I have unearthed some of the hundreds of swatches that managed to move with me when I downsized. They were produced when I used when teaching, often during class experiments and demonstrations. The yarn colors were chosen so I could spot them a mile away as my own (there were shared/public use yarn shelves in studio), and “different” enough so as not to tempt their being taken at any workshops ;-). I am adding them to my photostream as and when I can, and in turn shifting them into albums. In case anyone is interested the link is https://www.flickr.com/photos/drina2/ I am not certain I will have any opportunity to teach again, am hoping if people see them they may be inspired to try some of the techniques in materials and colors of their choosing. I would gladly explain more on any of them if any questions come up when viewing them.
I touched on knitting with 2 carriages in some previous posts:
If 2 carriages are in use for patterning extension rails are a must. For this discussion we are excluding the lace carriage as the #2, the intent is to use 2 knit carriages with each set to desired cam functions. As one carriage is put to rest and the other one is set to move from the opposite side, the card does not advance, so the last row selected is repeated one more time. In one of those lightbulb moments today (any excuse not to do laundry) it occurred to me that starting out with an odd number repeat pre punched card, coming from the opposite direction at the end of each odd row repeat, an even numbered repeat would actually be knit. The card below is Brother issue with all standard knitting machines. Card number (2 in this instance) may vary, depending on year of purchase. Color changes here as well would have to be planned for an every even number of rows, so respective carriages can travel to and from each side.
The swatch below begins with locked selection row on punchcard row marked #1 (standard location); tuck setting is used in first 2 segments, FI on third; pattern produced is “OK”, but not actually tucking for 4 consecutive rows; note how much narrower FI is than tuck. Tuck tends to be short and fat, slip and fair isle short and skinny when compared to plain knit in same yarns
Since Brother preselects for the next row of knitting, setting the first selection row one locked below the usual spot on in this case #48 got me what I wanted, each color now tucking for 4 rows
Then something a bit more exciting occurred to me; one is an odd number, so any card where single rows are punched could be executed in theory, changing color every 2 rows (remembering to start with first selection row one row below # 1 row mark on card). This sample was knit with 2 carriages, using a maze card, illustrated in a previous post , in which each row had been punched only one time, requiring for the repeat to be elongated X2
Using 2 carriages allows for combining yarns using different tensions, cam settings, fiber content, or sometimes using materials that the single bed color changer is not “friendly” with. Also, there is no pushing the wrong button, causing errors in sequence, or dropped knitting if no yarn is picked up.
A punchcard carriage may be used on electronic machines. I work on a KH892, and a 910. The 910 is from a much earlier model year than the punchcard machine. The back rail for the KH to travel on, is a different shape, with slits as opposed to smooth, and a bit more raised. The electronic carriage set on KC locks on the belt, and advances the card appropriately, but the fit is quite snug, making it hard to push, while the 892 behaved well on the 910. If borrowing carriages and sinker plates from different model years or type of machine to use on another, proceed with caution and listen to your machine. Sometimes the span of time between model issues is irrelevant, even if model years are only a year apart, and the swap is not the best for successful knitting, may “work” in one direction, but not as well in the other.
Another ravelry question is bringing me to a new topic and thread. The information will be edited and added to as I have time and can gather corresponding swatches. Information, at least initially, will pertain to Brother brand machines.
The size of the pleat creating the ripple/ pintuck depends on the number of rows that can be knit on the all knit bed before the fabric begins to ride up and becomes difficult to retain on the needles in work. Tolerance depends on knitting machine brands as well as yarn used. Bold patterns read better than smaller ones. Weights are usually helpful. The term is commonly used in reference to fabrics created in every needle rib and their variants. The Brother Ribber techniques book (now available for free online) addresses the topic on pp. 20-23.
I have added a few patterns from published sources in a flickr album , most take into account any one stitch not being slipped for more than 4 rows. Doubling the length if using electronics is not recommended.
These fabrics may be created in combination with needles out of work. Charting out ribber needle set ups requires brick layout graph paper. The images below may serve to illustrate needle set ups. Print and add needle arrangements by hand, or use image processor to add symbols for needles both in and out of work on either bed. The first series begins and ends with needles on the ribber (Passap front bed), the one below it with needles on the main bed (Passap back bed).
So you have some shapes you love and know: wanting to go large, mixing them up, requires thinking things through. Testing on small swatches will help determine holding sequences and whether the results are predictable or even liked. I no longer have access to Adobe photoshop or illustrator, so some of my image editing is now achieved in gimp. Labeling below is with Skitch, and charting is with Excel.
A starting freehand swatch experiment and some observations: shape variations in red areas occur by altering sequence for knitting first and last 2 shapes in hold
Planning possible sequences out in charting can be confusing. The image direction will be reversed on the knit side. Approaching the technique like intarsia with individual yarns or bobbins eliminates the need for some of the concerns where 2 row sequences or specific starting sides are necessary to keep yarns continuous or for execution of the desired shape. Trying to imagine the shapes that create the larger one together in a simple 2D drawing can get one started, but then shapes need to be rearranged. I usually began by “playing”, trying to figure out steps needed, and follow that by trying to produce an executable chart. Making the process as easy as possible to track is always a consideration.
In the chart below the design is worked with 2 needles brought out to work or pushed back into work at any one time, making tracking changing numbers in hold unnecessary. Pink rows indicate starting and ending knit rows, orange “stitches” are cast on and bound off in turn, creating a shape extending out from the edge of the knit. Arrows indicate where shapes meet to create forms.
Holding sequence for each shape may be worked begin with carriage on either side; with experience this may be planned at times to eliminate some of those cut yarn ends that later must be woven in. Getting back to arrows indicating carriage moves, using the center shape for illustration purposes and beginning with COR
The yarns used were “throw away acrylics” in white and red. The green is a rayon chenille, which required a looser tension, resulting in the other colors looser than I would want in a final fabric
A possible sequence in knitting if it is to be executed as shown. The arrow marks rows that knit all needles across the width of the piece. The piece segments are numbered to create a starting line for later joining.
If the goal is knitting as close to a flat circle as possible, eliminating rows will create a smaller center hole as well after the form is completed and seamed. Knitting segments 1-6 should be adequateIn larger pieces ie shawls, adding knit rows without adding stitches can be done by altering #8, 1, 6, 7. Red line indicates changing angles. Blue and green lines below indicate increasing rows knit at center of shapes as a result.
Knitting and cast on sequences flow around left purl edge, straight or diagonal edges on a chart such as above may become foundation rows that are later seamed. Sort out your sequence and preferences on smaller swatches, keeping notes as you go. Additional shaping can happen along the edges of any plain knit rows between shapes by increasing or decreasing on either or both sides to create crescent shapes or triangle variants.
Now a quandary if gauge matters: knit stitches are not square. One option is to generate a grid appropriate graph paper. In holding sequences happen in 2 row sequences. Graph paper cells may be created at twice the height desired. Each rectangle will represent a single stitch, 2 row sequence. To create your own knitting graph paper in excel please see post as a place to start. A common knit ratio is 4W X 6H. An editable workbook in 2W X 6H ratio that takes into account following outline in 2 row holding sequences: landscape2X6. Links for designing knit graph papers online:
Using the 4X6 model reduced to 2X3 this is a sample generated using excel, with borders in a 2X6 ratio, so in execution, each single cell represents one stitch and 2 rows knit. The shape is one from the shape menu in the program, easily resized. The yellow bars show the gradations in holding. These cells are too small for adding text within the program itself. The math can be double checked: there are 70 stitches, 34 rows in the rectangle at the center of the shape. Holding happens over 5 chart units (10 rows actual knitting) at the top and bottom of the center shape; 70/5 = 14 X5, matching the drawing
the accompanying, editable workbook Excel 2008 landscape2X6
So the goal is a shawl or garment, graph paper is becoming impractical to follow? Time to pull out your knit leader. Draw out each wedge or piece full size, number segments breaking sections into knitting sequences, and let the KL guide you. For consistency, if the same shape is to be repeated many times and accuracy matters, it may be worth “air knitting” it while noting shaping as you go, keeping a row by row flow chart. An editable workbook to help track holding patterns, increases, decreases, etc. as a starting point for your own preferences: tracking knit.
Gauge or shape do not matter? time to scrumble it all and be surprised!
Picture knitting / intarsia may at times be achieved using holding techniques. As in any such knitting, supplies include extras such as bobbins, clothespins or weighted clips, but no separate carriage. If the ribber is in use and one is working on a large piece, ribber covers allow the yarns to hang in front of the ribber bed.
Some of the rules for accomplishing this using short rows: it is helpful to work from a chart. Two row sequences are required, so having the working chart double length makes the process easier to visualize. “Follow” knitting direction with any tool to determine that the pattern is executable, with no long floats or slits.
The bottom of any diagonal lines is always knit first.
Needles are brought out to hold on the carriage side, pushed back into work opposite the carriage; one exception to this rule is if “automatic wrapping” is used. In the latter one less needle is brought into hold than needed opposite the carriage, the row is knit, then with the carriage on the alternate side the first needle in hold next to stitches just knit is brought out to hold, resulting in a “wrap” and correcting the count to the desired number. Any number of needles may be pushed back into work at any time. More than single stitches brought to hold on the carriage side will produce floats.
When knitting shapes the only needles in work are those being worked to create that shape.
Base rows of knitting, whether in waste yarn or as part of the pattern, are needed prior to working in hold.
Remember that you are working on the purl side, so any image will be flipped horizontally on the knit side. Reverse chart horizontally before working it if direction matters.
Begin with a simple shape. Letters indicate knitting sequence for short row sections. Patterning in these charts begins with COR, bold lines separate areas of plain knitting, letters indicate order for executing short row segments. The fabric produced lies flat, with no noticeable 3D protrusions.
a super mini swatch: holes are typical both in intarsia and in short rows if no wrapping occursbe prepared to weave in a lot of yarn endsgoing larger, note “steps” created when larger number of needle groups are usedmore complex geometry: line drawing on “graph paper”the start of color placement sequence for executing segments at completion of designin actual knitting the pattern must be elongated X2
I find it helpful to use familiar yarn and to work variations of a familiar shape prior to taking on more complex patterns. Below is a cousin of the first shape illustrated in this post, with pattern worked beginning COL, repeated across the row, increments in number of stitches worked in short rows, but mirrorred on both shape sides (shown in first swatch segment).
Some of the same shapes may be placed on a shaped edge. The repeat will likely need some editing; arrows indicate direction of knitting for that row. If the background color is used for casting on and binding off, then the isolated shape floats on the ground, and the horizontal line of contrast color is eliminated.
horizontal rotation to achieve “leaf” shapemelding shapesdon’t like wrapping? for smaller holes offset return to work position upper half of shape by one needle less at the start, added at endknitting direction stacking shapes, with bound off stitches
the yarn used is an acrylic, so pressing helps to make the shapes lie flat. Once again, using wool or any other yarn with “memory” will result in considerable curl at side ant top and bottom of knit piece, so that is a consideration in putting in the effort. The more striping, the more yarn ends to weave in and row counts to watch. Using space dyed or sock yarns may produce pleasing though unplanned stripe patterns in any of the shapes. My samples are not resolved final fabrics. There are many inspiring patterns available for purchase or at times free on the internet for hand knitting, usually in garter stitch as well as holding, resulting in a nearly square gauge, flat lying knit.
Taking it to garments: accessories are easiest, since gauge may not be significant. Shawl shapes in HK are often knit on circular needles, without the constraint of the fixed number of needles on any particular model KM. Sometimes, with adjustments, the same shapes may be rotated sideways on the KM. Segment sizes may differ due to the resulting change in gauge. Sampling techniques and shapes in smaller versions helps work out the kinks.
Sources for inspiration: large scale shapes
more details, varying concentration and placement
for purchase on ravelry
Hand knit spiraling shawls and shawlettes often involve shaping on every row. Increasing essentially requires casting on one or more stitches. Below are cast on illustrations from varied sources I used in handouts in my intro to knitting classes
A simple decrease occurs when the last stitch on either side is transferred moving away from the carriage, the empty needle is placed out of work, and the row is knit.
This illustration shows a fully fashioned version, which gives an edge that makes seaming easier and more attractive, and eliminates the small bumps usually seen along decrease edges, the process adds to knitting time involved in finishing the piece. Decreases may be made on every row.
Simple increases: a factor that is often first noticed when approaching seaming is that the carriage side creates loops, while opposite the carriage one gets what looks like a knot, both alternate as starting position of the carriage swaps sides. To speed things up for single increases, one alternative is to bring an empty needle into work on the carriage side. This creates an elongated loop rather than a full stitch. Unless intended as a design feature, the edge is not the best one for seaming. A better looking increase is created by putting a needle into work opposite the carriage. For a “good edge” two rows minimum of knitting need to occur prior to the next increase. Continuing on the thread begun in the last 2 posts, I experimented with every row increases and came up with what I consider a reasonable compromise. The method for increases on right edge:
*COR: bring an empty needle into work on the carriage side, knit a row. Insert transfer tool into loop created as shown, turn toward carriage (in this case clockwise), essentially creating an e wrap, hang on adjacent empty needle hook.
COL knit to right*, repeat * *
In the previous 2 posts’ samples I did not wrap any needles. Wrapping in both directions can create an interesting line along the center of the “leaf” or “other” shapes, seen in the photo below
Interpreting hand knit patterns for use on the machine requires translations of some of the vocabulary and directions given. If an edge stitch is made in garter or slip stitch variations, disregard and simply add it to the total number of stitches on the segment of the needle bed that is being worked on. Wrap and turn is executed by wrapping the yarn around the adjacent needle in hold prior to knitting back to opposite side
pw2: picking up wraps and knitting them together happens when needles with wrapped loop and stitch behind it are brought back into work.
Terminology may vary in self published patterns, some are accompanied by very good tutorials. Ravelry HK searches can provide inspiration for many a holding technique variations. Other terms to look for in image and pattern searches include swing knitting, and on occasion, tapestry knitting.
There are many hand knit patterns floating around the internet, placing shapes similar to these, with many variations, along varied locations in accessories and sweaters. The same shape discussed in the previous post is shown here placed near and then at the edge of the knit. There are many things to consider in addition to choice of shape. In hand knitting these patterns are usually knit in garter stitch, a fabric that does a good job of lying flat when completed. Short rows are used in both hand and machine knitting; the Brother G carriage produces it “automatically”, but is not short row friendly. The more practical solution is to try a plain knit version. Edges of the knit are still going to curl toward the purls side. Some of this can be averted by using an acrylic or other fiber yarn that responds to being “killed” with ironing/ steaming, and will lie as close to flat as possible after the fact. Section A shows the shape knit with no color change and close to the side of the knit, note the vertical edge remains fairly straight. In section B stitches were cast on, and at the end of the holding sequence all stitches are knit moving from right to left. An increase in the number of stitches cast on is now reflected in the total width of the fabric. The result of multiple repeats would appear as a sort of “ruffle”. In section C the same number of stitches are bound off as cast on. The bind off is critical for shape retention. I prefer a latch tool cast off for most knits, here I used the *transfer over one, knit one* method, note: the turning point sharpness is lost and the bound off edge is very different from the cast on one. In this instance, because the number of stitches increased and decreased stitches are identical, if repeats were executed and no other increases were made anywhere, the width of the final piece would remain constant. If the goal was to achieve a triangular shape such as in a shawl, increases would have to be made along the edges of the plain knit sections, prior to the color change for section C. In testing repeats I do not wrap any needles. Evaluate whether the extra step is needed when swatching in your final yarn choice.
planning the shapes, arrows indicate direction of carriage moves
cast on stitches are knit as part of the last row
cast on stitches are bound off prior to last row
The last sample was also knit using the same yarn, followed by pressing. Again, I did not do any wrapping and holes created along the edges of the holding sequences are more visible. The swatch was knit from the bottom edge up. The cast on used was a weaving cast on. Both the bottom and the top edges show some of the distortion in the knit caused by the extra rows of knitting that occur in the shapes. Striping is added to the now familiar sequence, additional colors could be used, with shapes and stripes varied in placement along a wider, longer piece of knit to create interesting repeats. The top shows the start of a larger shape that with could be altered to resemble leaves, etc.
At a seminar during a visit to California in mid April just prior to the joys of downsizing and moving I showed this swatch and was asked for instructions for duplicating it.
I have moved, and I finally have a machine set up to proof my ideas. The images below show plotting out repeats in excel
if an even number of rows of color 1 is knit between shapes, the yarn is cut at the end of the holding sequence with color 2 (which is made up of an odd number of rows, begins on right, ends on left), a free pass is then made to return carriage to the right, there picking up color 1 for the plain knit sections
some cut and paste following the direction of the arrows to work out knitting several shapes in any one row: in this instance the first row knit with color 2 is from left to right, as is the last row. Even number of rows in color 1 would start and end on the same side, COL. If changes of any 2 colors in any technique are for an even number of rows, yarn ends will occur on the same side
my original sample was made knitting single shapes with even number of knit rows between them. A reminder: Studio needle positions are A,B,C,D, Brother needle positions are A,B,D,E. Holding position for Studio = D, for Brother = E. Upper work position for Studio = C, for Brother = D. Settings for both are indicated below, for Studio, then (Brother)
color 1 cast on 60 stitches, knit 20 (or X) rows, end COR
first shape: COR color 2 knit one row, end COL
COL at right bring 27 stitches to hold D (E) position. The rule is usually to always wrap taking yarn around the first needle in hold D (E) position, then to knit one row. I found in my samples the holes created were so small they could hardly be seen, so I did not wrap.
COR at left bring 27 stitches to hold D (E) position (6 stitches now in work), knit one row
holding sequence for each “shape”
COL at right, push 2 needles to work position C (D), knit one row
COR at left push 2 needles to work position C (D), knit one row
COL at right, push 2 needles to work position C (D), knit one row
COR at left push 2 needles to work position C (D), knit one row
COL at right return 2 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COR at left return 2 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COL at right return 2 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COR at left return 2 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COL return needles to right of shape to work position C (D), knit one row
COR return needles to left of shape to work positionC (D), knit one row
COL cut color 2, make free carriage pass carriage to right
COR change to color 1, knit desired number of rows (20) end COR
COR for second shape with color 2 knit one row, end COL
COL at right bring 40 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COR at left bring 14 stitches to hold D (E) position, knit one row
“Always wrap taking yarn around the first needle in D (E) position, knit one row”
repeat shaping as directed above
COR change color 1, knit desired number of rows (20) end COR
for third shape COR with color 2 knit one row, end COL
COL at right bring 14 needles to hold D (E) position, knit one row
COR at left bring 40 stitches to hold D (E) position, knit one row
repeat shaping and /or wrapping as directed above
change to color 1, knit desired desired number of rows (20), bind off
There seem to be times when “life interferes with art” (or at least with one’s wished for schedule) is acutely true. I am in the throes of downsizing, moving and selling my home of 43 years, so there is not a whole lot of knitting or blogging going on.
I will be demonstrating at a Machine Knitting Guild on the West Coast next Saturday, and this had led me to re organizing my Flickr photo stream. For anyone interested, images of my samples albums links: holding and ruching
In machine knitting, stitches are usually brought into hold opposite the carriage. If multiple stitches are brought out to hold on the carriage side, floats are created. Triangles stacked vertically as seen in the previous post, will create a spiral curve along the line where stitches are held. The carriage needs to get to the opposite side and back after each ‘decrease’ or ‘increase’, so pairs of rows are used to execute and reverse angles in short row shaping. When multiple rows are knit independently from the rest of the knit, slits are created. In two row sequences these are generally similar to holes created in lace, in longer sequences much larger slits are produced. The latter are often used as planned design elements. The small holes being visible may not pose a problem for the knitter. If they do, wrapping the adjacent needles can help eliminate them, but the doubled yarn in the wrapped needle may create small, sometimes visible bumps on the knit side of the finished piece, creating a secondary pattern.
Reducing eyelet size: in traditional wrapping required needle(s) are brought out to hold, the yarn is wrapped under and around the last needle in hold on the carriage side before knitting the next carriage pass
The “automatic method” for wrapping
Decreasing: if COR (COL), to hold 1 stitch at a time, set the machine for holding. Bring one needle on the same side as the carriage into hold position. Pass the carriage to the opposite side. COL (COR) repeat if shaping is 2 sided, or if shaping is only on the starting side, knit back to it, and with COR (COL) repeat process. Increasing single stitch : bring 1 needle always opposite the carriage into work position.
Decreasing: more than 1 needle or stitch at a time: if COR (COL), place 1 needle less than required into hold on the opposite side as the carriage, knit 1 row to left (right), toward the needle in hold. When COL (COR), bring into hold the last, additional needle. COL (COR) repeat if shaping is 2 sided, or if shaping is only on the starting side, knit back to it, and with COR (COL) continue decreases on the single, opposite side.
Increasing: to remove stitches from holding , COR (COL) place the desired number of needles into working position on the side opposite the carriage, knit one row, repeat with COL (COR) if shaping is on both sides, or knit back to starting position COR (COL) and continue increases on the single, opposite side.
Charting out shapes knitting or programming stacked equal triangles / spirals: the wedge illustrated in the previous post “Air knitting” is often used to think out fabric issues before swatching using yarn. Drawing lines to follow carriage movement direction required to keep the knitting continuous, whether or graph paper or within software programs, can help sort out shapes that will work in short rowing. Holding needs to happen in 2 row sequences. Below, black lines and arrows indicate the direction of knitting for each row, in this instance beginning with COR. Blue = knit stitches, yellow = all knit rows at the completion of each wedge (2 or multiple of 2, depending on planned design). This repeat is suitable for knitting a continuous strip with ruffling/spiraling at various degrees, not for ‘pie’ shapes.
Working out the repeat: the red line represents the starting, selection (KC), knit row, the numbers at the bottom the width of the repeat, the numbers to the side its height. The first repeat A, results in the fewest punched holes, drawn squares or programmed pixels, requires being knit double length. The remaining repeats (B, C) are drawn double length, standard card rotation is used. Eyelets form at the held edge. C takes automatic wrapping to decrease eyelet size at held edge into account. When any sequences are programmed for knitting using slip stitch, the end needle selection is always cancelled by using KCII, or turning non needle selection cams in punchcard models.
Going 3D: in many designs the original repeat may simply be mirrored to be executed. If this is done here, one can see there is no longer a continuous knitting line, directional arrows are moving in opposite directions or toward each other from center point
An executable 24 stitch, 26 row repeat: black arrows alone indicate movement of carriage on the first row of the repeat, black arrows on red line indicate starting point and direction of movement of carriage for KCII rows. A begins to knit repeat with COR, B with COL. The triangle’s vertex can be squared off, the height of the repeat shortened, to make 3D shapes much rounder
Not just for electronics: some punchcard repeats to try (also suitable for any machine). End needle selection is cancelled. Selection rows are always toward the first pair of rows knit in holding pattern, so for the first 2 cards they would be from right to left. Single rows are punched but 2 row sequences are needed, so cards must be elongated X 2; miter shaping repeat is shown on the left, spiral on the right. Narrower shapes may be created and knit on the appropriate segment of the 24 stitch repeat needle positions. Use needle tape markings as guides for placement. Selection row is from right to left, the pattern repeat begins with COL. All punched, extra series of pairs of rows of knitting may be added at the top. Note: just a few rows may not be added with a small a segment of an additional card with clips, the whole repeat may have to be split in sections to allow for the extra rows and its smooth passage through the card reader. As an alternative, more rows of all holes could be added to the original card when first punched, tested, and then trimmed if not needed. It is useful to try out the repeat as a hand technique first in any of these instances, to determine personal preference.
Going 3D: punch only actual holes (black pencils marks were originally used to mark squares that needed to be unpunched for auto wrap on right, not the best choice for B/W scans). Two row sequences are punched, so no elongation is needed for either repeat. Miter shaping is shown on left, spiral on right; mem <– indicates direction for KC row; decreasing angles are auto wrapped, increasing angles need not be as seen in the top of miter on left, where needles are returned back to work to create the reverse shape.
Some ruffle possibilities: all knit rows were added to the card on left with snaps, and are composed of all punched holes. The number of all knit rows between held segments determines the spacing between wedges and the degree of spiraling of final fabric. KC row needs to be R to L for A, left to right B. Holding sequences are now staggered, changing the angle of the resulting curves. Where 2 stitches are brought to hold on the carriage side, a short float is created.
The recommended minimum for punchcard length is generally stipulated to be 36 rows. Card A without the added rows is 28 rows high (last 2 rows are for card overlap when adding snaps), so the repeat below, with extra segment removed, would need to be punched twice
B: dotted lines outline segment: yellow dots on purl side, the 1 needle floatsone possible card revision: red dots indicate punched holes, stitches in hold as carriage moves from left to rightany difference in the swatch, in this yarn, was almost imperceptible; results would vary depending on yarn thickness and fiber content.