the left mouse button while holding the Ctrl key on the keyboard. In this instance, the color was duplicated in the new position.  Knitters designing for dbj are likely to work with a limited range of colors, often 3 or 4 max, in specific palette ranges to ready images for download.
If color separations for 3 or more colors are done in shades of grey in terms of technical details, you need a pattern image that is 8-bit greyscale, with each color in a range of the 8bit values. So for 4 colors, it would be 0-63 color 1; 64-127 color 2; 128-195 color 3; 196-255 color 4.
Binary images have only 2 possible intensity values, normally displayed as black and white with values of either 1 or 255 for white, and often 0 for black.
That convention may have led to the selection of white as color 1 in automatic separations such as the KRC Japanese one, where white is selected first. In a greyscale or color image, a pixel can take on any value between 0 and 255. Designing for fair isle, or when attempting to visualize and illustrate slip and tuck fabrics with frequent color changes, more colors may be required even though the final download will be in black and white. There is a quick way to add random colors assigned by the program and based on the initial palette: The magic wand tool allows you to work on consistently colored areas without having to select and outline each.
To alter a single color using the bucket tool, click on the wand, then on the color single color area you wish to change, it will become outlined by bounding lines.
Click on one of the colors in the expanded palette, and it will automatically appear in the foreground color position, and it may then be used to bucket fill the chosen area. Flatten the image using the merge down tool.
If the foreground color, in this case, white/0, needs to be changed, in order 
to choose all pixels in the foreground color, click on the wand, and use Tools > Select by color or Shift+W. This function works only on 8-bits per pixel images. Click on the color you wish to use to replace the ground, and bucket fill with the newly selected color. Flatten the image using the merge down tool.
Changing multiple color blocks in the same color could be selected by the tool, but filling each of them one at a time was required.  In Gimp a similar tool is the fuzzy select, which also allows for changing the color in a selected area or for selecting and changing all pixels in that color. Selected areas will also be outlined in dashed bounding lines. Bucket fill may then be used to replace color(s). The option is offered to choose either foreground or background for the fill.  Click on the rectangle select tool and then on any spot in the work area or on the image to set the image. The dashed lines will disappear.
In terms of saving the palette in Arah for future use, I saw no specific directions in the manual.
The color palette displayed is always the one used in the active layer. As a workaround: open the image, and the associated palette will be displayed. The repeat begins drawn 24 pixels in width, by 24 in height.
Select clear from the edit menu, or bucket fill area with white
If the size of your intended drawing area is different, choose the option Resize Image from the Image menu. With the chain link intact, the new canvases are created keeping the aspect ratio. Enter a new value for width/height, hit return, or move the cursor to the alternate value, and its number will automatically change to a matching one. Click OK to use the new canvas, or reset if you wish to return to the original 24 by 24 pixel one for a different edit.
With a broken chain link as one of the two values is altered, a preview is available. If both values are to be changed, break the chain link, enter the two values in turn, and a preview appears for each step. Ok is used again prior to saving, or choose reset to return to the previously used setting. Color separations can make specialty fabrics possible to knit which are outside the possibility of doing so simply by changing cam settings. Two instances are mosaics and DBJ where each color in each design row knits twice. Separating each may be done in two ways. The first method, convenient for longer repeats, requires that the result be elongated X 2, whether in the repeat design software or after download to the machine or using the elongation X2 function in the punchcard models. For illustration purposes here I will be working to create files that do not require elongation.
Mosaics and Mazes are constructed in similar ways and are sometimes referred to as floatless fair-isle even though technically speaking usually 2 stitch floats do appear on the purl side in the alternate color used with each color change.
Many such repeats may be knit using both the slip and tuck settings, the latter is the more interesting of the two on the purl side.
When learning structures it may be worth beginning with a published design.
Kathleen Kinder decades ago published two books, one with 24 stitch repeats, the other with 40 stitch repeats, with the separations included as well This, by Barbra Walker and intended for hand knitting, offers a huge library of designs for inspiration and conversion Following specific rules it is also possible to develop DIY repeats from scratch. That said, the repeat used in this blog post happens to have a known value of 12 pixels by 12Magnification in Gimp is achieved by selecting or typing in new percentages at the bottom of the window.
Entering and exiting the full screen may be controlled via the view menu To exit, it right-click at the very top of the window to expose menu options and select deselect full screen.  In Arah, if you press any number from 0-9 on the keyboard, you will change the zoom directly to that level (1 means 100%, 6 means 600%, 0 means 1000%). The plus + and minus keys- as well as the magnifying lens icons, will zoom in and out To use the entire space available in the window, choose Fit to Window from the view menu or select Ctrl+zero.
If working in more than one window this option makes repeats the most visible, scaling back can be done by counting the number of selections, helping to match the new picture magnification to the first.
Press the escape key on the keyboard to return to the original 100% view.
To work using the full screen, select the option from the view menu. To exit, right-click at the very top of the window to expose menu options, and select exit full screen Separating the design: ultimately the planned final graphic repeat would be a BW png used for electronic download, programmed as a fair isle one, but knit using tuck or slip settings, it may be drawn initially using only in those 2 colors. Black may need to be added to the palette selections.
One may always draw on a large canvas and then crop as needed, but as a starting point, it may be easier to simply match canvas size to the published repeat being used.
It is handy to have an extra column to help track image processing during the separation, the repeat above is identified as being composed of 12X12 pixels, one could begin with a 13X12 canvas.
A second way to provide the 13th column is to work using 2 windows, matching magnification,  and the second with a different, larger pixel measurement than the first. Copy the contents of the original work area and paste them into the larger canvas in the other window. Crop to new size if necessary.
To illustrate the two window process, here the original BW repeat has already been drawn and elongated X2
A. Use the rectangle-select tool to capture the whole image in the first window, bounding lines in the colors of the palette in use will outline the selected area
B. Use the edit menu or command C to copy the selection, edit paste, or command V in the new window to place it.
When pasting on a different size ground, the bounding lines will also appear in the new image, the contents remain moveable,
C. Place the selection where desired on the new canvas,  when satisfied use the X, merge down tool to flatten it.
The quicker method begins with a canvas one pixel wider than the repeat, 13X12.
Adjust magnification, for comfortable viewing in the editing process.
View: show grid 2
Colors: set the number of colors to 6, and adjust the #1 color to black, white is in position 0 in the palette by default
Activate the pencil tool, and draw a vertical line on the far right in an easy-to-see color choice other than white or black
Using black, fill in pixels for your first draft of the pattern repeat
Image multiply YX2, resulting in 13X24
Using the pencil tool fill in the first 2 design rows followed by every other pair with white. Magnify image A to a comfortable work viewing size.
B and C: using the rectangle select tool, with the left mouse button, place the pointer on the purple pixel, drag the mouse across each pair of marked rows, release the mouse, and use Command I to color invert, and merge down to eliminate the bounding box.
The purple pixels will change color as well, making it easier to track what rows have been altered already.
D: crop the image, removing the row with colored cells for the final repeat
If for some reason you are processing an image that is color reversed, the steps are identical, but tuck or slip stitch fabrics, black pixels or punched holes knit, white pixels or unpunched squares tuck or slip. For this reason, the cropped final result would need to be color inverted prior to knitting or punching holes. This separation for 2-color DBJ results in its potential use in many fabrics other than DBJ and may be performed by some programs used to download multiple color patterns to the machines prior to knitting the fabric. One such fabric is drop-stitch lace.
Punchcard machine users would need to separate the colors manually, or if Dak is available, the separation may be done using the program and a corresponding template may be printed as a guide to punching holes.
This method is the automatic default one for any 2 color DBJ knit on the Passap.
Each color in each design row will be knit with each pair of consecutive color passes. Completing one design row containing 3 colors will require 6 carriage passes, 4 colors 8, and so on.
The built-in color separation in electronic machines wherein each of only 2 colors in each design row knits only once does not apply when using more than two colors,  though it is possible using Dak or by downloading a special card reader technique to program separately from the design when using the Passap E6000 in addition to the pattern repeat.
This separation of a 2 color pattern results in an elongated version of the design regardless of any dbj backing used.
Begin with a 2 color image,  an extra column of pixels is added here as well:
A: multiply YX4 to 13X48
B: mark alternating pairs of rows in the extra column with a contrasting color
C: following the color cues on the far right column, on rows with no added color use the pencil tool to replace black pixels with white, leaving only the orange cells
D: on rows marked with the third color replace the orange pixels with white, leaving only the black pixels
E: crop the image eliminating the extra column
adjust the remaining orange color to black
index the result to B/W, and the image is ready to save and use The difference between single repeats for each type of fabric, no further elongation is required. A: mosaic, B: DBJUsing layers in Gimp opens up the possibility of several color separations for fabrics using only 2 colors.

Both img2track and Ayab are capable of opening 2 color images.
In img2track this is what would appear, after the download the KRC function needs to be activated in the knitting machine.  Ayab: the repeat should be programmed in width equal to the number of needles planned to be in use. The color change happens as the file is loaded into the program, the ribber classic option is used rendering results that would match the KRC knitting machine selection after an img2track download. Here the repeat is also tiled in height.  My personal preference is to work with images designed in black and white. With the 910 presently stored, my blog swatches are knit on a 930 using img2track.

A note for Mac users like myself using desktops with the M1 chip and Mac OS Monterey. Img2 track requires an FTDI driver for its download cable, on June 6 finally released a beta version of a more recent driver, I do not plan to install it at this moment, function in the upcoming Ventura OS would be unknown.   Ayab does not launch automatically. These are the steps necessary to run the program, following suggestions by Adrienne Hunter via the Ayab FB group:
open a Terminal window (Applications/Utilities/Terminal) and type these two lines:
cd /Applications/AYAB.app
./Contents/MacOS/AYAB
The app may also be found and then opened via using Spotlight search if you prefer  Once the program is quit unless you choose to keep the terminal icon
in your dock, it will disappear and the above process will need to be repeated. Once the text has been entered, and Ayab has been launched, a message similar to this will appear, showing your last login. To launch Ayab again, simply use the up arrow key and hit return to repeat the command  Creating an AYAB desktop shortcut for Mac that will work without opening the terminal each time
Using Finder, open Applications and find AYAB. Right-click on AYAB and select “Show Package Contents”.

Locate “AYAB” under MacOS. While holding down the command and option buttons, click and drag that icon to the desktop. This will create an ayab shortcut that does the terminal stuff for you you can change the icon by copying and pasting the icon image in “get info” but it works fine without. These icons will appear in your dock after double clicking on the icon   The ayab window opens with only the load image option highlighted Click on the load image file to open an image, and the remaining features of the program will now be available If you quit ayab, the terminal window remains active Quitting terminal called up this window for me only the first time I did so.